List of islands of Tuvalu
Tuvalu consists of nine separate islands, six of which are atolls and three are reef islands. Since an atoll typically consists of several islets, there is a total of more than 124 islands and islets. Each island is surrounded by a coral reef. Tuvalu's small, scattered group of atolls have poor soil and a total land area of only about 26 square kilometres (10 square miles) making it the fourth smallest country in the world. Over 4 decades, there had been a net increase in land area of the islets of 73.5 ha (2.9%), although the changes are not uniform, with 74% increasing and 27% decreasing in size. The sea level at the Funafuti tide gauge has risen at 3.9 mm per year. The rising sea levels are identified as creating an increased transfer of wave energy across reef surfaces, which shifts sand, resulting in accretion to island shorelines.
- 1 Islands of Tuvalu
- 2 Royal Society of London investigation of the formation of coral reefs at Funafuti
- 3 Results of the Royal Society expeditions
- 4 Structure of Funafuti atoll
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Islands of Tuvalu
The name, Tuvalu, means "eight standing together" in Tuvaluan.
The reef islands have a different structure to the atolls, and are described as reef platforms as they are smaller tabular reef platforms that do not have a salt-water lagoon, although they have a completely closed rim of dry land, with the remnants of a lagoon that has no connection to the open sea or that may be drying up as the result of coral debris filling the lagoon. For example, Niutao has two lakes, which are brackish to saline; and are the degraded lagoon.
The smallest island, Niulakita, which is the 9th island in the Tuvaluan archipelago, was not continuously inhabited. From the late 19th century it had been in private ownership. It was bought by the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony administration in 1944. The administration gave people from Vaitupu permission to settle Niulakita. However, in 1949 a later administration decided to have Niulakita settled by the community from Niutao, which was considered to be overpopulated. The removal of the Vaitupuans was controversial. Niulakita is a separate local government district but it is administered as part of Niutao. Niulakita is represented in the Parliament of Tuvalu by the members of the constituency of Niutao.
|1) main island plus islets in landlocked lagoon|
At least 11 islands are inhabited, expanded over the biggest isles of the nine atolls, plus two islands in Funafuti. Tuvalu has ISO 3166-2 codes defined for 1 town council (Funafuti) and 7 island councils. Niulakita, which now has its own island council, is not listed is not listed as it is administered as part of Niutao.
Royal Society of London investigation of the formation of coral reefs at Funafuti
An expedition (Funafuti Coral Reef Boring Expedition of the Royal Society) under Professor William Sollas of Oxford University, conducted by the Royal Society of London carried out drilling on the coral reef at Funafuti in 1896, 1897 and 1898.
HMS Penguin, under the command of Captain Arthur Mostyn Field, delivered the 1896 expedition to Funafuti in the Ellice Islands, arriving on 21 May 1896, and returned to Sydney on 22 August 1896. From 1896 to 1899 the Penguin was under the command of Captain Arthur Mostyn Field and her surveying work included further voyages to Funafuti atoll to deliver the expeditions of the Royal Society in 1897 and 1898. The surveys carried out by the Penguin resulted in the preparation of the Admiralty Nautical Chart 2983 for the islands.
The Royal Society of London were investigating the formation of coral reefs and whether traces of shallow-water organisms could be found at depth in the coral of Pacific atolls. Three expeditions used drilling equipment to take core samples of the coral reef. A goal of the expeditions was to drill down to confirm that the coral material was located on a base of volcanic rock. This investigation followed the work on the structure and distribution of coral reefs conducted by Charles Darwin in the Pacific. However, the geologic history of atolls is more complex than Darwin (1842) and Davis (1928) envisioned.
First expedition (1896)
Second expedition (1897)
Third expedition (1898)
Results of the Royal Society expeditions
The purpose of the expedition was to attempt to settle the question as to the formation of coral atolls. The first expedition experienced defects in the boring machinery and the bore penetrated only slightly more than 100 feet (approx. 31 m). The second expedition reached a depth of 557 feet (170 m). The third expedition was successful in carrying the bore to 1,114 feet (340 m). The results provided support for Charles Darwin's theory of subsidence; in which there are four stages in development of coral reefs: a volcanic island forms, is surrounded by a fringing coral reef, as it subsides slowly a wide barrier reef forms, then after it has sunk below sea level the coral continues to grow forming a circular atoll. However, the geologic history of atolls is more complex than Darwin (1842) and Davis (1920 & 1928) envisioned.
Structure of Funafuti atoll
The average depth in the Funafuti lagoon (Te Namo) is about 20 fathoms (36.5 metres or 120 feet).
|“||“Funafuti is an almost circular and conical submarine mountain 12,000 feet high, originally volcanic, and of immense geological age, much older than the relatively young and active mountains of the New Hebrides and Solomons. At its base on the ocean bed it is 30 miles wide in one of the directions tested, and 28 miles wide on the other. It rises in a gentle slope which gradually steepens to a point 2,400 feet below water level, after which it rises at an angle of 80 degrees to 840 feet below water level. From this point it rises vertically, like an enormous pillar, till reaches the surface in the form of a reef enclosing a lagoon of irregular size, but of which the extremities give a measurement of 13.5 by 10.0 miles”.||”|
- ISO 3166-2:TV
- List of mammals of Tuvalu
- List of birds of Tuvalu
- List of butterflies of Tuvalu
- Funafuti Conservation Area
- Geography of Tuvalu
- "Maps of Tuvalu".
- Paul S. Kench, Murray R. Ford & Susan D. Owen (9 February 2018). "Patterns of island change and persistence offer alternate adaptation pathways for atoll nations". Nature Communications. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Maps of Tuvalu". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Paul S. Kench, Murray R. Ford & Susan D. Owen (9 February 2018). "Patterns of island change and persistence offer alternate adaptation pathways for atoll nations (Supplementary Note 1)". Nature Communications. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- Hedley, Charles (1896). "General account of the Atoll of Funafuti" (PDF). Australian Museum Memoir. 3 (2): 1–72. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1967.3.1896.487.
- "Foua Tofiga". tighar.org. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Admiral Sir Arthur Mostyn Field (1855–1950) from nmm.ac.uk
- Admiralty Nautical Chart 2983. United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO).
- Dickinson, William R. (2009). "Pacific Atoll Living: How Long Already and Until When?" (PDF). GSA Today. 19 (3): 4–10. doi:10.1130/GSATG35A.1.
- Dr. Alfred Edmund Finckh (11 September 1934). "TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. p. 6. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- David, Mrs Edgeworth, Funafuti or Three Months On A Coral Atoll: an unscientific account of a scientific expedition, London: John Murray, 1899
- Cantrell, Carol. "Finckh, Alfred Edmund (1866–1961)". Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- K. A. Rodgers and Carol Cantrell. "Alfred Edmund Finckh 1866-1961: Leader of the 1898 Coral Reef Boring Expedition to Funafuti" (PDF). Historical Records of Australian Science, Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 393–403. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- The Funafuti Coral-Boring Expedition, Address by Professor David (PDF). The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 December 1897.
- "TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. 11 September 1934. p. 6. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "CORAL FORMATION". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 10 December 1897. p. 5. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Coates, A. (1970). Western Pacific Islands. H.M.S.O. p. 349.
- (in English) Atoll areas (including lagoons)