List of journalists killed in Turkey
Following the killing of Armenian journalist Hrant Dink in Istanbul on 19 January 2007 various lists of journalists killed in Turkey since the early 20th century were published. One such list was published by the Turkish Association of Journalists (tr: Türkiye Gazteciler Cemiyeti). It contains 64 names of journalists killed between 1909 and 2009. A "Platform of imprisoned journalists" published a list in April 2012 that contained 112 names. Yet, it is difficult to obtain detailed information in particular on early cases, in order to determine whether the deaths had been assassinations directly linked to the profession of the victims.
It also appears that some people were not journalists by profession, but affiliated to certain publications as readers, vendors or even part-time publishers of political comments. These people will not be included in the lists, apart from people who were killed because they distributed certain publications.
In some cases, the state has been seen guilty for assassinating Kurdish journalists.
The early years
For the years up to the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 little is known about the journalists named in the lists. They may have been killed or become victims of enforced disappearance, several of them during the Armenian Genocide. Only few of the journalists that were killed in Turkey until 1923 have a separate page, where you can find additional information. The 40 journalists that allegedly died as a result of violent attacks are:
Name Publication Place Date Remarks Hasan Fehmi Serbesti İstanbul 6 April 1909 opposed the Committee of Union and Progress Ahmet Samim Sada-yı Millet İstanbul 9 June 1910 Zeki Bey Şehrah İstanbul 10 July 1911 Hüseyin Kami Alemdar Konya 1912 Silahçı Tahsin Silah İstanbul 27 July 1914 Kevork Ferid Tasvir’i Efkar April 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Hovhannes Kazancıyan Journalist-writer April 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Krikor Torosyan Dizağik April 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Sarkis Minassian Azadamard Ayaş 5 May 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Sarkis Süngücüyan İravunk 1 June 1915 fate not known Nerses Papazyan Azadamard Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Harutün Şahrigyan Azadamard Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Garabed Paşayan Khan writer Ayaş 1915 allegedly tortured then killed Levon Larents Tsayn Hayrenyats Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Smpad Piurad Pünig Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Hampartsum Hampartsumyan Azadamard Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Keğam Parseğyan Azadamard Ankara 1915 he was killed in Ayaş, close to Ankara Şavarş Krisyan Marmnamarz Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Adom Yarcanyan Azadamard Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Armen Doryan writer Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Sarkis Parseğyan Aşkhadank Ankara 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Yervant Srmakeşhanlıyan Journalist-writer Harput 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Hovhannes Hanıtyunyan Journalist-writer Harput 1915 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Gagik Ozanyan Merzifon Halguni Sivas 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Mardiros H. Kundakçıyan Ceride-i Şarkiye Kayseri 1915 executed Onnig Tertsagyan Azadamard Van 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Dikran Odyan Yergir 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Karekin Khajag writer Diyarbakır 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Rupen Zartaryan Azadamard Diyarbakır May 1915 murdered before arrival in Diyarbakır Karakin Gozikyan Manzume Trabzon 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Khaçadur Malumyan Azadamard Diyarbakır 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Krikor Zohrab Journalist-writer Urfa 15 July 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide in May 1915 Mihran Tabakyan writer Yozgat August 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Hagop Terzian Journalist-writer Yozgat 24 August 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Diran Kelegyan Sabah Çankırı 26 August 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Taniel Varujan writer-poet Çankırı 26 August 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Rupen Sevag Çilingiryan Çankırı 26 August 1915 murdered during the Armenian Genocide Hasan Tahsin Hukuk-u Beşer İzmir 15 May 1919 Hüseyin Hilmi İştirak İstanbul 15 November 1922 Ali Kemal Peyam-ı Sabah İzmit 1922
Killings until September 1980
Only few cases of journalists killed in Turkey between the foundation of the Republic and the military coup of 12 September 1980 were listed. Yet, some of these killings were high-profile assassinations that contributed to the atmosphere of political violence (often termed "civil war") that the Turkish army used as the main reason for its intervention. A bit more information is available on some of the 15 cases reported for this period:
Name Publication Place Date Remarks Hikmet Şevket 1930 Sabahattin Ali Marko Paşa Edirne 2 April 1948 listed under writers Aziz Korkmaz Hürriyet Silvan 19 October 1975 As chief of the Diyarbakır office of Hürriyet he had reported on a clash between a Kurdish tribe and soldiers of the gendarmerie. The following day he allegedly died in an accident, but his corpse was found 150 metres away from the car and all his equipment and material had gone. The Turkish deep state is believed to be behind his murder. Adem Yavuz Anka News Agency Cyprus 27 August 1974 see tr:Adem Yavuz Hüseyin Şen KAWA Istanbul 21 March 1978 He was the editor-in-chief of the journal and member of a Kurdish newspaper. He was allegedly tortured and killed in Selimiye (Istanbul) military prison. Gani Bozarslan Aydınlık 10 May 1978 Translated books from Kurdish to Turkish Ali İhsan Özgür Politika Istanbul 21 November 1978 Politika was first issued by DİSK and later by the TKP. Ali İhsan Özgür disappeared so that the family had difficulties in identifying him. Cengiz Polatkan Hafta Sonu Ankara 1 December 1978 Abdi İpekçi Milliyet İstanbul 1 February 1979 two members of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves, Oral Çelik and Mehmet Ali Ağca (who later shot pope John Paul II), murdered Abdi İpekçi in his car on the way back home from his office in front of his apartment building in Istanbul. Ağca was caught due to an informant and was sentenced to life in prison. After serving six months in a military prison in Istanbul, Ağca escaped with the help of military officer. İlhan Darendelioğlu Ortadoğu Istanbul 19 November 1979 member of the MHP, see tr:İlhan Egemen Darendelioğlu İsmail Gerçeksöz Ortadoğu Istanbul 4 April 1980 has also published books Hayrabet Honca Halkın Birliği Kayseri 1 May 1980 member of TKP/ML, killed by right-wingers Ümit Kaftancıoğlu TRT İstanbul 11 April 1980 right-wing Ahmet Mustafa Kıvılcım stated in his interrogation by the police that he killed Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, because he was a "leftist", but later rejected the statement. He remained four months in pre-trial detention and was released. The assailants were not found. Muzaffer Fevzioğlu Hizmet Trabzon 15 April 1980 Recai Ünal Demokrat Istanbul 22 July 1980 allegedly kidnapped and tortured
Killings in the 1980s and 1990s with laicist journalists as targets
- see also List of assassinated people from Turkey that was previously called Laicist Turks who are murdered
After the military coup of 1980 fewer journalists were killed in the fight between the radical left and the extreme right. After the end of the 1980s there have been several killings of journalists known for their anti-government attitude and secular (in Turkey also termed laicist). In some cases members of radical Islamic organizations have been prosecuted and condemned for these killings. In one case a militant of the PKK allegedly confessed to such a killing. Other killings in the 1980s and 1990s include:
Name Publication Place Date Remarks Mevlüt Işıt Türkiye Ankara 1 June 1988 Kamil Başaran Gazete İstanbul 28 February 1989 He was shot by the owner of a restaurant, who did not like his way of reporting. Seracettin Müftüoğlu Hürriyet Nusaybin 29 June 1989 Sami Başaran Gazete İstanbul 7 November 1989 He had an interview with the leader of a Kurdish tribe from Mardin in his office in Aksaray (Istanbul). He was shot there at the age of 25. Çetin Emeç Hürriyet İstanbul 7 March 1990 Two people entered his car and shot him and his driver Sinan Ercan. For this killing four members of the Islamic Movement Organization (tr: İslami Hareket Örgütü were sentenced to life imprisonment, but his brother does not believe that the true killers were caught. Turan Dursun 2000'e Doğru İstanbul 4 September 1990 For this killing a member of the Islamic Movement Organization (tr: İslami Hareket Örgütü was sentenced to life imprisonment, but the person believed to be his killer, is still on the run. Uğur Mumcu Cumhuriyet Ankara 24 January 1993 While different hypothesis exist on who was behind the killing the prosecutor's office in Ankara maintains that two assassins were sentenced and a case opened against the third suspect had been opened, all three of them being members of the Tawhid-Salaam Jerusalem Organization (tr: Tevhid-Selam Kudüs) that allegedly was behind the murder. Onat Kutlar Cumhuriyet İstanbul 11 January 1995 The brother of the archaeologist Yasemin Cebenoyan, who had died in the same bomb attack, complained that many people thought the murder had not been solved or that an Islamic organization was behind it. He had been convicted in 2005, but as a confessor he had been released after 9.5 years' imprisonment. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Cumhuriyet Ankara 21 October 1999 His death as well as the killings of Uğur Mumcu, Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, Prof. Dr. Muammer Aksoy and Assistant Professor Dr. Bahriye Üçok were the subject of a trial at Ankara Heavy Penal Court 11 known as the Umut (Hope) case. The court ruled that the defendants had formed an illegal organization by the name of "Kudüs Ordusu" (Jerusalem Army) and "Tevhid Selam" (Tawhid-Salaam) and had committed violent acts in Turkey. On 28 July 2005 one defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment, while seven others received sentences as leaders or members of an illegal organization. The Court of Cassation confirmed the sentence of the main suspect on 11 November 2006.
Journalists and vendors killed in the Kurdish-Turkish conflict
In the 1990s the Kurdish-Turkish conflict became harsher with a large number of casualties on both sides. At the same time more and more civilians fell victim to extrajudicial killings, murders by unknown assailants (tr: faili meçhul), a term used in Turkish to indicate that the perpetrators were not identified because of them being protected by the State and cases of disappearance. Soon after the pro-Kurdish press had started to publish the first daily newspaper by the name of "Özgür Gündem" (Free Agenda) killings of Kurdish journalists started. In many cases, the state was blamed for murders and in some cases the Turkish variety of the radical Islamic organization Hizbullah was made responsible for the killings, in others the PKK was accused, but the majority remained without a clear indication to the persons behind the fatal attacks. Hardly any of them has been clarified or resulted in sanctions for the assailants. Among the 33 journalists that were killed in the first half of the 1990s are also cases not related to the Kurdish conflict. In 2008, the European Court of Human Right condemned Turkey for executing and assassinating Kurdish journalists and writers. Musa Anter, a prominent Kurdish writer, was killed by the state in 1992.
Among Kurdish patriots (tr: yurtsever, often used as an acronym for sympathizers of the PKK by the state) the "tradition" that started with Özgür Gündem is often called "history of the free press". In this context the figure of 76 victims (called martyrs of the press; tr: basın şehitleri) is often mentioned. While the lists compiled under such headings contain 73 names it has to be said that they include names of journalists and distributors that were killed by the Turkish state, Turkish JITEM and under tragic circumstances(e.g. in a traffic accident). In 2008, the ECHR has condemned Turkey for assassinating Musa Anter who was working for Özgur Gundem.
Yet, the number of staff members of the "free press" and volunteers to distribute dailies and weeklies termed "Kurdish free press" that were killed "on duty", particularly during the early stages of reporting on the Kurdish question in Turkey remains high. The list of names of distributors of Özgür Gündem and its successors that were killed (while the perpetrators mostly remained unknown) includes 18 names. Among the 33 journalists that were killed between 1990 and 1995 most were working for the so-called Kurdish Free Press.
Name Publication Place Date Remarks Gündüz Etil Yeni Günaydın İstanbul 18 September 1991 Halit Güngen 2000'e Doğru Diyarbakır 18 February 1992 He was killed by unidentified murderers two days after reporting that eyewitnesses and sympathizers of Turkish Hezbollah had said that members of the organization were educated in the headquarters of Turkey's rapid deployment force (Çevik Kuvvet) in Diyarbakır. Cengiz Altun Yeni Ülke Batman 25 February 1992 aged 24, he was killed by six bullets fired into his back as he was on his way to work. İzzet Kezer Sabah Cizre 23 March 1992 a journalist for the mainstream daily, Sabah; shot and killed by security forces in Cizre during violence that followed the celebration of the Kurdish New Year. During a state-imposed curfew, Kezer and other journalists emerged from their hotel waving white flags. No shooting was going on at the time. Kezer, at the head of the group, reached an intersection and was shot dead by security forces who fired from an armored personnel carrier. No action has been taken against the security forces responsible for his death. Bülent Ülkü Körfeze Bakış Bursa 1 April 1992 aged 26, he was found wounded near Uludağ on 1 April and died shortly afterwards. The autopsy certified marks of handcuffs and ink on his fingers. Officials claimed that he was the victims of an internal dispute between left-wing organizations, but friends deny such a possibility. Mecit Akgün 2000e Doğru Nusaybin 2 June 1992 His body was found hanging from a telephone pole near the village of Colova in Nusaybin. It was claimed that a statement was found on his body saying that he was "punished because he was a traitor", this was allegedly signed by the PKK. Hafız Akdemir Özgür Gündem Diyarbakır 8 June 1992 Killed by a single bullet shot into the back of his head, fifty meters from his home in Diyarbakir. Ozgur Gundem began publication on 30 May 1992; reporters stated that they had received telephoned threats for several days, several addressed to Akdemir. He had written about the Islamic organization Hezbollah and Turkish counterguerrillas. Çetin Ababay Özgür Halk Batman 29 July 1992 he was shot in the head by three unidentified men while on his way home in Batman. Yahya Orhan Özgür Gündem Gercüş 31 July 1992 aged 30, he was shot and killed by unknown assailants. Ozgur Gundem reported that Mr. Orhan had been stopped on the street and threatened. Hüseyin Deniz Özgür Gündem Ceylanpınar 9 August 1992 aged 36, he was critically wounded by one bullet fired into his neck. Mr. Deniz was also the regional correspondent for the daily, Cumhuriyet. Musa Anter Özgür Gündem Diyarbakır 20 September 1992 aged 74, Mr. Anter had written for Ozgur Gundem and Yeni Ulke, as well as for the Kurdish newspaper, Welat. He was also the chairman of the board of the Mesopotamian Cultural Center in Istanbul. Mr. Anter was reportedly lured from his hotel on false pretenses and shot in the outskirts of Diyarbakir. A relative accompanying him was shot and wounded at the same time. Mehmet Sait Erten Azadi-Denk Diyarbakır 3 November 1992 Yaşar Aktay free-lanced Hani 9 November 1992 During the violent incidents in Hani district, he was reportedly killed during clashes between the PKK militants and government forces. Hatip Kapçak Serbest/Hürriyet Mazıdağı 18 November 1992 the Mardin reporter for a local newspaper, Soz, and for the weekly journal, Gercek (Fact), was killed in an armed attack in the Mazidagi district of Mardin on 18 November. Mr. Kapcak had been researching and reporting on the activities of the Turkish Hezbollah organization, which allegedly has ties to security forces. Mr. Kapcak had served six years in prison on political charges following the 1980 military coup. After his release, he wrote for the mainstream daily, Gunes, and then for the daily, Hurriyet. Namık Tarancı Gerçek Diyarbakır 20 November 1992 aged 37, he was shot and killed on his way to work. He reportedly received three bullets in his head after an attack by two assailants and died on the spot. Kemal Kılıç Yeni Ülke Şanlıurfa 18 February 1993 aged 29, he was shot dead with two bullets in the head by four assailants. Mr. Kilic had been writing for the newspaper Yeni Ulke since the suspension of publication of Ozgur Gundem in January. Mr. Kilic was also a member of the board of the Urfa Branch of the Turkish Human Rights Association. Mehmet Senol, the Diyarbakir representative for Ozgur Gundem, reported that Mr. Kilic had applied for a gun license, but that his application had been rejected. He was shot and killed by unknown assailants in Kulunce Village, near the city of Urfa. Police had questioned him about a news release he had published on the difficulties distributors had faced in selling the newspaper in Sanli Urfa Province. Mehmet İhsan Karakuş Silvan Gazetesi Silvan 13 March 1993 aged 53, owner of the local newspaper Silvan. He was shot by unknown assailants that could not be identified until the end of 1993. Ercan Güre Hürriyet News Agency Bergama 20 May 1993 or Ercan Gürel, soon after the incident Veysel Özakıncı was detained as his killer and stated that he killed him because of a dispute of the ownership of land. Ömer Taşar Milli Gazete Saraybosna 26 June 1993 killing outside Turkey by fire opened from Serbian positions. İhsan Uygur Sabah İstanbul 6 July 1993 Rıza Güneşer Halkın Gücü İstanbul 14 July 1993 he was the owner of the left-wing journal "Halkın Gücü". The murder is believed to have been committed by the "Bedri Yağan group", a split of the Devrimci Sol Ferhat Tepe Özgür Gündem Bitlis 28 July 1993 disappeared when he was reportedly forced to get into a car. Although several teams of police were seen patrolling the streets at the time, they denied any knowledge of the incident. On 8 August a body found in Lake Hazar, near the city of Elazig, was identified as being Tepe's. On 9 May 2003 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the material in the case file does not enable it to conclude beyond all reasonable doubt that the applicant’s son was abducted and killed by any State agent or person acting on behalf of the State authorities. Muzaffer Akkuş Milliyet Bingöl 20 September 1993 Aged 34, was killed by unknown assailants. Ruhi Can Tul TDN Kırıkkale 14 January 1994 aged 29, Ruhican Tul died when a bomb exploded in a bus going from Ankara to Samsun. Three people were killed. The PKK allegedly claimed responsibility for the attack. Nazım Babaoğlu Gündem Siverek 12 March 1994 he is presumed dead after disappearing in Siverek, a small town near Urfa. He had traveled there to follow up on a news tip from a colleague, who later denied phoning him. Kamil Koşapınar Zaman Erzurum 19 March 1994 according to the newspaper he worked for, Kâmil Koşapınar was killed by a stray bullet at a photo shop. İsmail Ağay Özgür Ülke Batman 29 May 1994 surname might be Ağaya; according to the Bar Association in Batman such a person is "missing" since December 1994. Erol Akgün Devrimci Çözüm Gebze 8 September 1994 editor-in-chief of the left-wing weekly Devrimci Cozum, was killed by unidentified assailants as he left his home in Gebze, near Istanbul. His colleagues at the paper believe a rival left-wing faction killed him because he was the weekly's editor. Bahri Işık Çağdaş Marmara İstanbul 17 September 1994 Ersin Yıldız Özgür Ülke İstanbul 3 December 1994 aged 30, he died when the offices of his paper in Istanbul were destroyed by a bomb, planted by unidentified persons, 19 staff members were wounded. Bekir Kutmangil Yeni Günaydın İstanbul 23 May 1995 he was the owner of the local newspaper, but reportedly he was involved in affairs of organized crime. A rival was made responsible for the killing. Nail Aydın Son Haber Giresun 28 July 1995 Seyfettin Tepe Yeni Politika Bitlis 28 August 1995 also spelled Safyettin Tepe, he was taken into custody on 22 August. Four days later he was moved to the Bitlis Security Directorate. He died in custody on 29 August. His family was told that he committed suicide but rejects that official explanation.
At the same time several people distributing pro-Kurdish newspaper in the region under a state of emergency, were killed, too. The list of names of distributors of Özgür Gündem and its successors that were killed (while the perpetrators mostly remained unknown) includes 18 names:
Name Date Place Remarks Halil Adanır 21 November 1992 Diyarbakır taxi driver, aged 32, married with 5 children, he was burned to death in his car while delivering pro-Kurdish newspaper Özgur Gundem. The government is blamed for his death. Kemal Ekinci 16 December 1992 Diyarbakır Hh was killed as he left his house in the Saraykapi district. In early December, he had acted as a spokesperson for newspaper vendors who were protesting the prevention of newspaper sales in Diyarbakir. Lokman Gündüz 31 December 1992 Nusaybin Aged 20, he had started distributing the pro-Kurdish newspaper that day. Orhan Karaağar 10 January 1993 Van After being threatened by the government forces a numerous of times for delivering pro-Kurdish newspaper, he was knifed to death. Teğmen Demir 5 June 1993 Batman He worked for pro-Kurdish newspaper Özgur Gundem and was found dead on 5 June 1993. Haşim Yaşa 14 June 1993 Diyarbakır Aged 34, father of seven children was detained and beaten at the local police station. He and his uncle were killed by the Turkish state. Yusuf Karaüzüm 26 August 1993 Silvan aged 27, attack of three people, second victim was Vahit Demir (30) Zülküf Akkaya 28 September 1993 Diyarbakır aged 34, killed by three people. In protest the shops selling papers closed for several days. Adil Başkan 9 November 1993 Nusaybin aged 28, he had been threatened before. Yalçın Yaşa 10 November 1993 Diyarbakır aged 13 Kadir İpeksürer 19 November 1993 Urfa He was attacked by militants of Turkish Hezbollah with cleavers and died in hospital. Adnan Işık 27 November 1993 Van aged 29, married with four children, witnesses claimed that the assailants entered Van Police HQ with their cars. Mehmet Sencer 4 December 1993 Diyarbakır aged 41, of Arabic off-spring. Musa Dürü 3 December 1993 Batman the killings of Musa Dürü and Yahya Çilligöz happened within just 15 minutes. Yahya Çilligöz 3 December 1993 Batman the killings of Musa Dürü and Yahya Çilligöz happened within just 15 minutes. Zuhat Tepe 14 December 1993 Iskenderun aged 27, he was found 50 metres away from his home with his throat being cut. Hıdır Çelik 23 August 1994 Diyarbakır aged 40, no result of the investigations until the end of 1994. Metin Alataş 3 April 2010 Adana aged 34, distributing the Kurdish daily newspaper Azadiya Welat, was found hanging from a tree. He was also attacked in December whilst distributing the paper in the region. Colleagues believe he was killed by "illegal forces" or forced to commit suicide.
Killings of journalists since 1995
The killings of journalists in Turkey since 1995 are more or less individual cases. Most prominent among the victims is Hrant Dink, killed in 2007, but the death of Metin Göktepe also raised great concern, since police officers beat him to death. Since 2014, several Syrian journalists who were working from Turkey and reporting on the rise of Daesh have been assassinated.
The death of Metin Alataş in 2010 is also a source of disagreement - while the autopsy claimed it was suicide, his family and colleagues demanded an investigation. He had formerly received death threats and had been violently assaulted.
|Metin Göktepe||Evrensel||İstanbul||8 January 1996||he was beaten to death by police. His death prompted a public outcry among journalists. After several trials, retrials, and appeals, in January 2000, an appeals court upheld seven-and-a-half-year prison sentences for five police officers involved in the killing.|
|Kutlu Adalı||Yeni Düzen||Cyprus||8 July 1996||aged 61, an organization called Turkish Revenge Brigade (TIT) claimed responsibility for the attack.|
|Yemliha Kaya||Halkın Gücü||İstanbul||27 July 1996||aged 28, she was the owner and editor-in-chief of the journal Halkın Gücü (Power of the People). She died as the result of a hunger strike against the prison conditions. She was in prison since 1995, charged with membership of the DHKP-C.|
|Selahattin Turgay Daloğlu||İstanbul||9 September 1996||known as a writer of books about Fatsa (self-administration in Fatsa, see de:Selbstverwaltung in Fatsa). He was killed at his home.|
|Reşat Aydın||AA, TRT||20 June 1997|
|Abdullah Doğan||Candan Fm||Konya||13 July 1997|
|Ünal Mesuloğlu||TRT||Manisa||8 November 1997|
|Mehmet Topaloğlu||Kurtuluş||Adana||28 January 1998||police officers killed Mehmet Topaloğlu, Adana representative of the newspaper Kurtuluş, and Selahattin Akıncı, a vendor for the same, and Bülent Dil, in a house raid in the night of 28 January.|
|Önder Babat||Devrimci Hareket||İstanbul||3 March 2004||aged 25, he was shot in his head with a 9 mm bullet after he had left the office of his paper in Beyoğlu (Istanbul) together with three friends. It has not been found out who the attackers were, where they came from and why they shot Babat. The ECtHR considered that the material in the case file did not enable it to conclude beyond all reasonable doubt that Önder Babat was killed by any State agent or person acting on behalf of the State authorities. Therefore, there had been no violation of Article 2 on that account.|
|Yaşar Parlak||Silvan Mücadele||Silvan||18 August 2004||born 1956, started as an amateur journalist with Günaydın in 1973. After 1976 he worked for the news agency Akdeniz. His first book "History of Silvan" was released 1980. His research on unsolved killings in Silvan "Şehitler Şehri Silvan" (Town of Martyrs: Silvan) was released in 2004, but the governor banned its distribution. In April 2004 Yaşar Parlak was detained on allegations that he had kidnapped a girl (a young woman looking after his mother). He was released after one month. Two months later he was shot in his neck with one bullet, a method known from Hizbullah. Six years later the assailants have not been identified.|
|Hrant Dink||Agos||İstanbul||19 January 2007||aged 52, managing editor of the bilingual Turkish-Armenian weekly Agos, was shot outside his newspaper's offices in Istanbul. A day later, police arrested the alleged triggerman, 17-year-old Ogün Samast, who reportedly confessed to the crime. The Turkish authorities have failed to address state officials' alleged involvement in the killing of journalist and human rights activist Hrant Dink, Amnesty International said in January 2012. Calls by the Dink family to investigate the collusion and negligence of state officials in the murder, backed by a European Court of Human Rights judgment in 2010, have not been heeded.|
|İsmail Cihan Hayırsevener||Güney Marmara Yaşam||Bandırma||19 December 2009||aged 51, in connection with the killing 12 people are on trial in Istanbul. The founder of the newspaper İlk Haber (First News), İhsan Kuruoğlu is accused of having instructed Serkan Erakkuş to kill Mr Hayırsevener. The hearing of 28 August 2012 was adjourned to 22 November 2012. On 1 August 2013 Istanbul Heavy Penal Court 10 sentenced İhsan Kuruoğlu to 27 years' imprisonment.|
|Serena Shim||Press TV||Suruc,Turkey||19 October 2014||aged 29, killed in a very suspicious car crash, days after being threatened by Turkish Intelligence.|
|Ibrahim Abdulkader||Ayn Watan||Şanlıurfa, Turkey||27 December 2015||Victim was a Syrian refugee. Daesh has claimed responsibility.|
|Firas Hammadi||Ayn Watan||Şanlıurfa, Turkey||27 December 2015||Victim was a Syrian refugee. Daesh has claimed responsibility.|
|Naji al Jurf||Hentah||Gaziantep, Turkey||27 December 2015||Victim was a Syrian refugee. Nobody has claimed responsibility for the assassination, which happened as al Jurf's family were seeking asylum in France.|
|Rohat Aktaş||Azadiya Welat||Cizre, Turkey||24 February 2016||Caught in the crossfire between the Turkey military and the PKK in Cizre, Turkey.|
- Human Rights in Turkey
- Censorship in Turkey
- List of assassinated people from Turkey
- List of arrested journalists in Turkey
- See Öldürülen Gazeteciler; accessed on 31 October 2012. A similar list exist on the pages of the Association of Contemporary Journalists in Turkey (tr: Çağdaş Gazeteciler Derneği) Öldürülen gazeteciler; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article in gazeteciler.com of 4 April 2012 103 yılda 112 gazeteci ve yazar öldürüldü; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article in marxist.org of 5 April 2011 6 Nisan 1909: Serbesti Gazetesi yazarı Hasan Fehmi Bey öldürüldü; accessed on 31 October 2012
- "103 yılda 112 gazeteci ve yazar öldürüldü" (in Turkish). Gazeteciler. 4 April 2012.
- "AKTÜEL - Herhafta". www.yeniaktuel.com.tr. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- The daily Hürriyet reported on 1 May 1998 in the Story of 50 years of publishing on various victims in their ranks; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article written by his friends at Newroz Şehidi Hüseyin Şen Yoldaş!! Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.; here the date of death is given as 21 March 1979; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article in Sesonline of 25 November 2005 Ali İhsan Özgür anılıyor; accessed on 31 October 2012
- Ganser, Daniele, NATO's secret armies: operation Gladio and terrorism in Western Europe, (Routledge, 2005), 238.
- Some of biography can be found in Turkish at biyografi.net; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See the Turkish Wikipedia tr:TKP/ML Hareketi
- See an article in Bianet of 11 April 2010 Kaftancıoğlu'nun Katili 30 Yıl Sonra Hala Cezasız; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Details can be found in Turkish in the newspaper Birgün of 21 October 2005 ‘Söz gerillası yapıyoruz sıkıysa durdurun!’; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article in Istanbul Gerçeği of 4 September 2012 Turan Dursun'un katili nerede?; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See an article in Bianet of Wall around Murder of Journalist Mumcu Holds; accessed on 31 October 2012
- The article by Cüneyt Cebenoyan was published in Birgün of 26 January 2010 under the title of Onat Kutlar cinayeti ve PKK; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See the news item in German on the pages of the Democratic Turkey Forum Wochenbericht 30/2005; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See the news item in German on the pages of the Democratic Turkey Forum Wochenbericht 46/2006; accessed on 31 October 2012
- https://web.archive.org/web/20120606143652/http://www.todayszaman.com/newsDetail_getNewsById.action?load=detay&link=151355. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2016. Missing or empty
- See a film produced on the 20th anniversary of Özgür Gündem reproduced on the Wiki "B-Ob8ungen" under Freie Presse oder Partei im Kurdenkonflikt? (text in Turkish and German); accessed on 30 October 2012
- See an article in Özgür Gündem of 4 April 2011 Mirasınızı devralıyoruz (We take over your heritage); accessed on 30 October 2012
- Human Rights Watch, 16 February 2000, What is Turkey's Hizbullah?
- The report of Human Rights Watch: The Kurds of Turkey: Killings, Disappearances and Torture of March 1993 can be found as google-books or as a PDF file; accessed on 31 October 2012
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1992 (Turkish), Ankara January 1993, pages 143-148
- See an article of 22 September 2011 and a comment in "sosyalist barikat" of September 1992 Basına Saldırılar Sistemleşiyor; accessed on 1 November 2012
- "Hafiz Akdemir - Journalists Killed - Committee to Protect Journalists".
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1993/kemal-kilic.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1993 (Turkish), Ankara June 1995, pages 230-238
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1993/ferhat-tepe.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- The full text of the judgment can be found on the pages of the ECtHR; accessed on 1 November 2012
- "103 yılda 112 gazeteci ve yazar öldürüldü". www.gazeteciler.com. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- Turkish Daily News (TDN) later became Hürriyet Daily News.
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1992 (English), Ankara September 1995, ISBN 975 7217 04 2, pages 247-249
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1994/nazim-babaoglu.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See the article in the daily Zaman of 20 March 2002 Kâmil Koşapınar mezarı başında anıldı; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See an article in a local newspaper from Batman, dated 8 February 2012 KMM VE KAYIPLAR; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1994/erol-akgun.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See an article in Zaman of 2 June 1995 Kutmangil cinayeti aydınlandı; accessed on 1 November 2012 and a comment of Tuncay Özkan in Radikal of 30 June 2000 Cici oldu, sorularsa ortada; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1995/sayfettin-tepe.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Information was taken from a page called Onlarin Sayesinde -4 (Because of them -4), a page at Newededersim called Kürt basını 114 yaşında Archived 30 January 2013 at Archive.is (Kurdish press aged 114) and annual reports of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey.
- "ÖLDÜRÜLEN GAZETECİLER VE CEZASIZLIK: Orhan Karaağar Cinayeti". Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "90'LARIN HAK MÜCADELELERİ/ NADİRE MATER: Başka Bir Medya Mümkün Dediler..." Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "JUDGMENT IN THE CASE OF YASA v. TURKEY BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS | KHRP | Kurdish Human Rights Project". www.khrp.org. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur44/052/1993/en/. Retrieved 7 September 2016. Missing or empty
- The International Press Institute of April 2010 DW: Metin Alataş: Turkey Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 1 November 2012
- "Metin Alataş - Journalists Killed - Committee to Protect Journalists".
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/1996/metin-goktepe.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1996 (Turkish), Ankara September 1998, ISBN 975 7217 19 0, page 410
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1996 (Turkish), Ankara September 1998, ISBN 975 7217 19 0, page 371
- See an entry in the Forum Turka; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See the annual report of the Human Rights Foundation for 1998 (Turkish), Ankara 2000 ISBN 975 7217 25 5, page 148/149
- See an Article in Bianet of 13 January 2010 Turkey Sentenced by ECHR for Önder Babat Murder Case; accessed on 1 November 2012
- The judgment of 12 January 2010 is available on the website of the ECtHR; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Summarized from an article of Prof. Dr. Ümit Yazıcıoğlu Yaşar Parlak olayındaki faili meçhul parmak; accessed on 1 November 2012
- Entry on the case by Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) at http://cpj.org/killed/2007/hrant-dink.php; accessed on 1 November 2012
- The press statement of 16 January 2012 Turkey fails to deliver justice for murdered Armenian journalist as trial ends; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See an article in ajans10.com of 28 August 2012 Gazeteci cinayetinde sona gelindi Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 1 November 2012
- See the article in Bianet of 26 January 2015 BİA Medya Gözlem Raporu - Tam Metin; accessed on 26 January 2015
- http://www.dailysabah.com/nation/2015/10/30/two-pro-fsa-syrian-journalists-killed-in-turkeys-sanliurfa-province; accessed on 7 January 2016
- https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35188564; accessed on 7 January 2016
- "Cizre'de cenazesi tamamen yananlardan biri gazeteci Rohat Aktaş çıktı - Diken". 24 February 2016.
- "Rohat Aktaş - Journalists Killed". Committee to Protect Journalists.