List of islands of Taiwan

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The islands comprising the area of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), are classified into various island groups. The island of Taiwan, alternately known as Formosa, is the largest island and the main component of whole ROC governing territories. Islands that are claimed by the ROC but not administered, such as the Dadeng Islands, Senkaku Islands and most of South China Sea Islands, are excluded from the list.

At the adoption of Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China in the 1990s, these islands collectively became the Free area of the Republic of China, which legally defines the area effectively under the ROC government's control.

The islands have many English language names based on various systems of romanization from Mandarin, Hokkien, Japanese and other languages. Some islands have changed names or for other reasons have multiple different names in Chinese characters.[1]

Archipelagos of Taiwan[edit]

There are in total of 166 islands, these islands can be classified into the following geographical units.

Name Chinese Mandarin
(Pinyin)
Taiwanese
(Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
Hakka
(Pha̍k-fa-sṳ)
Other name No. islands Major islands Division
Taiwan 臺灣 Táiwān Tâi-oân Thòi-vàn Formosa 22 Taiwan, Orchid, Green, Lamay, Guishan Multiple
Penghu 澎湖 Pénghú Phêⁿ-ô Phàng-fù Pescadores 90 Penghu, Xiyu, Baisha, Cimei, Wang'an Penghu County
Kinmen 金門 Jīnmén Kim-mn̂g Kîm-mùn Quemoy numerous Kinmen, Lieyu, Dadan, Erdan Kinmen County
Matsu 馬祖 Mǎzǔ Má-chó͘ Mâ-chú 36 Nangan, Beigan, Dongyin, Xiyin, Dongju, Xiju Lienchiang County
Wuqiu 烏坵 Wūqiū O͘-khiu Vû-hiu Ockseu 2 Daqiu, Xiaoqiu Kinmen County
Dongsha 東沙 Dōngshā Tang-soa Tûng-sâ Pratas 1 All of Dongsha Islands Kaohsiung City
Nansha 南沙 Nánshā Lâm-soa Nàm-sâ Spratly 2 Taiping Island, Zhongzhou Reef Kaohsiung City

Note: "Taiwan" has multiple meanings, which may refer to: 1. Common name of the state officially named Republic of China, this contains all 166 islands, 2. Taiwan proper region (本島地區), this contains 22 islands in the geographical unit, 3. The island of Taiwan, this indicates the largest island in the geographical unit and the state.

List of major islands by area[edit]

List of Taiwanese islands with over 5 km2 of area.[2]

Order Name Chinese Taiwanese Hakka Geographical unit Administrative Division Area (km²)
1 Taiwan Main Island 臺灣本島 Tâi-oân pún-tó Thòi-vàn pún-tó Taiwan multiple 35,807.82
2 Kinmen Main Island 金門本島 Kim-mn̂g pún-tó Kîm-mùn pún-tó Kinmen 4 townships Kinmen 134.25
3 Penghu Main Island 澎湖本島 Phêⁿ-ô pún-tó Phàng-fù pún-tó Penghu Magong, Huxi Penghu 65.41
4 Orchid Island 蘭嶼 Lân-sū Làn-yí Taiwan Lanyu Taitung 46.82
5 Xiyu Island 西嶼 Sai-sū Sî-yí Penghu Xiyu Penghu 17.84

[clarification needed]
Waisanding Shoal 外傘頂洲 Gōa-sòaⁿ-téng-chiu Ngoi-san táng-chû Taiwan Kouhu Yunlin 17.22
6 Green Island 綠島 Le̍k-tó Liu̍k-tó Taiwan Lüdao Taitung 15.09
7 Lesser Kinmen Island (Lieyu) 小金門島 Sió-kim-mn̂g-tó Séu-kîm-mùn-tó Kinmen Lieyu Kinmen 14.85
8 Baisha Island 白沙島 Pe̍h-soa-tó Pha̍k-sâ-tó Penghu Baisha Penghu 13.88
9 Nangan Island (Matsu) 南竿島 Lâm-kan-tó Nàm-kôn-tó Matsu Nangan Lienchiang 10.43
10 Cimei/Qimei Island 七美嶼 Chhit-bí-tó Chhit-mî-yí Penghu Cimei Penghu 7.59
11 Lamay Island 琉球嶼 Liû-khiû-sū Liù-khiù-yí Taiwan Liuqiu Pingtung 6.80
12 Wang'an Island 望安島 Bāng-oaⁿ-tó Mong-ôn-tó Penghu Wang'an Penghu 6.74
13 Beigan Island 北竿島 Pak-kan-tó Pet-kôn-tó Matsu Beigan Lienchiang 6.44

List of islands by geographical unit[edit]

Taiwan proper[edit]

Location map of outlying islands governed by Taiwan

Penghu/Pescadores[edit]

  • Penghu Islands (Pescadores Islands; 澎湖群島) (Penghu County)[4][5]
    • Penghu (澎湖島)
    • Hujing Island (Hujing Islet, Huching Island; 虎井)
    • Baisha (白沙島)
    • Siyu (Yuwong, Yü-weng Tao, Gyoō-tō; 西嶼, 漁翁島)
      • Xiaomen Yu (Siaomen Islet, Hsiao-men hsü, Shō-mon-sho; 小門嶼)
      • Haiqian Reef (海墘礁)
    • Cimei (Qimei;七美嶼)
    • Wang-an (望安島)
      • Hua Islet (花嶼)
      • Mau Islets (貓嶼)
      • Cau Islet (草嶼)
      • Nan Yun (南塭/南𥔋)
      • Maanshan Islet (馬鞍山嶼)
      • Jiangjyunao Islet (Chiang-chün-ao hsü, Shōgunō-sho; 將軍澳嶼)
      • Chuanfanyu Reef (船帆嶼礁)
      • Toujin (頭巾)
      • Tiejhen (鐵砧)
      • West Islet (Hsi-hsü-p'ing, Sei-sūpin; 西嶼平)
      • East Islet (Tung-hsü-p'ing, Tō-sūpin; 東嶼平)
      • Siji Islet (Hsi-chi hsü, Saikichi-sho; 西吉嶼)
      • Chutou Islet (鋤頭嶼)
      • Dongji Island (Dongji Islet, Tung-chi hsü, Tō-kichi-sho; 東吉嶼)

Kinmen/Quemoy[edit]

[6][7][8][9][10]

  • Kinmen (Kinmen, Quemoy, Main island; 大金門, 金門本島) (main island, divided into four townships)
  • Jinhu Township
  • Jinsha Township
    • Cao Islet (草嶼)
    • Hou Islet/Xishanyu (后嶼/西山嶼)
    • Baiyan (白巖)
    • Dongge (東割)
    • Guan'ao Jiao[12] (官澳礁)
    • Xiyuan Yu[13] (西園嶼)
    • Gou Yu[14] (狗嶼)
    • Yangshanyu (洋山嶼)
    • etc.
  • Jinning Township
    • Daqian (大墘)
  • Jincheng Township
  • Lieyu Township
    • Lesser Kinmen (Hsiao Kinmen, Lieyu; 小金門, 烈嶼) (second largest island under ROC control in Kinmen)
    • Dadan Island (大膽島)
    • Erdan Island (二膽島)
    • Fuxing Islet (Fuhsing Islet; Phaktia) (復興)
    • Menghu Islet (猛虎)
    • Shi Islet (Lion Islet) ()
    • Binlang Islet (檳榔嶼)
    • Hsiao Kinmen Island (小金門島)
    • Houtouyu (後頭嶼)
    • Wu Jiao[18] (烏礁)
    • Guizijiao (桂子礁)
    • Huangyu (黃嶼)
    • Sanjiaojiao/Yanyu[19] (三腳礁/三角礁/煙嶼)
    • Niuxinjiao (牛心礁)
    • Chijiaojiao (赤角礁)
    • Xiaodan[20] (小擔)
    • Menkou Jiao[21] (門口礁)
    • Tuyu (T'u Hsü 兔嶼)
    • Dananjiao (大南礁)
    • Shishan (石山)
    • Sandan[22]/Sandandao (San-tan 三膽/三擔島)
    • Sidan[23]/Sidandao (Ssu-tan, Tao-sao Hsü 四膽/四擔島)
    • Wudan[24] (Wu-tan 五膽/五擔)
    • Muyu (目嶼)
    • etc.

Matsu Islands[edit]

[25]

Wuqiu/Ockseu[edit]

  • Wuqiu (Ockseu, Wuchiu; 烏坵)
    • Daqiu (Tachiu, Taciou; 大坵)
    • Xiaoqiu (Hsiaochiu; 小坵)

South China Sea Islands[edit]

Map of various countries occupying the Spratly Islands
  • South China Sea Islands (南海諸島) (Cijin District, Kaohsiung Municipality; only the following islands listed below are controlled by the ROC)

Disputed islands[edit]

The highly controversial sovereignty disputes over both the Japan-controlled Senkaku Islands and the South China Sea Islands (which are controlled by several nearby countries) are complicated by the disputed political status of both Taiwan (the territories outlined in the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco) and the Republic of China which controls Taiwan. This makes these disputes multi-layered and therefore virtually impossible to solve by following the guidelines of international law.

The ROC has maintained its historical claims to all of the South China Sea Islands.[29][30] The islands within the Pratas and Spratly Islands which remain under the control of the ROC have been designated as belonging to Cijin District, Kaohsiung City. Technically, this means that the ROC considers these islands to be part of the geographic region of "Taiwan" (though not the province). Historically, these regions were not part of Taiwan during Qing rule in Taiwan. The islands have historically been claimed by distant countries such as Japan and France during the 20th century, but they are now being claimed by six nearby countries, those being China (PRC), Taiwan (ROC), Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei. The United Nations considers the South China Sea to be "international waters" and doesn't recognise any of the South China Sea Islands as "true islands". The recognition of these islands as "true islands" is significant because it can justify the creation of an exclusive economic zone around the islands, which can be used to cut off international shipping lanes and to acquire natural resources such as oil which lie beneath the ocean.

Meanwhile, the Japan-controlled Senkaku Islands[31] are claimed by the Republic of China as "Diaoyutai Islands" within Toucheng Township, Yilan County[32] and are considered to be part of geographic and provincial Taiwan by the ROC. However, certain factions within the ROC (for example, former ROC-president Lee Teng-hui) have occasionally expressed disinterest in laying claim to the Senkaku Islands, in order to maintain good relations between Japan and Taiwan/ROC. The Senkaku Islands lie about 186 kilometres from the northeast of Taiwan Island, and also lie a similar distance from the east of China (PRC). They form the westernmost extremity of the "Ryukyu Islands", which Japan administers as Okinawa Prefecture. China (PRC) also claims the Senkaku Islands as "Diaoyudao Islands" as part of its claimed "Taiwan Province". Therefore, a big obstacle to the Chinese claim to the Senkaku Islands is the Taiwan independence movement, since China can't really continue to claim the islands if it loses its claim to Taiwan.

The PRC claims the islands of Taiwan and Penghu as part of its 23rd Taiwan Province, together with the Japanese-controlled Senkaku Islands (claimed as "Diaoyudao Islands"), which are also claimed by the ROC as part of its own Taiwan Province. The PRC claims Kinmen (Quemoy) as a county of the prefecture-level city Quanzhou, in Fujian Province. Matsu is claimed as part of Lianjiang County, part of Fuzhou, in Fujian Province. The Wuqiu islands are claimed as part of Xiuyu District, a district of the prefecture-level city Putian, in Fujian Province. The Dongsha Islands are claimed as part of Lufeng in Guangdong Province. The Nansha Islands controlled by the Republic of China, i.e. Taiping Island and Zhongzhou Reef, are claimed as part of Sansha, in Hainan Province. The PRC thus claims the ROC-controlled islands as part of its own Taiwan Province (Taiwan and Penghu), Fujian Province (Kinmen, Matsu and Wuqiu), Guangdong Province (Dongsha) and Hainan Province (Nansha).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 臺灣歷史地圖 增訂版 [Taiwan Historical Maps, Expanded and Revised Edition] (in Chinese). Taipei: National Museum of Taiwan History. February 2018. p. 14. ISBN 978-986-05-5274-4. 一地數名,反映了16-17世紀外界對臺灣的認知。
  2. ^ 05-19 臺灣島嶼面積 [Location and Area of Islands in Taiwan]. Ministry of the Interior (in Chinese and English). Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  3. ^ 記者盧賢秀,"北方三島小檔案""存档副本". Archived from the original on 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 島嶼的最東端是台灣極東點,, Liberty Times,2010-8-30.
  4. ^ "PENGHU From island to island" (PDF). Penghu County Government. 2010s. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  5. ^ 澎湖的島嶼. 澎湖國家風景區管理處 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  6. ^ "金門地區離島通航航道公告圖" (PDF). Coast Guard Administration (Taiwan) (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 August 2019. 目嶼 三擔島 二擔島 Erhtan Island 大膽島 Tatan Island 大南礁 兔嶼 猛虎嶼 Menghu Islet 復興嶼 Fuhsing Islet 煙嶼(三角礁) 檳榔嶼 三嶼(三擔) 牛心 黃嶼 門口礁 獅嶼 桂子礁 烏礁 後頭嶼 小金門島 HSIAOKINMEN ISLAND (烈嶼)(Lienyü) 金門嶼 Kinmen Islet 大墘 建功嶼 大岩嶼 Dayan Islet 黑岩 洋山嶼 西園嶼 西山嶼(後嶼)東割 草嶼 北碇頭 母嶼 Muyü 北碇島 Peiting Island
  7. ^ 金門縣行政區域圖 (in Chinese). Retrieved 9 August 2019. 北碇島 母嶼 白巖 草嶼 東割 烽遂角 后嶼 官澳礁 西園嶼 建功嶼 黑巖 大岩嶼 烏礁 桂子礁 獅嶼 牛心礁 小擔 檳榔嶼 烈嶼 復興嶼 猛虎嶼 兔嶼 石山 大膽島 二擔島 三擔島 四擔島 五擔 大坵島 小坵島
  8. ^ "金門地區限制(禁止)水域圖" (PDF) (in Chinese). Mainland Affairs Council. Retrieved 9 August 2019. 二.限制水域範圍:大金門地區低潮線向外延伸東方海面四千至六千公尺,南方海面八千至一萬公尺,北碇以東海面四千公 尺,大、二膽南海面二千公尺一線以內海域 三、禁止水域範圍:大金門地區低潮線向外延伸東方海面四千公尺,南方海面八千公尺,馬山北方一千五百公尺,北碇以東 海面四千公尺,大、二膽北、西、南海面二千公尺,小金門西海面、檳榔嶼、三腳礁、牛心礁、赤角礁一線以內海域
  9. ^ 辞海第六版. Cihai (Sixth Edition) (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 1124. ISBN 9787532628599. 金门 县名。在福建省东南海上、泉州市西南部。现由台湾省管辖。由以金门岛为主的大、小59个岛屿组成。面积149平方千米,人口约6.45万(2004年)。明置金门千户所,清设金门县丞,属同安县。1913年改隶思明县,1914年析置金门县。1928年直属福建省。农产有甘薯、花生等。矿产有玻璃砂、高岭土、铝土、煤。工业有机械、食品等。特产贡糖、高粱酒、金门马等。通公路。名胜古迹有成功洞、鲁王墓、水尾塔等。{...}金门岛 亦称“大金门岛”、“吾洲屿”。在福建省东南部、厦门港口外台湾海峡中。属金门县,现由台湾省管辖。岛形如哑铃,东西宽,南北狭,中多丘陵,沿海多港湾、口岸。东西长约20千米,面积131.7平方千米。其西有小金门岛。名胜古迹有牧马侯(陈渊)祠、鲁王墓、海印寺、古岗湖、中山纪念林等。
  10. ^ "Geographic environment". Kinmen National Park. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2019. The 12 islands and islets comprising Kinmen mainland, Lieyu (small Kinmen), Da Dan, Er Dan, Dong Ding, Beiding, Cao islet, Hou islet, Jiangong islet, Fuxing islet, Menghu islet, Shi islet occupy an area of 150 square meters in total.
  11. ^ Mu Yu (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  12. ^ Guan’ao Jiao (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  13. ^ Xiyuan Yu (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  14. ^ Gou Yu (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  15. ^ Hei Yan (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  16. ^ Dayan Yu (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  17. ^ "NG 50-15 HSIA-MEN". Washington, D. C.: Army Map Service. 1954 – via Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection. Ta-yen Hsü
  18. ^ Wu Jiao (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  19. ^ Yan Yu (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  20. ^ Xiaodan (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  21. ^ Menkou Jiao (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  22. ^ Sandan (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  23. ^ Sidan (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  24. ^ Wudan (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  25. ^ 擬定連江縣風景特定區計畫說明書 (PDF). June 2002. p. 16. 南竿鄉 南竿島 黃官嶼 鞋礁 北泉礁 劉泉礁 北竿鄉 鵝石 進嶼 蚌山 螺山 北竿島 浪岩 三連嶼 無名島 峭頭 小坵 大坵 龜島 中島 高登島 鐵尖島 白廟 老鼠 亮島
  26. ^ 連江縣土地段名代碼表 (in Chinese). Department of Land Administration. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2019. 地政事務所名稱(代碼) 連江(ZA) 鄉鎮市區名稱(代碼) 北竿鄉(02) 段 小段 代碼 備註{...}大坵 0020 無名島 0021 高登 0022 峭頭 0023 進嶼 0024 亮島 0035 調整 浪岩 0036 調整 三連嶼 0039 中島 0040 調整 白廟 0041 調整 老鼠 0042 調整
  27. ^ 連江縣土地段名代碼表 (in Chinese). Department of Land Administration. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2019. 地政事務所名稱(代碼) 連江(ZA) 鄉鎮市區名稱(代碼) 南竿鄉(01) 段 小段 代碼 備註{...}黃官嶼 0010 劉泉礁 0011 鞋礁 0012
  28. ^ Dongsha Dao (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  29. ^ http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/3115.html Taiwan's Spratly Initiative in the South China Sea
  30. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China (Taiwan) reiterates its position on the South China Sea". 2015-07-07.
  31. ^ "Situation of the Senkaku Islands". 2014-04-04.
  32. ^ "ROC government reaffirms sovereignty over Diaoyutai Islands". 2015-07-24.