List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States

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Listed are major episodes of civil unrest in the United States. This list does not include the numerous incidents of destruction and violence associated with various sporting events.[1]

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

1800–1849[edit]

1850–1859[edit]

1860–1869[edit]

1870–1879[edit]

The New York Orange Riot of 1871, between Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants.

1880–1889[edit]

1890–1899[edit]

20th century[edit]

1900–1909[edit]

1910–1919[edit]

1920–1929[edit]

1930–1939[edit]

1940–1949[edit]

1950–1959[edit]

1960–1969[edit]

1970–1979[edit]

1980–1989[edit]

1990–1999[edit]

21st century[edit]

2000–2009[edit]

2010–2019[edit]

  • 2010 – Springfest riot, April 10, 200 police disperse crowd of 8,000 using tear gas, pepper spray, rubber bullets, and bean bag rounds, near the campus of James Madison University; dozens injured. 30–35 arrested; Harrisonburg, Virginia.
  • 2010 – Santa Cruz May Day riot, May 1, 250 rampage through downtown Santa Cruz attacking 18 businesses, causing an estimated $100,000 in damages. 1 arrested. Santa Cruz, California.
  • 2010 – Oakland protest riot, November 5, Police made more than 150 arrests as a crowd broke windows and knocked down fences, protesting sentence of former BART officer in shooting of Oscar Grant on New Years Day 2009; see BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant. Oakland, California
  • 2011 – Madison Occupation. Protestors storm and occupy the Wisconsin state capitol building for 18 days.
  • 2011 – Occupy Wall Street (Brooklyn Bridge protests). Demonstrators blocked the bridge and more than 700 people were arrested. New York, New York
  • 2011 – Occupy Oakland Oakland protests riots. October. Protesters shattered windows, set fires, and plastered buildings with graffiti. Riot police fired heavy amounts of tear gas on the protesters.
  • 2012 – Kentucky Wildcats supporters in Lexington, Kentucky[31]
  • 2012 – NATO 2012 Chicago Summit, May. Conflict between riot police and protesters. Dozens of demonstrators clubbed and arrested.
  • 2012 – Anaheim police shooting and protests, July 28. Violence erupted after multiple shootings in the neighborhood by police that included unarmed Manuel Diaz. 24 people were arrested.
  • 2013 – Flatbush Riots, March 11, Riots in Brooklyn, New York after the death of Kimani Gray who was shot and killed by NYPD.
  • 2014 – Bundy Standoff, April 5–May, an armed confrontation between supporters of cattle rancher Cliven Bundy and law enforcement following a 21-year legal dispute in which the United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM) obtained court orders directing Bundy to pay over $1 million in withheld grazing fees for Bundy's use of federally-owned land adjacent to Bundy's ranch in southeastern Nevada.
  • 2014 – Ferguson unrest, Ferguson and St. Louis, Missouri, August 10 and November 24. Following the shooting death of Michael Brown by a Ferguson police officer, protests erupt in the streets. Police respond with riot gear, tear gas, sound canons, police dogs, concussion grenades, rubber bullets, pepper balls, wooden bullets, beanbag rounds, tasers, pepper spray, and armored vehicles. Unrest occurred continuously for weeks in August, and sporadically through December, with nearly daily protests throughout the period and rioting following the non-indictment announcement on November 24. Unrest again occurred on the one year anniversary in August 2015, with dozens of arrests.
  • 2014 – St. Louis, Missouri – October 8, police vehicle windows broken as rage at the killing of Vonderrit Myers Jr. Protests continued for days afterward, during the nearby and ongoing Ferguson Unrest.
  • 2014 – New York, New York, and Berkeley, California – After prosecutors and a grand jury refused to indict a police officer in the death of Eric Garner, protests erupted in New York City and other cities.
  • 2014 Oakland riots, November–December, A series of riots and civil disturbances that took place in Oakland and the surrounding area, in reaction to the events involving the Shooting of Michael Brown and later, the death of Eric Garner, Oakland, California
  • 2014 – Berkeley, Missouri, December 23–24. Antonio Martin is shot to death by police in a St. Louis suburb nearby to Ferguson, leading to violent conflict with police, and looting.
  • 2015 – 2015 Baltimore protests, April 25–28. Days of protests break out following the death of Freddie Gray while in police custody. 34 people are arrested and 15 Officers injured after rioting and looting break out. Gray's funeral was held on April 27 and followed by further protests and looting. Governor Hogan had preemptively activated the Maryland National Guard, while the Maryland State Police had activated at least 500 officers.
  • 2015 – St. Louis, Missouri, August 19. Conflict with police following fatal shooting by St. Louis police officers of black teenager Mansur Ball-Bey leads to deployment of tear gas then burned car, buildings, and looting. Protests continue in subsequent days with tensions remaining high.
  • 2016 – Occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, January–February, One killed and several dozen arrested at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon.
  • 2016 – Donald Trump Chicago rally protest, March 11. Five people arrested and two police officers injured during a demonstration at the UIC Pavilion.
  • 2016 – Democracy Spring rally in April. March to Washington D.C. and sit-ins lead to arrests.
  • 2016 – 2016 Sacramento riot, June 26, A confrontation between white nationalists and left-wing counter protesters at the California State Capitol. Ten people were hospitalized for stabbing and laceration wounds.
  • 2016 – Widespread protests erupt in response to two deaths at the hands of police, the Shooting of Alton Sterling and shooting of Philando Castile. At least 261 people were arrested in protests in New York City, Chicago, St. Paul, Baton Rouge, and other cities.
  • 2016 – Milwaukee riots, Sherman Park, August 13–15. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, sparked by the fatal police shooting of 23-year-old Sylville Smith.
  • 2016 – Charlotte riot, September 20–21, Protests and riots break out in response to the shooting of Keith Lamont Scott by a Charlotte police officer.
  • 2016 – Dakota Access Pipeline protests, 411 protesters arrested. Multiple skirmishes with police, with vehicles, hay bales, and tires set on fire.
  • 2016 – Anti-Trump protests, November 9–2, After Republican candidate Donald Trump was projected to have won the 2016 presidential election, thousands protested across twenty-five American cities, and unrest broke out in downtown Oakland, California and Portland, Oregon; in Oakland, over 40 fires started and police officers were injured.
  • 2017 – Berkeley, California, February 1, civil unrest ensued at UC Berkeley after far-right political commentator Milo Yiannopoulos was scheduled to speak on campus.[32][33]
  • 2017 – Anaheim, California protests, February 21, protesters demonstrated after a police officer grabbed a 13-year-old boy and fired a single shot. Protesters damaged property and threw rocks and bottles at police.
  • 2017 – May Day, in Olympia, Washington and Portland, Oregon, protestors demonstrated for workers rights. Protestors damaged property and confronted law enforcement.
  • 2017 – Unite the Right rally, Charlottesville, Virginia, August 11–12, At a Unite the Right rally, composed of white nationalists and white supremacists who opposed the removal of a statue of Confederate general Robert E. Lee, rally attendees and counterprotesters clashed, sometimes violently. On August 12, white supremacist neo-Nazi James Alex Fields Jr. rammed his car into a crowd of counterprotesters, killing 32-year-old Heather Heyer and injuring 35 others; Fields was later arrested and charged with hit-and-run and malicious wounding, for which he was convicted in June 2019.[34] Two law enforcement officers also died in a helicopter crash while monitoring the event.
  • 2017 – St. Louis protests, September 15–November 24, Beginning in September, large protests erupted when police officer Jason Stockley was found not guilty of murder in the shooting death of Anthony Lamar Smith on December 20, 2011. Some of the protests turned destructive and the police became violent. Windows were broken at Mayor Lyda Krewson's house and in the Central West End business district on the first night, many windows were broken in the Delmar Loop on September 16, a few were broken downtown on September 17 after police drove swiftly through a crowd following a peaceful march. Police conducted a kettling mass arrest operation of nonviolent protesters and bystanders, beating and pepper spraying many, including journalists, documentary filmmakers, and an undercover officer. Protests and sporadic unrest continued daily for weeks.
  • 2019 – Memphis riot, June 13, following the fatal shooting of Brandon Webber by U.S. Marshals, Memphis, TN.

2020–2021[edit]

  • 2020 – New York City FTP protests, January 31, Anti-Transit Police and MTA protest resulting in hundreds of arrests over the three separate days of demonstration. Vandalism and violence on train stations were reported.
  • 2020 – Dayton University riot, March 11 – Riot breaks out following a university's announcement of a temporary closure due to COVID-19.[35]
  • 2020 – 2020–2021 United States racial unrest begins.
  • 2020 –
    Protesters surround a police precinct in Minneapolis during the George Floyd protests, part of a larger wave of civil unrest in 2020 and 2021.
    George Floyd protests, May 26 – Ongoing, Following the murder of George Floyd, protests and civil unrest against police brutality and systemic racism began in Minneapolis and quickly spread across the United States and the world. Derek Chauvin, the policeman who held his knee on Floyd's neck for over nine minutes, was soon fired along with the three other officers involved. Later, Chauvin was arrested and charged with second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder, and second-degree manslaughter; after being taken into custody and released on bail in October 2020, Chauvin was found guilty on all charges in April 2021[36] and sentenced to 22 years and 6 months in prison in June 2021.[37] The other three policemen were charged with aiding and abetting murder and are scheduled to be tried in March 2022. Widespread protests and riots spread to other American cities and then to other countries, with Floyd's murder garnering international condemnation.[38] Protest tactics included peaceful occupation and resistance, but was overshadowed by widespread looting and damage of private and public properties. In the Seattle neighborhood of Capitol Hill, an occupation protest and self-declared autonomous zone was established on June 8, 2020, covering six city blocks and a park after the Seattle Police Department left their East Precinct building. The area was cleared of occupants by police on July 1, 2020. May 29 began national days of protests in every state; some of which lasted throughout the summer of 2020.[39]
  • 2020 – Kenosha unrest, August 23–28, On August 23 in Kenosha, Wisconsin, Jacob Blake was shot in the back by a police officer while not complying with their attempt to arrest him. Protests and rioting occurred after the incident. A State of Emergency was declared and police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the crowd. During several days of rioting, government buildings were damaged, businesses were looted and set on fire, and vehicles were firebombed, including 100 cars burned at a car dealership. On the third day of unrest an armed teenager, from out of state, shot three rioters, wounding one and killing two others. By August 28, almost 1000 Wisconsin National Guard troops were on the streets, backed by National Guard troops from Michigan, Alabama and Arizona. Nearly 100 buildings were damaged with the cost of damage to City property close to $2 million and the cost to private property damaged near $50 million.
  • 2020 – Minneapolis false rumors riot, August 26–28, On August 26, a false rumor that police shot a man in Minneapolis started riots that set four buildings on fire and damaged 72 others.
  • 2020 – Jewish Protest, October 7–8, In Brooklyn, New York, members of the Orthodox Jewish community protested over new COVID-19 restrictions. Minor fires were set, masks were burned, and journalist Jacob Kornbluh was attacked. Heshy Tischler was taken into custody for inciting a riot.[40]
  • 2020 – Philadelphia riot, October 26 – November 4, Caused by the Killing of Walter Wallace by Philadelphia police.
  • 2020 – 2020–2021 United States election protests, November 3 – March 2021, Several demonstrations were held during and after the 2020 presidential election. Clashes between pro-Trump supporters and counterprotesters occurred on multiple nights, including November 14 and December 12. On the night of December 12, there were multiple stabbings and over 23 people were arrested.
  • 2021 – United States Capitol attack, January 6, After months of unsuccessful attempts by President Donald Trump and his allies to overturn the results of the 2020 presidential election by falsely asserting voter fraud occurred and unsuccessfully attempting to pressure state election officials to alter the election results in his favor, a large group of pro-Trump supporters, allegedly called to action by Trump,[41] violently stormed the United States Capitol in an attempt to prevent the certification of Joe Biden's election victory. During the riot, the Capitol was vandalized, including doors, windows, and offices, forcing members of Congress and Vice President Mike Pence to evacuate. One death occurred as a direct result of the unrest, and several additional deaths were reported subsequently, but determined to be due to unrelated or natural causes.[42] Ashli Babbitt, an Air Force veteran from Southern California, was shot and killed by a Capitol Police officer as she attempted to enter through a broken window leading to the Speaker’s Lobby inside the Capitol. During a rush of insurrectionists attempting to fight their way through the police line, Rosanne Boyland was unintentionally crushed and killed. While originally believed to have been a victim of blunt force trauma or chemical spray during altercations between protestors and police, officer Brian Sicknick also died shortly after the violence from a stroke. Nearly 140 police officers were injured.[43] In the aftermath of the unrest, which received widespread domestic and international condemnation, the Chief of the Capitol Police resigned under pressure and President Trump was impeached a second time under accusation of incitement of insurrection.[44][45] His subsequent trial in February 2021 ultimately resulted in an acquittal by the Senate, making Trump the first to be tried as a former president and to be impeached and acquitted twice.[46]
  • 2021 – Daunte Wright protests, April 11 – Ongoing, On April 11, police officer Kim Potter fatally shot 20-year-old African-American man Daunte Wright during a traffic stop in Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, near where former police officer Derek Chauvin was standing trial for the murder of George Floyd.[47] Protests demanding justice for Wright were met with force by law enforcement, who used tear gas, canisters, and other methods to disperse protesters. Several demonstrations escalated into riots with property damage, looting, and violent clashes between protesters and police. On April 14, after resigning from her position, Potter was arrested and charged with second-degree manslaughter.[48] In response to the unrest, Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey declared a State of Emergency and imposed a citywide curfew amid mass arrests.
  • 2021 – Israel-Palestine protests, May 9 – Ongoing, Amid the Israel-Palestine crisis, the United States saw a rise in antisemitism and violence against Jews, as both pro-Israel and pro-Palestine protesters took to the streets of major U.S. cities.[49] On May 20, in Midtown Manhattan, pro-Israel and pro-Palestine protesters both took to the streets; the two groups collided and fights broke out. At least 26 people were arrested during the protests on various charges, including obstructing governmental administration, resisting arrest, unlawful assembly, disorderly conduct, and criminal possession of a weapon, according to police. During the violence, anti-semitic attackers beat a Jewish man.[50] Also on May 20 in Bal Harbour, Florida, an SUV carrying four supporters of Palestine drove by a synagogue and threw garbage at a Jewish family. A nearby driver, armed with a gun, witnessed the incident and jumped to the family's defense, chasing the men away. In a separate incident, a man in Miami drove a van painted with Nazi symbols past a pro-Israel demonstration and shouted antisemitic slurs; the man was subsequently arrested and later released.[51]
  • 2021 – Winston Boogie Smith protests, June 3–7, On June 3, a 32-year-old African-American man named Winston Boogie Smith would be killed by Hennepin County Sheriff deputies and Ramsey County deputies at a parking garage on Lake Street between Fremont and Hennepin Avenues in the Upton district of Minneapolis at about 2:10 P.M. who were assisting the US Marshals Service in arresting him. The US Marshals Service would state they reason for arresting him because he had failed to appear in court on May 19 after being arrested for firearm possession. There is no known video footage of the incident occurring. Both a Ramsey and Hennepin county deputy would be placed on administrative leave. A crowd would gather after the incident occurred waiting to hear about more information pertaining to the incident. During that night a handful of businesses would be looted and vandalized. 9 arrests were reported to be made.[52] On June 13, an SUV would drive into a parked car that was shielding protesters and the car would be pushed into a crowd leading to the death of one person and injuring 3 others.[53] On July 8, 2021, a video link was posted on Twitter showing a driver in the Uptown area of Minneapolis "Firing a gun into the air while doing burnouts".[54][55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ see Ronald Gottesman, and Richard Maxwell Brown, eds. Violence in America: an encyclopedia (1999).
  2. ^ "The Boston Mob of 1835". www.bpl.org. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  3. ^ a b c d Detroit Free Press' "The Detroit Almanac", 2001
  4. ^ http://gcnarratives.com/2018/11/08/eutaw-riot-1870/
  5. ^ https://digital.lib.usf.edu/content/SF/S0/02/43/00/00039/T06-00039-v20-n01-98.pdf
  6. ^ Journal, John Gomez/For The Jersey (2017-04-24). "Woman's arrest led to uprising in Jersey City in 1964". nj. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  7. ^ Taylor, Alan. "1964: Civil Rights Battles – The Atlantic". www.theatlantic.com. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o RIOTS, CIVIL AND CRIMINAL DISORDERS: HEARINGS BEFORE THE PERMANENT SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS UNITED STATES SENATE (PDF). United States Government Publishing Office. 1968.
  9. ^ Fleeman, Michael (1988-06-10). "Town Outraged, Divided over Cop's Fatal Shooting of Hispanic". AP News. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Race Troubles: 109 U.S. Cities Faced Violence in 1967". U.S. News & World Report (published 1967-08-14). 2017-07-12.
  11. ^ Momodu, Samuel (2020-12-25). "Tampa Bay Race Riot (1967)". Blackpast. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  12. ^ Antiriot bill, 1967. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1967. p. 301.
  13. ^ Jimenez, Uziel (August 2017). "FRESNO'S LONG HOT SUMMER OF 1967: AN EXAMINATION OF HOUSING AND EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION". California State University ScholarWorks. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  14. ^ Rasmussen, Chris (2017-07-14). "Recalling the 1967 New Brunswick protests". Courier News. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  15. ^ "Puerto Ricans Riots: East Harlem in 1967". Center for Puerto Rican Studies at The City University of New York. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  16. ^ Fernandez, Johanna (2011). "The Young Lords and the Social and Structural Roots of Late Sixties Urban Radicalism". In Taylor, Clarence (ed.). Civil Rights in New York City: From World War II to the Giuliani Era (PDF). Fordham University.
  17. ^ Mack, Will (2018-01-13). "Grand Rapids Uprising (1967)". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
  18. ^ O'Leary, Mary; Stannard, Ed; Abdul-Karim, Shahid (2017-08-12). "1967 riots: 4 tense days that began 'evolution' of blacks". New Haven Register. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  19. ^ "THE 1968 TALLAHASSEE RIOTS FOLLOWING THE ASSASSINATION OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR". Apalachee. Tallahassee Historical Society. 11. 1984.
  20. ^ a b c d Davis, Shanice (2017-04-12). "Are Latino Riots Forgotten Because Latinos Want Them To Be?". VIBE. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  21. ^ "NEW BATTLING AT CONEY ISLAND". Bridgeport Post. 1968-07-22. Retrieved 2021-06-13 – via Newspapers.com.
  22. ^ "Retrospective: Archives show difficult road for Richmond middle class". Richmond Confidential. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
  23. ^ Vasquez, Richard (1970-04-12). "Coachella Riot Bewilders and Stuns Citizens". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2021-06-12 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ Fountain, Jr., Aaron G. (2016-05-04). "Forgotten Latino Urban Riots and Why They Can Happen Again". Latino USA. Retrieved 2021-06-03.
  25. ^ Nielsen, Rick (1971-07-19). "Mob Cuts Destructive Swath Through Colonia". Oxnard Press-Courier. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  26. ^ "250 Youths Battle Santa Paula Police". Santa Cruz Sentinel. 1972-04-24. Retrieved 2021-06-12.
  27. ^ "Vietnam-era Antiwar Protests - Mapping American Social Movements". depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  28. ^ a b "New England's Forgotten Puerto Rican Riots". New England Historical Society. 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2021-06-03.
  29. ^ Stevens, William K.; Times, Special To the New York (1985-05-14). "Police Drop Bomb on Radicals' Home in Philadelphia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  30. ^ "Violence In Tampa After Death Of Another Black Man In Custody". AP NEWS. 1987-04-07. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  31. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2012/04/kentucky-students-riot-after-ncaa-championship-win/
  32. ^ "Milo Yiannopoulos talk at UC Berkeley cancelled after protests erupt". KTVU.
  33. ^ "Riot Forces Cancellation Of Yiannopoulos Talk At UC Berkeley". KPIX 5.
  34. ^ "James Alex Fields, driver in deadly car attack at Charlottesville rally, sentenced to life in prison". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  35. ^ "Ohio: Riot breaks out following university's announcement of temporary closure due to COVID-19". WBRZ.
  36. ^ CNN, Eric Levenson and Aaron Cooper. "Derek Chauvin found guilty of all three charges for killing George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  37. ^ Arango, Tim (2021-06-25). "Derek Chauvin is sentenced to 22 and a half years for murder of George Floyd". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  38. ^ "UN condemns US police killing of George Floyd | DW | May 29, 2020". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  39. ^ "Demonstrations & Political Violence in America: New Data for Summer 2020 | ACLED". 2020-09-03. Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  40. ^ JTA, TOI staff and, et al. “Brooklyn Anti-Lockdown Protest Leader Arrested for 'Inciting Riot'.” The Times of Israel, 12 Oct. 2020, www.timesofisrael.com/brooklyn-anti-lockdown-protest-leader-arrested-for-inciting-riot/.
  41. ^ "AP FACT CHECK: Trump's call to action distorted in debate". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  42. ^ Healy, Jack (2021-01-11). "These Are the 5 People Who Died in the Capitol Riot". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  43. ^ Landale, James (2021-01-07). "Capitol siege: Trump's words 'directly led' to violence, Patel says". BBC. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
  44. ^ Phillips, Kevin Johnson, Tom Vanden Brook and Kristine. "'Unfathomable': Capitol Police security breakdown prompts chief's resignation". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  45. ^ Fandos, Nicholas (2021-01-14). "Trump Impeached for Inciting Insurrection". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  46. ^ "Donald Trump becomes the first U.S. president to be impeached twice". PBS NewsHour. 2021-01-13. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  47. ^ "Police shooting of Daunte Wright amid Derek Chauvin trial adds more trauma to wounded Twin Cities". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  48. ^ Jason Hanna, Brad Parks and Madeline Holcombe. "Officer charged with 2nd-degree manslaughter in Daunte Wright killing". CNN. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  49. ^ https://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/man-arrested-in-attack-on-jewish-men-outside-la-restaurant/2601595
  50. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/US/jewish-man-beaten-york-city-amid-dueling-protests/story?id=77823651
  51. ^ https://www.local10.com/news/local/2021/05/20/men-threaten-to-rape-mother-daughter-during-anti-semitic-attack-over-israel-hamas-conflict
  52. ^ "Winston Boogie Smith, 32, ID'd As Man Fatally Shot By Law Enforcement In Uptown Minneapolis". CBS 4 Minneapolis. 2021-06-04. Retrieved 2021-06-09.
  53. ^ Simon, Alexandra (2021-06-14). "Woman killed, 3 others hurt after driver hits car shielding crowd of protesters in Uptown". KARE 11. Retrieved 2021-06-15.
  54. ^ "https://twitter.com/shanermurph/status/1413000652851187716". Twitter. Retrieved 2021-07-11. External link in |title= (help)
  55. ^ Uren, Adam. "Video shows driver doing donuts as passenger fires gun into air in Uptown". Bring Me The News. Retrieved 2021-07-11.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gottesman, Ronald, and Richard Maxwell Brown, eds. Violence in America: an encyclopedia (1999).
  • Graham, Hugh Davis, and Ted Robert Gurr, eds. Violence in America: Historical and comparative perspectives (1969).
  • Gurr, Ted Robert, ed. Violence in America: Protest, rebellion, reform (1979).
  • Hofstadter, Richard, and Michael Wallace, eds. American violence: A documentary history (1971).
  • Victor, Orville J. History Of American Conspiracies: A Record Of Treason, Insurrection, Rebellion, &c. In The United States Of America. From 1760 To 1860 (1863) online