List of incurable diseases
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This is an incomplete list of incurable diseases. It includes both physical and mental diseases.
- Allergic diseases – Allergies, or allergic diseases, are conditions in which histamines are released. Types of allergy include food allergies (not to be confused with Food Intolerances or Food Poisoning), atopic dermatitis, allergic , anaphylaxis, and allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever, which is the most common), for example. No cure exists for allergies, but several treatments exist such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, avoiding the allergen, and allergen immunotherapy (also known as desensitization.)
- Asthma – Asthma is a disease that makes the bronchial tubes more susceptible to inflammation and irritation. There is no way to cure it, but there are ways to treat it so the person is not as likely to have an asthmatic episode.
- Addiction - Some, such as proponents of twelve step programs consider addiction to be an incurable and progressive brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences and requiring life-long reatment. They all require lifelong treatment. This is not universally accepted, and most people suffering from addiction recover without treatment 
- Adrenocortical carcinoma – A form of cancer that originates in the cortex of the adrenal gland and has no definitive cure.
- Alzheimer's disease
- Ankylosing Spondylitis - Also known as Ankylosing spondyloarthritis, Bechterew syndrome, Marie-Strumpell spondylitis, there is no cure; only treatment.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) – Also known as motor neurone disease or Lou Gehrig's Disease, there is no cure for the disease. Although there exists some treatments to improve the quality of and extend life, it is fatal within 3–5 years after onset.
- Arthritis – Arthritis is a condition where one feels joint pain. There is no known cure, but there are treatments that help.
- Ataxia – is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum.
- Cerebral amyloid angiopathy – Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a disease in the body's blood vessels that causes a buildup of a protein that can cause the blood vessels in the brain to burst, resulting in headaches. It is commonly brought on by dementia, but can occur in a person who never had dementia.
- Common cold – The common cold is a disease that mutates too frequently for a vaccine or cure to be created, and is rarely fatal.
- Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease – This is a neurodegenerative disease. There is no treatment or cure for this disease, although there has been extensive efforts done to reduce the chance of being infected with it.
- Crohn's disease-This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the intestinal tract. It cannot be cured, but can be managed with medications and surgery.
- Coeliac disease – Coeliac (or celiac) disease is a chronic, multiple-organ autoimmune disorder primarily affecting the small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten, that appears in genetically predisposed people of all ages. "Non-classic" presentation is the most common type, especially in older children (over 2 years old), adolescents, and adults. It is characterized by mild, fluctuating or even apparently absent gastrointestinal symptoms and a wide spectrum of non-intestinal manifestations that can involve any organ of the body, frequent negativity of serological markers (TG2), and minor mucosal lesions, without atrophy of the intestinal villi. Most cases remain unrecognized and undiagnosed. Untreated, it can cause many health complications and associated disorders, among which an increased risk of several types of cancer and greater mortality are included. Currently there is no cure and the only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, improves symptoms and reduces risk of developing complications in most people.
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Corneal ulcer
- Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor – A rare cancer that affects children, adolescents, and young adults with less than 200 reported cases worldwide as of 2011. Although the disease can be controlled by surgical removal, some tumors are not able to be surgically removed and treatment is not standardized.
- Diabetes – Diabetes is a common disorder that impairs the body's ability to produce and use insulin. There is no cure for it, but there are effective treatment plans to help control it.
- Dupuytren's disease – inherited, no cure, few treatments, nodules, cords, contractures, of one or both hands. Associated diseases: Ledderhose (feet), frozen shoulder, Peyronie's disease (penis).
- Dengue - This is a mosquito-borne viral disease occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. It is self limiting until the occurrence of haemorrhage. Severe conditions like unusual haemorrhage, hypovolemia later leading to shock. WHO states, There's no specific treatment for dengue. Verify https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue
- Ebola virus – Although there is treatment that has resulted in patients infected with this virus to have a full recovery, there is no vaccine or cure available. However, there are currently two potential vaccines that are under evaluation by the WHO. The only way to currently recover from this virus is to have a constant stream of medication and fluids.
- Epilepsy – While epilepsy can be considered to be resolved for "individuals who had an age-dependent epilepsy syndrome but are now past the applicable age or those who have remained seizure-free for the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years", those with a history of epilepsy that is now considered resolved have a greater risk of seizures than the baseline unaffected population and there is no guarantee that epileptic seizures will not return in resolved individuals.[Note 1]
- Factor V Leiden, a variant (mutated form) of human factor V (one of several substances that helps blood clot), which causes an increase in blood clotting (hypercoagulability). With this mutation, the anticoagulant protein secreted (which normally inhibits the pro-clotting activity of factor V) is not able to bind normally to Factor V, leading to a hypercoagulable state, i.e., an increased tendency for the patient to form abnormal and potentially harmful blood clots. Factor V Leiden is the most common hereditary hypercoagulability (prone to clotting) disorder amongst ethnic Europeans. It is named after the Dutch city Leiden, where it was first identified in 1994 by Prof R. Bertina et al. Suspicion of factor V Leiden being the cause for any thrombotic event should be considered in any Caucasian patient below the age of 45, or in any person with a family history of venous thrombosis.
- Fatal familial insomnia – This is a prion disease that is inherited and causes insomnia and other symptoms. The average life span of a person who has Fatal Familial Insomnia is around 18 months after it developing.
- Failure to thrive - Is a medical condition in which person inability to gain weight due to missing fat genes. Failure to thrive has no treatment or cured, the best way is to healthy diet. The main symptoms of FTT in child and adults is failure to gain weight, short height, irritability and mood swings.
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (birth defect)
- Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva – A genetic disorder characterised by soft tissue injuries healing into bone. Despite this, the bones do not have joints and limit mobility. Cutting off the bone results in explosive bone growth. It is genetic, and no known cure exists. Furthermore, there is no approved treatment for this disease.
- Fluoroquinolone toxicity syndrome – A multi-system syndrome that develops in some previously healthy patients that are prescribed an oral fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug.
- Gastroparesis – Also known as delayed gastric emptying, gastroparesis is a condition where the stomach does not empty properly. Although most patients require no further therapeutic management beyond prokinetic agents to manage their symptoms, outcomes from refractory gastroparesis treatments are generally poor or unpredictable.
- Genetic disease – Most genetic diseases are incurable.
- Glioblastoma – Most frequent and most malignant human brain tumor. There are currently no curative treatments available and virtually all patients experience tumor recurrence.
- Hepatitis B – Infection of the liver caused by sexual transmission and body fluid contact. Can lead to scarring of liver and liver cancer.
- Herpes simplex – Herpes simplex is an infection caused by either the HSV-1 (most commonly expressed as oral herpes) virus or the HSV-2 virus (most commonly expressed as genital herpes). Although most oral and genital herpes infections are asymptomatic, symptoms can include recurring ulcers and blistering at the infection site. Antiviral medications are an effective suppressive therapy and can be used to prevent or shorten outbreaks, but are not a cure.
- HIV/AIDS – No cure exists for HIV/AIDS, but medication exists that can help control the symptoms of it.
- Huntington's disease
- Hearing loss (sensorineural)
- Hereditary multiple exostoses – No cure exists for this autosomal dominant hereditary disorder, although surgery to remove exostoses (growths of bone) is an option when they get to an unbearable level, and medication exists to control the condition as it can cause extreme pain in bones and joints, as well as hinder and lessen the mobility of sufferers.
- Irritable bowel syndrome – a very common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or constipation besides others. There is no cure for IBS, but symptoms may improve with dietary measures (such as increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term low-FODMAP diet), and certain medications, such as laxatives and antidiarrhoeals.
- Joint pain – Joint pain may have multiple causes, and/or be associated with multiple diseases. Some have cures, others are incurable but the joint pain may be ameliorated.
- Lichen planus – A disease characterized by itchy reddish-purple polygon-shaped skin lesions on the lower back, wrists, and ankles. It may also be present with a burning sensation in the mouth, and a lattice-like network of white lines near sites of erosion (Wickham striae). The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be the result of an autoimmune process with an unknown initial trigger. There is no cure, but many different medications and procedures have been used in efforts to control the symptoms.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus – Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body–symptoms vary between people and may be mild to severe. Common symptoms include painful and swollen joints, fever, chest pain, hair loss, mouth ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, feeling tired, and a red rash which is most commonly on the face.
- Macular degeneration – Degeneration of eyesight with no cure that can repair the damaged tissue. However, there are management techniques that reduce future damage caused by this disease.
- Marburg virus – This virus is very deadly and has no treatment, vaccine, or cure available.
- Multiple sclerosis – Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems. There is no known cure.
- Muscular dystrophy – inherited disease
- Myasthenia gravis – An autoimmune disorder of the neuro-muscular junction characterized by muscle weakness that fluctuates, worsening with exertion, and improving with rest. There is no known cure.
- Norovirus – This virus is responsible for most cases acute gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Although there is no vaccine or cure available, most infected individuals recover within one to three days.
- Naegleria fowleri - Also known as brain eating amoeba, this is a species of the genus "Naelgleria" belonging to the phylum Percolozoa which isn't classified a true amoeba. It is found in warm bodies of water, usually hot springs, and enters the host through the nose. Even with treatment, there is a very thin chance of survival (around 5%). Symptoms may include alteration in the sense of smell, changes in sense of taste, high fever, sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting, stiff neck, extreme headache, confusion and disorientation, sleepiness, loss of balance, hallucinations and seizures.
- Narcolepsy - A condition characterized by an extreme tendency to fall asleep whenever in relaxing surroundings. Treatable with medication but no cure.
- Obesity - Obesity is a Condition in which body carries excess body fat or weight. There is no short term treatment, Bariatric surgery, changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments but sometimes not effective.
- Osteoporosis – Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Treatment for osteoporosis includes a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. The most common medications used in treatment are bisphosphonates, and teriparatide.
- Osteogenesis imperfecta – Osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones, resulting in bones that break easily. Other symptoms may include a blue tinge to the whites of the eye, short height, loose joints, hearing loss, breathing problems and problems with the teeth. Major complications may include cervical artery dissection and aortic dissection. Treatment may include care of broken bones, pain medication, physical therapy, braces or wheelchairs and surgery.
- Parkinson's disease
- Paraphilia disorder is a disorder in which there is an "intense, atypical sexual arousal pattern" that causes distress or impairment. Although it is not believed that sexual desires can be changed, they can be managed so that an individual no longer experiences distress or impairment.
- Pityriasis rubra pilaris refers to a group of skin conditions that cause constant inflammation and scaling of the skin. People with this form of pityriasis have reddish, scaly patches that may occur everywhere on the body, or only on certain areas. Some also develop thickened skin on the underside of the hands and feet (palmoplantar keratoderma), various nail abnormalities, and/or thinning of the hair. There are several types, classified by age when symptoms begin, body areas involved, and whether other conditions are present. Treatment options are symptom relief, vary based on the symptoms and severity, and emollients or medications, oral retinoids, and/or immunosuppressants.
- Progeria – Progeria has no cure and a very small amount of treatments. However, there is a medicine in the making that is undergoing testing and trials that may lead to a cure. The disorder usually leads to death at a young age.
- Polio – While there is a vaccine to prevent polio, there is no cure for it.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome -- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. 
- Pre-eclampsia – a multisystem progressive disorder characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria, or of hypertension and significant end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria, in the last half of pregnancy or postpartum. The disorder is caused by placental and maternal vascular dysfunction and always resolves after delivery. Although most affected pregnancies deliver at term or near term with good maternal and fetal outcomes, these pregnancies are at increased risk for maternal and/or fetal mortality or serious morbidity. In addition, women with preeclampsia are at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease.
- Psoriasis – Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease which affects the skin. It can be treated and controlled to some extent with medication but has no definitive cure.
- Pulmonary hypertension – a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries of the lungs and the right side of the heart. In one form of pulmonary hypertension, tiny arteries called pulmonary arterioles and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed, making it harder for blood to flow through the lungs, and raises pressure within the lungs' arteries. As the pressure builds, the heart's right ventricle works harder to pump blood, eventually causing the heart muscle to weaken and fail. Some forms of pulmonary hypertension are serious conditions that become progressively worse and are sometimes fatal. Although some forms of pulmonary hypertension aren't curable, treatment can help lessen symptoms and improve quality of life.
- Pulmonary fibrosis, fatal respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems. Scar formation, the accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue (the process called fibrosis), leads to thickening of the walls, and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood. As a consequence patients suffer from perpetual shortness of breath. There is no known cure for the scars and damage in the lung due to pulmonary fibrosis.
- Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
- Rheumatoid arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joints. Since Rheumatoid arthritis progresses with cumulative damage to the joints and sometimes to soft tissues and internal organs, a cure for it is an "ambitious goal with relatively low probability of ever occurring". Remission, however, can occur in up to 75% of patients with "intense and individually tailored treatments".
- Rabies – Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure, followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Once symptoms appear, the result is nearly always death. The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months; however, the time is dependent on the distance the virus must travel along nerves to reach the central nervous system. In people who have been exposed to rabies, the rabies vaccine and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin are effective in preventing the disease if the person receives the treatment before the start of rabies symptoms. Once the patient becomes symptomatic, treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord, producing transverse myelitis.
- Rett syndrome – an X-linked genetic brain disorder, which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females. Symptoms include problems with language, coordination, and repetitive movements. Often there is slower growth, problems walking, and a smaller head size. Complications can include seizures, scoliosis, and sleeping problems. There is no known cure for Rett syndrome, treatment is directed at improving symptoms. Anticonvulsants may be used to help with seizures, and special education, physiotherapy, and braces may also be useful.
- Schizophrenia – Many treatments are available and proven to improve the condition, however, there is no definitive cure for this mental disease.
- Scleroderma – An autoimmune disease that involves the soft tissues.
- Spinocerebellar ataxia – This is a genetic disorder that inhibits the person's ability to use their nervous system.
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – SARS is a respiratory illness that first infected people in parts of Asia, North America, and Europe in late 2002 and early 2003. SARS is caused by a type of coronavirus, which can cause mild to moderate upper respiratory illness, such as the common cold.
- Trigeminal neuralgia – A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal or 5th cranial nerve, one of the most widely distributed nerves in the head. There is no true cure for the disease, but it can be treated.
- Toxoplasmosis – A zoonotic disease spread from cat feces, undercooked meat and fresh unwashed vegetables.
- Ulcerative colitis – An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the large intestine. It can be treated with medication and surgery.
- Urethral stricture – A stricture in the urethra caused by scarring from injury or illness. It can be treated with regular dilation or surgery.
- Lists of diseases – A list of lists for all the different kinds of diseases that are known.
- Although The International League Against Epilepsy calls epilepsy a disease, there is controversy over where it is should be called a disease or a disorder. A disease, disorder, illness or condition: How to label epilepsy?, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2017.
- "Asthma". World Health Organization. November 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Andersen, Peter; Abrahams, Sharon; Borasio, Gian; de Carvalho, Mamede; Chio, Adriano; Van Damme, Philip; Hardiman, Orla; Kollewe, Katja; Morrison, Karen (16 November 2010). "EFNS guidelines on the Clinical Management of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (MALS) – revised report of an EFNS task force". European Journal of Neurology.
- Swinnen, Bart; Robberecht, Wim (October 2014). "The phenotypic variability of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Nature Reviews Neurology.
- Godefroy, Olivier (2013-02-28). The Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology of Stroke. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107310896. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Friedman, Lauren F. (26 September 2014). "Why We Don't Have A Cure for the Common Cold". Business Insider. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "cold, common". infoplease.com. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Fact Sheet". NIHS. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ (November 2012). "Crohn's disease". Lancet. 380 (9853): 1590–605. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60026-9. PMID 22914295.
- "Celiac disease". World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guidelines. July 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Newnham, Evan D (2017). "Coeliac disease in the 21st century: Paradigm shifts in the modern age". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 32: 82–85. doi:10.1111/jgh.13704. PMID 28244672.
Presentation of CD with malabsorptive symptoms or malnutrition is now the exception rather than the rule.
- Ludvigsson JF, Card T, Ciclitira PJ, Swift GL, Nasr I, Sanders DS, Ciacci C (April 2015). "Support for patients with celiac disease: A literature review". United European Gastroenterology Journal (Review). 3 (2): 146–59. doi:10.1177/2050640614562599. PMC 4406900. PMID 25922674.
- Fasano A, Catassi C (December 2012). "Clinical practice. Celiac disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (25): 2419–26. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1113994. PMID 23252527.
- Bold J, Rostami K (2011). "Gluten tolerance; potential challenges in treatment strategies". Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 4 (2): 53–7. PMC 4017406. PMID 24834157.
- Lionetti E, Gatti S, Pulvirenti A, Catassi C (June 2015). "Celiac disease from a global perspective". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology (Review). 29 (3): 365–79. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.05.004. PMID 26060103.
- Han Y, Chen W, Li P, Ye J (2015). "Association Between Coeliac Disease and Risk of Any Malignancy and Gastrointestinal Malignancy: A Meta-Analysis". Medicine (Baltimore) (Meta-Analysis). 94 (38): e1612. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001612. PMC 4635766. PMID 26402826.
- Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH (October 2015). "Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity". BMJ (Review). 351: h4347. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4347. PMC 4596973. PMID 26438584.
Celiac disease occurs in about 1% of the population worldwide, although most people with the condition are undiagnosed. It can cause a wide variety of symptoms, both intestinal and extra-intestinal because it is a systemic autoimmune disease that is triggered by dietary gluten. Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk of cancer, including a twofold to fourfold increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a more than 30-fold increased risk of small intestinal adenocarcinoma, and they have a 1.4-fold increased risk of death.
- See JA, Kaukinen K, Makharia GK, Gibson PR, Murray JA (October 2015). "Practical insights into gluten-free diets". Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Review). 12 (10): 580–91. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2015.156. PMID 26392070.
A lack of symptoms and/or negative serological markers are not reliable indicators of mucosal response to the diet. Furthermore, up to 30% of patients continue to have gastrointestinal symptoms despite a strict GFD.122,124 If adherence is questioned, a structured interview by a qualified dietitian can help to identify both intentional and inadvertent sources of gluten.
- Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Peter M, Anderson (July 2011). "The diagnosis and management of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: a review". Current Opinion in Oncology. 23 (4): 385–389. doi:10.1097/CCO.0b013e3283477aab. PMID 21577112. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Diabetes". World Health Organization. March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Is There a Diabetes Cure?". WebMD. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Ebola Survivors". CDC. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, Bogacz A, Cross JH, Elger CE, Engel J Jr, Forsgren L, French JA, Glynn M, Hesdorffer DC, Lee BI, Mathern GW, Moshé SL, Perucca E, Scheffer IE, Tomson T, Watanabe M, Wiebe S (April 2014). "ILAE Official Report: A practical clinical definition of epilepsy" (PDF). Epilepsia. 55 (4): 475–82. doi:10.1111/epi.12550. PMID 24730690. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-09.
- "Introduction to fatal familial insomnia". CureFFI.org. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Robson, David (19 January 2016). "The tragic fate of the people who stop sleeping". BBC Future. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Schenkein J, Montagna P (2006). "Self management of fatal familial insomnia. Part 1: what is FFI?". MedGenMed. 8 (3): 65. PMC 1781306. PMID 17406188.
- Rasmussen, Carmen; Andrew, Gail; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Tough, Suzanne (2016-11-20). "Neurobehavioural outcomes of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A Canadian perspective". Paediatrics & Child Health. 13 (3): 185–191. ISSN 1205-7088. PMC 2529423. PMID 19252695.
- "Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva".
- Martelli A, Santos AR Jr (2014). "Cellular and morphological aspects of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Lessons of formation, repair, and bone bioengineering". Organogenesis (Review). 10 (3): 303–11. doi:10.4161/org.29206. PMC 4750545. PMID 25482313.
- McCarty TR, Rustagi T (June 2015). "Endoscopic treatment of gastroparesis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 21 (22): 6842–9. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i22.6842. PMC 4462724. PMID 26078560.
- Ohgaki H, Kleihues P (May 2007). "Genetic pathways to primary and secondary glioblastoma". The American Journal of Pathology. 170 (5): 1445–53. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2007.070011. PMC 1854940. PMID 17456751.
- Preusser M, de Ribaupierre S, Wöhrer A, Erridge SC, Hegi M, Weller M, Stupp R (July 2011). "Current concepts and management of glioblastoma". Annals of Neurology. 70 (1): 9–21. doi:10.1002/ana.22425. PMID 21786296.
- "Herpes simplex virus". www.who.int. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- Beauman, J. G. (2005). "Genital herpes: a review". American Family Physician. 72 (8): 1527–1534. ISSN 0002-838X. PMID 16273819.
- "STD Facts - Genital Herpes (Detailed version)". www.cdc.gov. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- "HIV/AIDS". World Health Organization. November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Chey WD, Kurlander J, Eswaran S (March 2015). "Irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review". JAMA. 313 (9): 949–58. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.0954. PMID 25734736.
- Moayyedi P, Quigley EM, Lacy BE, Lembo AJ, Saito YA, Schiller LR, Soffer EE, Spiegel BM, Ford AC (September 2014). "The effect of fiber supplementation on irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 109 (9): 1367–74. doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.195. PMID 25070054.
- Rao SS, Yu S, Fedewa A (June 2015). "Systematic review: dietary fibre and FODMAP-restricted diet in the management of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 41 (12): 1256–70. doi:10.1111/apt.13167. PMID 25903636.
- "Joint Pain" (PDF). International Association for the Study of Pain. February 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- Le Cleach L, Chosidow O (February 2012). "Clinical practice. Lichen planus". The New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (8): 723–32. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1103641. PMID 22356325.
- "Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)". National Institute of Health. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 2017-04-11. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- "Marburg haemorrhagic fever fact sheet". World Health Organization. November 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. November 19, 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Compston A, Coles A (October 2008). "Multiple sclerosis". Lancet. 372 (9648): 1502–17. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61620-7. PMID 18970977.
- Compston A, Coles A (April 2002). "Multiple sclerosis". Lancet. 359 (9313): 1221–31. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08220-X. PMID 11955556.
- Murray ED, Buttner EA, Price BH (2012). "Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice". In Daroff R, Fenichel G, Jankovic J, Mazziotta J (eds.). Bradley's neurology in clinical practice (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4377-0434-1.
- Jayam Trouth A, Dabi A, Solieman N, Kurukumbi M, Kalyanam J (2012). "Myasthenia gravis: a review". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 874680. doi:10.1155/2012/874680. PMC 3501798. PMID 23193443.
- MGFA. "Myasthenia Gravis: Frequently Asked Questions". www.myasthenia.org. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Kaufman SS, Green KY, Korba BE (May 2014). "Treatment of norovirus infections: moving antivirals from the bench to the bedside". Antiviral Research. 105: 80–91. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.02.012. PMC 4793406. PMID 24583027.
- "Norovirus". www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control. 2018-12-21. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- First, Michael B. (2014-06-01). "DSM-5 and Paraphilic Disorders". Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online. 42 (2): 191–201. ISSN 1093-6793. PMID 24986346.
- Seto, Michael; Ahmed, AG (June 2014). "Treatment and Management of Child Pornography Use". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 37 (2): 207–214. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2014.03.004. PMID 24877707.
- "Pityriasis rubra pilaris". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 March 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Rehman NA, Rehman AA, Ashraf IN, Ahmed S (May 2015). "Can Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome be cured in the future?". Intractable & Rare Diseases Research. 4 (2): 111–2. doi:10.5582/irdr.2015.01003. PMC 4428187. PMID 25984432.
- Fitzgerald, Kelly (26 September 2012). "First Successful Treatment for Progeria, Rare Childhood Disease". Medical News Today. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Progeria". Mayo Clinic. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Does polio still exist? Is it curable?". World Health Organization. October 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Boehncke, W. H.; Schön, M. P. (2015). "Boehncke, WH; Schön, MP (26 May 2015). "Psoriasis.". Lancet". Lancet. 386 (9997): 983–94. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61909-7. PMID 26025581.
- "Mayo Clinic Pulmonary Hypertension".
- "What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?". Arthritis Foundation. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- Machold, Klaus (June 2010). "Prevention and cure of rheumatoid arthritis: Is it possible?". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 24 (3): 353–361. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2009.12.014. PMID 20534369.
- "Schizophrenia Treatment & Recovery: Getting the Help and Support You Need". HelpGuide.org. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Schizophrenia fact sheet". World Health Organization. April 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Ataxias and Cerebellar or Spinocerebellar Degeneration Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke". NINDS. 19 February 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Trigeminal Neuralgia Fact Sheet". NINDS. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "Ulcerative Colitis". NIDDK. September 2014. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.