List of indigenous peoples of Taiwan
Traditionally, the Taiwanese indigenous peoples are usually classified into two groups by their places of residence. Languages and cultures of aboriginal tribes were recorded by the government of Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa and the Qing Empire.
|Mountains indigenous peoples||高山族||Ko-soaⁿ-cho̍k||Kô-sân-chhu̍k||高砂族（たかさごぞく, Takasago-zoku）|
|Plains indigenous peoples||平埔族||Pêⁿ-po͘-cho̍k||Phìn-phû-chhu̍k||平埔族（へいほぞく, Heiho-zoku）|
Research on ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples started in late 19th century, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. The Government of Taiwan (臺灣總督府, Taiwan Sōtokufu) conducted large amount of research and further distinguished the ethnic groups of Taiwanese indigenous peoples by linguistics (see Formosan languages). After the research, the household registration records remarks of "mountains/plains indigenous peoples". The governmental statistics also listed 9 recognized subgroups under mountains indigenous peoples. However, after World War II, the government refused to recognize the plains indigenous peoples.
The following is a list of classifications through Japanese and post World War II. Note that the Japanese names in parentheses does not exist in pre-World War II Japanese demographic research.
Mountains indigenous peoples
The Taiwanese government officially recognises 16 ethnic groups of mountains indigenous peoples.
|Amis||Pangcah, 'Amis||阿美族||アミ族、阿眉族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Atayal||Tayal, Tayan||泰雅族||タイヤル族、大么族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Bunun||Bunun||布農族||ブヌン族、ヴォヌム族、武崙族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Kanakanavu||Kanakanavu||卡那卡那富族||カナカナブ族||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014|
|Kavalan||Kebalan, Kbaran||噶瑪蘭族、加禮宛族||カバラン族||Classified as Amis, recognized since 2002|
|Paiwan||Payuan||排灣族||パイワン族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Puyuma||Pinuyumayan||卑南族、比努優瑪樣族||プユマ族、彪馬族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Rukai||Drekay||魯凱族||ルカイ族、ツァリセン族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Saaroa||Hla'alua||拉阿魯哇族||サアロア族、四社生蕃||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2014|
|Saisiyat||Say-Siyat||賽夏族、獅設族||サイシャット族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Sakizaya||Sakizaya||撒奇萊雅族、奇萊族||（サキザヤ族）||Classified as Amis, recognized since 2007|
|Seediq||Seediq||賽德克族||セデック族、紗績族||Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2008|
|Taroko||Truku||太魯閣族||（タロコ族）||Classified as Atayal, recognized since 2004|
|Thao||Thao, Ngan||邵族、水沙連族||サオ族||Classified as Tsou, recognized since 2001|
|Tsou||Cou||鄒族、曹族||ツォウ族、新高族||Recognized since Japanese era|
|Yami||Tao||達悟族、雅美族||ヤミ族||Recognized since Japanese era|
Kavalan and Thao are disputed to be part of mountains or plains indigenous peoples.
Plains indigenous peoples
Cultures of the plains indigenous peoples have undergone heavy Sinicization. This increases the difficulty in identifying ethnic groups.
|Arikun||Arikun||阿立昆族||アリクン族||Sometimes classified as Hoanya|
|Basay||Basay, Basai||巴賽族、馬塞族||（バサイ族）||Sometimes classified as Ketagalan|
|Hoanya||Hoanya||洪雅族、和安雅族、荷安耶族||ホアニヤ族||Sometimes split into Lloa and Arikun|
|Kaxabu||Kaxabu, Kahapu||噶哈巫族||（カハブ族）||Sometimes classified as Pazeh. In revitalization.|
|Lloa||Lloa||羅亞族、魯羅阿族||ロッア族||Sometimes classified Hoanya|
|Luilang||Luilang||雷朗族||ルイラン族||Sometimes classified as Ketagalan|
|Makatao||Makatao, Tao||馬卡道族||マカット族、タッオ族||Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Pingtung. In revitalization.|
|Pazeh||Pazéh, Pazih||巴宰族、巴則海族、拍宰海族||パゼッヘ族||In revitalization.|
|Siraya||Siraya||西拉雅族、希萊耶族||シラヤ族||Recognized in Tainan and Fuli. In revitalization.|
|Taivoan||Taivoan, Taivuan||大武壠族、大滿族||（タイボアン族）||Sometimes classified as Siraya. Recognized in Fuli. In revitalization.|
|Trobiawan||Trobiawan, TuRbuan||哆囉美遠族、哆囉布安族||(トルビアワン族)||Sometimes classified as Ketagalan|