List of hyperboloid structures

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This page is a list of hyperboloid structures. These were first applied in architecture by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939). Shukhov built his first example as a water tower (hyperbolic shell) for the 1896 All-Russian Exposition. Subsequently, more have been designed by other architects, including Le Corbusier, Antoni Gaudí, Eduardo Torroja, Oscar Niemeyer and Ieoh Ming Pei.

The shapes are doubly ruled surfaces, which can be classed as:

Notable projects[edit]

Structure Image Date completed Location Country Function Height Architect Notes
Shukhov Tower in Polibino First Shukhov Tower Nizhny Novgorod 1896.jpg 1896 Polibino  Russia Hyperboloid water tower 37 m (121 ft) Vladimir Shukhov The world's first hyperboloid structure featured at the 1896 All-Russian Exposition in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
Adziogol Lighthouse Adziogol hyperboloid Lighthouse by Vladimir Shukhov 1911.jpg 1911 Kherson  Ukraine Hyperboloid lighthouse tower 64 m (211 ft) Vladimir Shukhov Illustrates a hyperboloid lattice.
Stanislav Range Front Light Stanislav Range Front.jpg 1911 Kherson  Ukraine Hyperboloid lighthouse tower 26 m (85 ft) Vladimir Shukhov
Church of Colònia Güell Exterior i entrada a la Cripta de la Colònia Güell 03.JPG 1915 Santa Coloma de Cervelló  Spain Hyperboloid building cathedral vaults Antoni Gaudí An unfinished building with hyperbolic paraboloid vaults.
Shukhov Tower Shukhov Tower photo by Maxim Fedorov. Night.jpg 1922 Moscow  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower 160 m (525 ft) Vladimir Shukhov Unless the international campaign can save it, the 1922 Shukhov Tower is under current threat of demolition.
Shukhov tower on the Oka River Shukhov Oka Towers 1988 photo by Igor Kazus.jpg 1929 Nizhny Novgorod  Russia Hyperboloid electricity pylon towers 128 m (420 ft) Vladimir Shukhov The Shukhov Tower on the Oka River is the world's only diagrid hyperboloid electricity pylon transmission tower. In 2009 one tower was illegally taken down to re-sell the metal.
Dorton Arena Dorton Arena West Side.JPG 1952 Raleigh, North Carolina  United States Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on arena Maciej Nowicki
Fedala Reservoir 1957 Mohammedia  Morocco Hyperboloid water tower Eduardo Torroja [1]
Ochsenkopf TV Tower Der Sender Ochsenkopf .jpg 1958 Ochsenkopf  Germany Hyperboloid broadcast tower 163 m (535 ft) Radio and TV tower made of reinforced concrete.
Philips Pavilion Expo58 building Philips.jpg 1958 Brussels, Belgium  Belgium A cluster of nine hyperbolic paraboloid concrete roofs Le Corbusier Commissioned by the Netherlands electronics company Philips, the pavilion at the World's Fair Expo '58 in Brussels was designed by Le Corbusier to house a multimedia spectacle that celebrated postwar technological progress.
Pylons of Cádiz Pilones de Cádiz, mayo de 2009.jpg 1960 Cádiz  Spain Hyperboloid electricity pylon towers 158 m (518 ft) Alberto Toscano, Italian The Pylons of Cádiz, (aka Towers of Cádiz), are two tall electricity pylon supporting powerlines over the bay of Cádiz, Spain.
Mürwik Wasserturm

(Mürwik Water Tower)

Flensburg Wasserturm Mürwik.jpg 1961 Flensburg  Germany Hyperboloid water tower [2]
Warszawa Ochota railway station W-wa Ochota PKP-WKD.jpg 1962 Warsaw  Poland Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on train station
Church Army Chapel, Blackheath Church Army chapel 042.jpg 1963 Blackheath, south east London  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on church E.T. Spashett
Kobe Port Tower Kobe port tower11s3200.jpg 1963 Kōbe  Japan Hyperboloid observation tower 108 m (354 ft) Nikken Sekkei Company
Saint Louis Science Center's James S. McDonnell Planetarium Mcdonnell planetarium slsc.jpg 1963 St. Louis, Missouri  United States Hyperboloid building museum planetarium Gyo Obata of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum
Möglingen Wasserturm

(Möglingen Water Tower)

WasserturmMöglingen.jpg 1965 Ludwigsburg  Germany Hyperboloid water tower R. Kessler
Święty Krzyż TV Tower PL-SK Świętokrzyski Park Narodowy, wieża radiowo-telewizyjna 2016-08-18--11-30-05-004.jpg 1966 Łysa Góra  Poland Hyperboloid broadcast tower 157 m (515 ft)
Newcastle International Airport air traffic control tower Newcastle International Airport Control Tower.jpg 1967 Newcastle upon Tyne  United Kingdom Hyperboloid observation tower
Cockfosters Water Tower Cockfosters water tower 16.jpg 1968 London  United Kingdom Hyperboloid water tower Edmund C. Percey of Scherrer and Hicks and J.W. Milne Cockfosters Water Tower is in Cockfosters Road, north London, on the edge of Trent Park.
Ještěd Tower Jested 002.JPG 1968 Liberec  Czech Republic Hyperboloid broadcast tower 94 m (308 ft) Karel Hubáček
Wrexham Swimming Baths,

now the Wrexham Waterworld Leisure and Activity Centre

Wrexham Waterworld Leisure and Activity Centre.JPG 1969 Wrexham, Wales  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on indoor swimming pool F.D. Williamson associates of Bridgend
Cathedral of Brasília Catedral1 Rodrigo Marfan.jpg 1970 Brasília  Brazil Hyperboloid building cathedral 42 m (138 ft) Oscar Niemeyer
Scandinavium Gothia Towers, Mässan och Scandinavium 02.JPG 1971 Gothenburg  Sweden Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on arena Poul Hultberg, for Nils Olsson's Gothenburg firm
Ciechanów Water Tower Ciechanow water tower.jpg 1972 Ciechanów  Poland Hyperboloid water tower Jan Bogusławski, Jerzy Michał Bogusławski A toroidal water tower tank on a doubly ruled hyperboloid structure.
Gettysburg National Tower SLOCUM AVENUE WITH VIEW OF NATIONAL TOWER AND CEMETERY HILL. VIEW W. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA HAER PA,1-GET.V,21-60.tif 1974-2000 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania  United States Hyperboloid observation tower 120 m (390 ft) Joel H. Rosenblatt Demolished in 2000.

(BIS Tower) of the Bank for International Settlements

Basel - Bank für internationalen Zahlungsausgleich1.jpg 1977 Basel  Switzerland Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 69.5 m (228 ft) Martin Burckhardt Tower for the untouchables.
Sydney Tower Amp tower center point tower sydney.jpg 1981 Sydney  Australia Hyperboloid observation tower 309 m (1,014 ft) Donald Crone, Australian
Le Havre's House of Culture,

a.k.a. fr:Le Volcan (salle) (The Volcano (hall/auditorium))

Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret-113542.jpg 1982 Le Havre  France Hyperboloid building concert hall Oscar Niemeyer, Brazilian [3]
Roy Thomson Hall Toronto - ON - Roy Thomson Hall.jpg 1982 Toronto  Canada Hyperboloid building concert hall Arthur Erickson and Mathers and Haldenby, Canadian
Scotiabank Saddledome Pengrowth Saddledome.jpg 1983 Calgary  Canada Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on indoor arena Graham McCourt Architects
THTR-300 thorium nuclear reactor cooling tower Thtr300 kuehlturm.jpg 1983 Hamm-Uentrop  Germany Hyperboloid cooling tower 180 m (590 ft) Schlaich Bergermann & Partner The THTR-300 cable-net dry cooling tower for the now decommissioned thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor.
Canada Place Canada Place - Vancouver 052.jpg 1985 Vancouver, British Columbia  Canada Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roofs in series with masts and fabric resembling sails Zeidler Roberts Partnership in joint venture with Musson Cattell Mackey Partnership and DA Architects + Planners. Canada Place houses the Vancouver Convention Centre, the Pan Pacific Vancouver Hotel, Vancouver's World Trade Centre, the virtual flight ride FlyOver Canada, and is the main cruise ship terminal for the region.
Tractricious U.S. Department of Energy - Science - 270 005 010 (9366749068).jpg 1988 Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois  United States Hyperboloid public art sculpture Robert R. Wilson The Tractricious sculpture in front of Fermilab's Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC), Illinois, designed by Robert R. Wilson[1][2] who derived the name Tractricious from tracktrix, a curve such that any tangent segment from the tangent point on the curve to the curve's asymptote have constant length, a concept first introduced by Claude Perrault in 1670.
Yangudun Radio and Television Tower[3] 1994[citation needed] Qingdao  China Hyperboloid observation tower 108 m (354 ft)
Corporation Street Bridge Bridge over Corporation Street - - 809089.jpg 1999 Manchester  United Kingdom Hyperboloid building enclosed walkway Hodder + Partners
Orion Tower[4][5] 2001 Samara  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower 201 m (660 ft) Radio and TV steel lattice tower
Killesberg Tower Killesberg Tower.jpg 2001 Stuttgart  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower 40.4 m (133 ft) Jörg Schlaich and Schlaich Bergermann Partner Originally planned for the 1993 World Horticultural Exposition, it was only erected in 2001.
Aussichtsturm Schlossberg

(Schlossberg View Tower)
a.k.a. Castle Hill Tower

Freiburg Schlossberg Aussichtsturm.jpg 2002 Freiburg im Breisgau  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower 35 m (115 ft) Hubert Horbach, Freiburg
Hitachinaka Power Plant[6] 2003 Hitachinaka  Japan Hyperboloid smokestack 230 m (754 ft)[7]
Radio Mast at Krupskoi Street[8] 2003 Perm  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower 180 m (591 ft) Radio and TV steel lattice tower
Messe Wien Turm / Messeturm

(Vienna Trade Fair Tower / Exhibition-tower)

Messe Wien 0.jpg 2004 Vienna  Austria Hyperboloid public art sculpture decorative illuminated tower landmark 63 m (207 ft) Gustav Peichl, Rudolf F. Weber, Katharina Fröch, Christoph Lechner, Paul Katzberger, Gerhard Moßburger, Norbert Erlach The largest trade fair in Austria and one of the most important economic factors of Vienna.
Barcelona–El Prat Airport air traffic control tower 17-12-04-Aeropuerto de Barcelona-El Prat-RalfR-DSCF0722.jpg 2005 El Prat de Llobregat, near Barcelona  Spain Hyperboloid observation tower Ricardo Bofill, Spanish [9]
cs:Borůvka (rozhledna)

(Blueberry (lookout tower))

Rozhledna Boruvka.JPG 2005 Chrudim  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower 18.5 m (61 ft) Martin Novák and Antonín Olšina [10][11]

(TBZ Tower)

TBZ Turm.JPG 2005 Zürich  Switzerland Hyperboloid observation tower 13.3 m (47 ft) Daniel Roth (artist), German The winner of a 2003 competition had his tower built on the roof of the Zürich's Technical Vocational School. Initially accessible, the observation tower has been closed indefinitely due to student mischief.
Moscow Octod Tower Москва, радиотелевизионная башня 'Октод'.jpg 2006 Moscow  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower 258 m (846 ft) A radio and TV steel lattice tower
Aspire Tower

a.k.a. "The Torch Doha"

2007 Doha  Qatar Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 300 m (984 ft) Hadi Simaan and AREP and engineer Ove Arup and Partners
BMW Welt

(BMW World)

BMW-Welt at night 2.JPG 2007 Munich  Germany Hyperboloid building event venue and museum Viennese professor Wolf D. Prix and architect firm Coop Himmelb (l) au
Tornado Tower

a.k.a. the "QIPCO Tower"

City montage of Doha2.png 2008 Doha  Qatar Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 195 m (640 ft)

(Lörmecke Tower)

Lörmecketurm.jpg 2008 Warstein, Arnsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower 35 m (115 ft) Joh.-Ulrich Blecke and Dr. Ing. Michael Maas
cs:Slunečná (rozhledna)

(Sunny (lookout lower))

Rozhledna Slunečná.JPG 2009 Velké Pavlovice  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower 18.6 m (61 ft) Ing. Martin Novák in cooperation with Antonín Olšina
Canton Tower

a.k.a. Guangzhou Tower

Canton Tower 20220626 (cropped 2).jpg 2010 Guangzhou  China Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 604 m (1,982 ft) Dutch architects Mark Hemel and Barbara Kuit of Information Based Architecture, together with Arup, the international design, engineering and business consulting firm headquartered in London The Canton Tower is in the Haizhu District of the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton), in Guangdong, China.[12]
Ferrari World Abu Dhabi 2010 Yas Island in Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates Hyperboloid building the largest space frame structure ever built

(Jüberg Tower)

Hemer-Juebergturm1-Asio.JPG 2010 de:Jüberg, Hemer, Märkischer Kreis, Arnsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany Hyperboloid observation tower 23.5 m (77 ft) Beat Müller and Katharina Schewe, Swiss + Birk and Heilmeyer, Stuttgart The first wooden hyperboloid tower structurally supported only by the outer wood framework.
Khan Shatyry Entertainment Center 2010 Khan Shatyr, Astana  Kazakhstan Hyperboloid superstructure 150 m (492 ft) Norman Foster of Foster and Partners The highest tensile structure in the world.
Lee Valley VeloPark

a.k.a. London VeloPark

London Velopark, 16 April 2012.jpg 2011 Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, East London  United Kingdom Hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof on cycling centre arena Hopkins Architects, Grant Associates
Mae West (sculpture) MUC Bghsn MaeWestA2 1.jpg 2011 Munich  Germany Hyperboloid public art sculpture 52 m (171 ft) Rita McBride
San Clan San clan 2012.jpg 2012 Tankwa Karoo National Park  South Africa Hyperboloid public art sculpture tower A temporary tower and ephemeral effigy constructed to intentionally burn in celebration at AfrikaBurn 2012, a Burning Man regional event.
Tachov Vysoká

(Tachov High Lookout (Tower))

Tachov - rozhledna Vysoká (1).JPG 2014 Tachov  Czech Republic Hyperboloid observation tower Hysek architectural studio [13][14]
Perm TV Tower[15] 2016 Perm  Russia Hyperboloid broadcast tower 275 m (902 ft) A radio and TV steel lattice tower
Warsaw Spire Warsaw Spire, Poland 22 June 2016.jpg 2016 Warsaw  Poland Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 220 m (721 ft) Jaspers-Eyers Architects and PROJEKT Polsko-Belgijska Pracownia Architektury The Warsaw Spire is a complex of Neomodern office buildings in Warsaw, Poland.
Camp Adventure (observation tower and walkway) 2018 Gisselfeld Klosters forests, between Haslev and Næstved,  Denmark Hyperboloid observation tower 45 m (148 ft) EFFEKT Architects 45m spiral walkway.[16][17][18][19]
Vakif Bank Headquarters Tower 2023 Istanbul Financial Center, Istanbul  Turkey Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 222 m (726 ft) Tabanlıoğlu Architects The Vakif Bank Headquarters Tower is a project of Istanbul Financial Center (IFC) office buildings in Istanbul, Turkey.
Les Essarts-le-Roi Château d'Eau

(Les Essarts-le-Roi Water Tower)

Les Essarts-le-Roi Château d'eau.JPG Les Essarts-le-Roi, Yvelines  France Hyperboloid water tower
Gen Coel Building Heerlerheide Gen Coel (1).jpg Heerlerheide, Heerlen  Netherlands Hyperboloid building public library, shopping, and community centre Utilizes geothermal mine water ("Mijnwater") heating and cooling.[20] See also: nl:Aardwarmte#Aardwarmte uit mijngangen.
Tempo (sculpture),

a.k.a. Samspel

Husnes  Norway Hyperboloid public art sculpture LEADinc Commissioned by Hydro Husnes, formerly Sør-Norge Aluminium AS.[21][22][23]
Sagrada Família SF - Passió 2018-m.jpg Barcelona  Spain Hyperboloid building cathedral vaults and windows Antoni Gaudí Under construction since 1882 with an estimated completion in 2026.

Notable Projects Never Built[edit]

Structure Location Country Function Height Architect Notes
Burj Al Alam Business Bay, Dubai  United Arab Emirates Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 510 m (1,670 ft) Nikken Sekkei Cancelled in 2013
Crystal Island Moscow  Russia Hyperboloid superstructure 450 m (1,476 ft) Norman Foster of Foster and Partners In 2009, due to the global economic crisis, financial backing for the project was lost, and construction of the project was postponed.
Vortex Tower London  United Kingdom Hyperboloid skyscraper tower 300 m (984 ft) Ken Shuttleworth Designed in 2012

Gallery of more hyperbolic paraboloid structures[edit]

Gallery of more hyperboloid structures[edit]

Gallery of hyperboloid ship masts[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Image: tractricious_02_08_2007.jpg, (800 × 1200 px)". 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  2. ^ "The story of "Tractricious"". 2016-11-02. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  3. ^[bare URL]
  4. ^ "Samara TRK-Orion Tower, Samara | 1258243". Emporis. Archived from the original on March 7, 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-02.
  5. ^ "Orion Tower in Samara, Russian Federation". 25 January 2020.
  6. ^ "中部電力と東京電力が新会社設立、 ~早くも石炭火力発電所新設(茨城県内)へ始動TEPCO and Chubu Electric to form new company, push forward new coal-fired power plant in Ibaraki | Don't go back to the 石炭〜石炭火力発電に反対 |石炭発電|石炭火力発電|反原発".
  7. ^ "Hitachinaka Coal Power Station Japan - GEO".
  8. ^ "Radio Mast at Krupskoi Street, Perm | 291412". Emporis. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved 2022-05-02.
  9. ^ "Air Traffic control tower Barcelona Airport". Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  10. ^ "Rozhledna Borůvka | Sdružení obcí Toulovcovy Maštale". Archived from the original on 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  11. ^[bare URL image file]
  12. ^ "ArchitectureWeek DesignCommunity • View topic - 610m - Hyperboloid Tower in Guangzhou". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  13. ^ "[English:] Dancing observation tower in Tachov". 2016-01-26. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  14. ^ "Rozhledna Vysoká u Tachova". Retrieved 2016-01-05.
  15. ^[bare URL]
  16. ^ "Camp Adventure Park". Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  17. ^ "Camp Adventure Park". Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  18. ^ "EFFEKT's treetop experience observation tower offers breathtaking views". 2017-06-16. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  19. ^ "Denmark Will Have This Amazing New Observation Tower Next Year". 2017-06-16. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  20. ^ "Mine Water, Basis For Renewable Energy". Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  21. ^ "Tempo (Samspel) Public Art Installation". LEADinc. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  22. ^ "Light Falls [on the Tempo (Sampsel) public art sculpture in Husnes, Norway, 2007]". Annette Walby. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  23. ^ "Panoramio - Photo of Samspel". Retrieved 2015-09-05.