List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number

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The Hornbostel–Sachs system of musical instrument classification defines idiophones as all instruments in which sound is produced primarily by way of the instrument itself vibrating without the use of membranes or strings.

Idiophones (1)[edit]

Struck idiophones (11)[edit]

Idiophones set in motion by a percussion action: hitting, shaking, or scraping. Also see Struck idiophone.

Directly struck idiophones (111)[edit]

111.1 Concussion Idiophones or clappers

111.11 Concussion sticks or sticks of clap

111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers

111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers

111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers

111.141 Castanets - Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers

111.142 Cymbals - Vessel clappers with manufactured rim

111.2 Percussion Idiophones

111.21 Percussion sticks or bars

111.211 Individual percussion sticks

111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. - All xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes.

111.22 Percussion plaques

111.221 Individual percussion plaques

111.222 Sets of percussion plaques

111.23 Percussion tubes

111.231 Individual percussion tubes.

111.232 Sets of percussion tubes.

111.24 Percussion vessels.

111.241 Gongs - The vibration is strongest near the vertex.

111.241.1 Individual gongs.

111.241.2 Sets of gongs.

111.242 Bells - The vibration is weakest near the vertex.

111.242.1 Individual bells

111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers.

111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes.

111.242.21 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.22 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.221 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.222 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.

Indirectly struck idiophones (112)[edit]

112.1 Shaken idiophones or rattles

112.11 Suspension rattles - Perforated idiophones are mounted together, and shaken to strike against each other.

112.111 Strung rattles - Rattling objects are strung in rows on a cord.

112.112 Stick rattles - Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring.

112.12 Frame rattles - Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike.

112.121 Pendant rattles.

112.122 Sliding rattles.

112.13 Vessel rattles - Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both.

112.2 Scraped Idiophones

112.21 Scraped sticks.

112.211 Scraped sticks without resonator.

112.212 Scraped sticks with resonator.

112.22 Scraped tubes.

112.23 Scraped vessels.

112.24 Scraped wheels - cog rattles

112.3 Split idiophones - Instruments in the shape of two springy arms connected at one end and touching at the other: the arms are forced apart by a little stick, to jangle or vibrate on recoil.

Plucked idiophones (12)[edit]

Instruments set into vibration by plucking. Lamellophones.

In the form of a frame (121)[edit]

121.1 Clack idiophones - The lamella is carved in the surface of a fruit shell, which serves as resonator.

121.2 Guimbardes and Jaw harps - The lamella is mounted in a rod- or plaque-shaped frame and depends on the player's mouth cavity for resonance.

121.21 Idioglot guimbardes - The lamella is of one substance with the frame of the instrument.

121.22 Heteroglot guimbardes - The lamella is attached to the frame.

121.221 Individual heteroglot guimbardes.

121.222 Sets of heteroglot guimbardes.

In the form of a comb (122)[edit]

The lamellae are tied to a board or cut out from a board like the teeth of a comb.

122.1 With laced on lamellae.

122.11 Without resonator.

122.12 With resonator.

122.2 With cut-out lamellae

Friction idiophones (13)[edit]

Instruments set into vibration by rubbing.

Friction sticks (131)[edit]

131.1 Individual friction sticks.

131.2 Sets of friction sticks.

131.21 Without direct friction.

131.22 With direct friction.

Friction plaques (132)[edit]

132.1 Individual friction plaques.

132.2 Sets of friction plaques.

Friction vessels (133)[edit]

133.1 Individual friction vessels.

133.2 Sets of friction vessels.

Blown idiophones (14)[edit]

Instruments set into vibration by blowing or moving air.

Blown sticks (141)[edit]

141.1 Individual blown sticks.

141.2 Sets of blown sticks.

Blown plaques (142)[edit]

142.1 Individual blown plaques.

142.2 Sets of blown plaques.

Unclassified idiophones (15)[edit]

Idiophones not allocated a number in the Hornbostel-Sachs system.

External links[edit]