List of journeys of Pope Benedict XVI

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Pope benedict visited 24 countries less than his Preddessesor John Paul II
Map of places/countries Benedict XVI has visited

With an average of three foreign journeys per year from 2006 to 2009, Pope Benedict XVI was as active in visiting other countries as his predecessor, John Paul II, was at the same age from 1999 to 2002. Pope Benedict was more active since then, however, making five foreign journeys each in both 2010 and 2011, significantly more than the six total trips made by Pope John Paul II at the same age in 2003 and 2004. As of the 2012 apostolic journey to Mexico and Cuba, Pope Benedict XVI is older than Pope John Paul II was at the time of his death and is now the oldest Pope to travel outside Europe,[1] as well as being the oldest Pope to travel to Africa, Asia (including the Middle East), Australia, or the Americas.[2][3]

Most of these trips involved the Pope giving speeches on issues that play an important role in the region that he visited, especially on education, contraceptives, abortion, and what it means to be Catholic.

Pope Benedict XVI leaving "Shepherd One" a specially dedicated plane belonging to Alitalia, the flag carrier of Italy.


Germany Germany I (August 18 to August 21, 2005)[edit]

The Pope arrived in Germany on August 18 to participate in the 20th World Youth Day in Cologne. There he met with President Horst Köhler, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Leader of the Opposition Angela Merkel and others, and visited the famous Cologne Cathedral. The Pope visited the synagogue of the Jewish community in Cologne, which is the oldest Jewish community in the world north of the Alps. Benedict and his immediate predecessor John Paul II are the only two popes since St. Peter known to have visited a synagogue. He also spoke with representatives of the Muslim and Protestant communities of Cologne. On August 21, he led a Mass at Marienfeld.

Benedict XVI on his arrival in Poland


Poland Poland (May 25 to May 28, 2006)[edit]

The Pope began his visit just after 11 a.m. on May 25, landing at the Okęcie Military Airport in Warsaw. Throughout his visit, he often spoke a few sentences of Polish, which he had learned phonetically. After a welcoming ceremony, Benedict rode in his popemobile to St. John's Cathedral, where he met and addressed a thousand clergymen. He also paid an official visit to the Presidential Palace and later that day attended a meeting of leaders of various religions. The Pope celebrated an open-air Mass on Piłsudski Square in Warsaw on May 26, visited the Jasna Góra Monastery in Częstochowa and arrived in Kraków. On May 27 the pontiff went to Wadowice, the birthplace of his predecessor, the sanctuary in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, the Shrine of Divine Mercy in Łagiewniki and the Wawel Cathedral and addressed young people gathered at Błonia park in Kraków. On the last day of his visit on Sunday May 27, Benedict XVI celebrated Mass at Błonia for about 900,000 pilgrims, and later that day prayed at the former Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Spain Spain I (July 8 to July 9, 2006)[edit]

Pope Benedict visited Spain at the request of King Juan Carlos and the country's Catholic bishops, in particular Valencia, for the Fifth World Meeting of Families. The closing mass was held at the City of Arts and Sciences in the city. The Archbishop of Valencia, Agustín García-Gasco Vicente also presided in the service and made a major address to the Pope and the gathering crowds.[4]

Germany Germany II (September 9 to September 14, 2006)[edit]

The Pope visited Munich, Altötting, Marktl am Inn, Regensburg and Freising, all in his home state Bavaria. After his arrival Benedict XVI was welcomed at Munich Airport by Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Horst Köhler. In the Popemobile he was driven through the city of Munich where he was the Archbishop from 1977 to 1982. He said a prayer on Marienplatz, the same ritual which he did before he was called to Rome by Pope John Paul II. More than half a million people joined the outdoor masses which were held in Munich and Regensburg. The Pope visited Marktl am Inn where he was born and baptized. He also spent one day with his elder brother, Monsignor Georg Ratzinger. They visited their parents' grave and spent the rest of the day at Benedict's former residence, a house still owned by the pope, in a suburb of Regensburg. Before the return he visited the old bishop's town of Freising where he celebrated a mass with the complete clergy of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in the Freising Cathedral.

Turkey Turkey (November 28 to December 1, 2006)[edit]

Invited by Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to Istanbul, the Pope visited Turkey. His visit to an overwhelmingly Muslim nation two months after his visit to Bavaria, Germany was initially overshadowed by the controversy about a lecture he had given at Regensburg. His visit was met by nationalist and Islamic protesters[5] and was placed under unprecedented security measures.[6]

Arriving on November 28 at Ankara's Esenboğa International Airport, the Pope was welcomed by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who was leaving for a NATO summit meeting. Later, Benedict visited the Atatürk mausoleum, met with President Ahmet Necdet Sezer, held talks with Ali Bardakoğlu, President of the Religious Affairs, and received ambassadors at the Vatican Embassy in Ankara.

On November 29, 2006, the Pope visited the House of the Virgin Mary at Selçuk, where he conducted an open-air Mass.[7] At Istanbul, he prayed with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I at the Patriarchal Church of Saint George, before holding private talks. Benedict has stated that a key goal of his papacy will be healing the long-lasting schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.[8]

The pope during a meeting with the youth at Pacaembu Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil.

On November 30, 2006, Benedict's attendance at the Saint Andrew's Day's Divine Liturgy, the primary purpose of his long-planned journey, symbolized his seeking of reconciliation between the Western and Eastern rites of Christianity.[9] Giving a message for the unity of the two Churches, both leaders signed a joint declaration.

Next, the Pope visited Hagia Sophia, originally the greatest church of Orthodox Christianity subsequently converted into a mosque and a museum. He then visited the Blue Mosque.[10][11]

The Pope then held talks with Patriarch Mesrob II Mutafyan of Constantinople and Patriarchal Vicar Mor Filiksinos Yusuf Çetin, heads of Turkey's Armenian and the Assyrian communities respectively.[12] Benedict also met with Ishak Haleva, Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) of Turkey's Sephardic Jews.

On December 1, the Pontiff wrapped up his trip by visiting the Roman Catholic Holy Spirit Cathedral. After releasing white doves symbolizing peace and revealing a statue of Pope Benedict XV, he celebrated Mass in the cathedral.[13] In his farewell speech at Istanbul Atatürk Airport, the Pope said "a part of my heart remains in Istanbul".[14]


Brazil Brazil (May 9 to May 13, 2007)[edit]

In Brazil, the Pope visited the sanctuary of Aparecida and the city of São Paulo. He used his travel to Brazil to criticize Mexican lawmakers who legalized abortion.[15] However, the Pope made sure that, although he agreed with Bishops who claimed that politicians in Mexico "excommunicated themselves", there would be no formal excommunication of those individuals.[15]

In Aparecida he addressed the Latin American Bishops' Conference.[16] During his speech, the Pope condemned abortion and the use of contraceptives.[16] He also condemned the negatives of capitalism and also Marxism for its destructive effects on economies, government, and religion.[16] He also said that it is important to prevent Catholics from turning to Protestant religions, and to instead reinvigorate their connection to the Catholic Church.[16]

Pope Benedict XVI canonised Friar Antônio Galvão, a Franciscan who lived in the 18th century, at a festive mass before hundreds of thousands of people in São Paulo.

Austria Austria (September 7 to September 9, 2007)[edit]

On September 7, 2007, Pope Benedict arrived at Vienna International Airport at 11:15 a.m., where he was greeted by Austria's President Heinz Fischer and Cardinal Archbishop Christoph Schönborn.[17] The visit was labelled as a pilgrimage to Austria's national shrine at Mariazell Basilica. During his three-day visit, he also visited Heiligenkreuz Abbey[18] and joined Vienna's chief rabbi in a memorial to the 65,000 Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps.[19] As a pilgrim, this was his seventh foreign trip in two years.


United States United States (April 15 to April 20, 2008)[edit]

Children with signs wait for Pope Benedict XVI outside of the United States Department of the Treasury Wednesday, April 16, 2008, after the arrival ceremony at the White House.

The Pope visited the United States from April 15 to April 20, 2008. His journey included meetings with then President George W. Bush, who gave him a small birthday celebration on the White House south lawn, an address to the United Nations General Assembly, Masses at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. and Yankee Stadium in New York City, and a visit to Ground Zero in New York, among other activities.

Australia Australia (July 13 to July 21, 2008)[edit]

The Pope met with the young people of the world at World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. He celebrated an open-air Closing Mass with the participants at Randwick Racecourse on July 20.[20] To adjust for the time difference, Benedict XVI rested for three days in an undisclosed location in Australia before beginning official engagements.[21]

Historic apology

In Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedral, Pope Benedict XVI made a historic full apology for child sex abuse by court sentenced 107 predatory Catholic priests, inter alia, and clergymen in Australia, on July 19, 2008. Before a 3,400 audience, he called for compensation and demanded punishment for those guilty of the "evil": "Here I would like to pause to acknowledge the shame which we have all felt as a result of the sexual abuse of minors by some clergy and religious in this country. I am deeply sorry for the pain and suffering the victims have endured and I assure them that, as their pastor, I too share in their suffering." The Pope added: "Victims should receive compassion and care, and those responsible for these evils must be brought to justice. These misdeeds, which constitute so grave a betrayal of trust, deserve unequivocal condemnation. I ask all of you to support and assist your bishops, and to work together with them in combating this evil. It is an urgent priority to promote a safer and more wholesome environment, especially for young people."[22][23]

France France (September 12 to September 15, 2008)[edit]

Pope Benedict visited Paris, meeting with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, before travelling to Lourdes in Southwest France to mark the 150th anniversary of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary there.[24] At an outdoor Paris Mass attended by 250,000 people, he condemned modern materialism - the world's love of power, possessions and money as a modern-day plague, comparing it to "paganism": "Has not our modern world created its own idols? Has it not imitated, perhaps inadvertently, the pagans of antiquity, by diverting man from his true end, from the joy of living eternally with God? This is a question that all people, if they are honest with themselves, cannot help but ask."[25][26]


Cameroon Cameroon and Angola Angola (March 17 to March 23, 2009)[edit]

Pope Benedict announced at the closing of a synod of bishops in October 2008 that he would travel to Africa in the spring of 2009. The pope opened a meeting of the African Bishops' Conference in Cameroon.[27][28] The pope drew criticism for suggesting that condoms were not the answer to Africa's AIDS crisis, but rather, sexual behavior. He then travelled to Angola to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Catholic presence there. During a March 21 mass, the pope urged Catholics to reach out and convert believers in sorcery.[29] During a youth event that day, two women were crushed to death in a stampede.[30]

Jordan Jordan, Israel Israel, and the State of Palestine Palestinian Territories (May 8 to May 15, 2009)[edit]

The pope arrived in Amman, Jordan on 8 May, embarking on his tour of Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian Territories.[31] During his visit, the pope condemned Holocaust denials, and called for cooperation between the Palestinians and Israelis. After the pope spoke in Jerusalem, Taysir Tamimi, chief of Muslim Sharia courts in the West Bank and Gaza, commandeered the microphone and began to criticize Israel in Arabic.[32] While in the Palestinian Territories, the pope offered a monumental bas-relief of the Tree of Jesse sculpted by Czesław Dźwigaj for the Church of the Nativity as a gift to the people of Bethlehem.[33]

Czech Republic Czech Republic (September 26 to September 28, 2009)[edit]

Pope Benedict XVI accepted an invitation of Czech bishops and the president of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus to visit the country late September 2009 in relation to St Wenceslas Day. He visited Prague, Brno and Stará Boleslav.[34][35][36]


Malta Malta (April 17 to April 18, 2010)[edit]

Archishop's Curia in Malta announced on September 12, 2009 that there was a possibility that Pope Benedict XVI would visit Malta the following year in connection with the 1950th anniversary of the Shipwreck of St Paul on the Maltese islands.

On 10 February 2010, Archbishop of Malta Paul Cremona confirmed the Pope's visit was scheduled for 17 and 18 April 2010. The main events during the Pope's visit were the Pope's meeting with The President of Malta and other dignitaries at the President's Palace, Valletta. The Pope was greeted by the children gathered in front of the Palace. The Pope visited also St. Paul's grotto in Rabat, Malta. On Sunday the Pope concelebrated Mass on the Floriana Granaries, Floriana, Malta. An unplanned meeting with victims of sex abuse in Malta was scheduled at the Papal Nuncio in Rabat. During the meeting, Pope Benedict XVI was reportedly reduced to tears.

In the afternoon, the Pope crossed the Grand Harbour from Kalkara to the Valletta Waterfront, where he had a one-hour meeting with the young generation. During this two-day visit the Pope travelled through various localities around the island.

Portugal Portugal (May 11 to May 14, 2010)[edit]

The news was announced on the Web site of the Presidency. The statement from the press service of Aníbal Cavaco Silva said that Pope Benedict XVI will visit Portugal next year, "in response to the invitation addressed by the President." According to the page of the Presidency, "Beyond the official program, His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI will also go to the Marian Sanctuary of Fatima, where he will preside over the religious ceremonies of May 13."[37] The number of pilgrims attending the Pope's Mass in Fátima was estimated at 500,000.[38]

Cyprus Cyprus (June 4 to June 6, 2010)[edit]

Pope Benedict XVI was welcomed by President Dimitris Christofias and the Cypriot Orthodox Archbishop Chrysostomos II at Paphos International Airport. Pope Benedict XVI presented bishops of the Middle East with the Instrumentum laborious, or working document, of the Synod on the Middle East,[39] which was opened the following October in the Vatican.[40]

United Kingdom United Kingdom (September 16 to September 19, 2010)[edit]

An invitation to visit United Kingdom was extended by The Queen on the advice of Prime Minister Gordon Brown in February 2009. This official invitation makes this the first state visit by a Pope to the United Kingdom.

Spain Spain II (November 6 to November 7, 2010)[edit]

Pope Benedict XVI visited two cities in Spain in November: Santiago de Compostela on November 6 for the occasion of Jacobeo Holy Year; and Barcelona on November 7 to consecrate Sagrada Família church.[41] The trip was announced the previous March by the archbishops of the two cities, Lluís Cardinal Martínez Sistach of Barcelona and Archbishop Julián Barrio of Santiago.[42]


Croatia Croatia (June 4 to June 5, 2011)[edit]

Pope Benedict XVI in Zagreb

Pope Benedict XVI visited Croatia 4–5 June 2011. He traveled to Zagreb and prayed at the tomb of Blessed Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac.[43] The Pope expressed support for Croatia's bid to join the European Union.[44]

San Marino San Marino (June 19, 2011)[edit]

The Pope made an apostolic visit to the Diocese of San Marino-Montefeltro in San Marino in June 2011.[45][46]

Spain Spain III (August 18 to August 21, 2011)[edit]

Pope Benedict visited Madrid for World Youth Day 2011. He gave a speech during the welcoming ceremony August 18 at Madrid Barajas International Airport. After that, he spoke at the welcoming celebration for his meeting with young people at Madrid's Plaza de Cibeles. More than 100 groups opposed to the Pope's visit protested the financing of it with public money during a time of government budget cuts.[47] The Pope's first event on August 19 was a visit with women religious at the Patio de los Reyes de El Escorial in Madrid. Afterwards, he met with young university professors gathered at the Basilica de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Later that day, he attended the Way of the Cross with the young people at the Plaza de Cibeles. On August 20, he celebrated Mass with seminarians at the Cathedral of Santa Maria la Real de la Almudena. Then, he visited the Fundacion Instituto San Jose. The final event of the day was a prayer vigil with young people at Madrid Cuatro Vientos Airport. The next day, August 21, he celebrated the closing Mass with the Cardinals and Bishops and priests.[48] After the Mass, he recited the Angelus at Madrid Cuatro Vientos Airport, and then will meet with the volunteers at Pavilion 9 of the new Fair of Madrid-IFEMA. Then, he departed Madrid for the Vatican from Madrid Barajas International Airport after giving a speech during the farewell ceremony.[49][50]

Germany Germany III (September 22 to September 25, 2011)[edit]

Benedict visited Berlin, along with the Erfurt diocese in eastern Germany and the Freiburg archdiocese in the country's southwest. This was Pope Benedict's first state visit to his native country as Pope, his first visit as Pope to Berlin, and his third visit overall to his native country as Pope. The Pope departed from Rome's Ciampino International Airport at 8:15 A.M. on Thursday, September 22, landing at Berlin's Tegel International Airport at 10:30 A.M. The welcome ceremony and the courtesy meeting with German President Christian Wulff, took place at Bellevue Castle, the German president's official residence. The Pope then went on to the headquarters of the German Episcopal Conference in Berlin, where he met with German Chancellor Angela Merkel. In the afternoon, Benedict visited and gave a speech to the German Parliament, and then meet with members of the local Jewish community. At 6:30 P.M., he celebrated Mass in the Berlin Olympic Stadium. At 9:00 A.M. on Friday, September 23, the Pope met with representatives of the Muslim community at the Apostolic Nuncio to Germany's office, before traveling by plane to the city of Erfurt. There, he visited St. Mary's Cathedral, addressed representatives of the German Evangelical Church Council at St. Augustine's Monastery and participated in an ecumenical celebration. That afternoon he was taken by helicopter to the city of Etzelsbach where at 5:45 P.M. he was due to preside at Marian Vespers at the Wallfahrtskapelle. Following the celebration he returned to Erfurt. On the morning of Saturday, September 24, Benedict XVI celebrated Mass at the Erfurt Domplatz before travelling by plane to the city of Freiburg im Breisgau where he made a visit to the local cathedral. During the afternoon he went to the local seminary where he met first with former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, then with representatives from the various divisions of the Orthodox Church, followed by the seminarians themselves and finally the Central Committee of German Catholics (ZDK). At 7:00 P.M. he presided at a Prayer Vigil with young people at the Fair of Freiburg im Breisgau. At 10:00 A.M. on the following day, Sunday, September 25, he celebrated Mass and prayed the Angelus at the airport of Freiburg im Breisgau. Following Mass, the Pope had lunch with members of the German Episcopal Conference. At 4:20 P.M., he met with magistrates of the German Federal Constitutional Court, then with a group of Catholics active in the Church and society. Following the departure ceremony at Flughafen Lahr, the papal plane departed for the Vatican; it was expected to land at Ciampino International Airport at 8:45 P.M.[50][51]

Benin Benin (November 18 to November 20, 2011)[edit]

Benedict XVI visited Benin at the invitation of the Government and bishops of this country.[52][53] On the second day of his visit to Benin, the Pope travelled to Ouidah where he called for respect for traditional beliefs. The Pope called for reconciliation at a Mass held in the Friendship Stadium in Cotonou on the final day of the trip.[54]


Mexico Mexico and Cuba Cuba (March 23 to March 29, 2012)[edit]

The Pope arrived in Mexico in the city of León, Guanajuato at 4:12 P.M. CST (UTC−6) on Friday, March 23, 2012 and was received by a crowd of about 4,000 people.[55] President Calderón and first lady Margarita Zavala officially welcomed the Pope during the reception ceremony.[56] President Calderón gave a welcoming speech and minutes later the Pope took the podium. The Pope was scheduled to be in Mexico from Friday, March 23 to Monday, March 26.[57] During his three-day visit, the Pope stayed in a one-story guest house annexed to a K-12 Catholic school, Colegio Miraflores.[58]

Upon his departure from Mexico, the Pope visited the cities of Santiago de Cuba and Havana in Cuba from Monday, March 26 to Thursday, March 29, 2012.[59][60] He secured the observance of Good Friday as a holiday in the country during 2012, for the first time since the Revolution, a favor he had personally requested of President Raúl Castro during his visit- similar to his predecessor Pope John Paul II's successful personal request of Fidel Castro during his landmark 1998 visit to allow Christmas as a permanent holiday. Relations between the government and the Church have improved noticeably under both Popes and Presidents. The Pope stated on his visit, regarding Cuba, Marxism "no longer responds to reality".[61][62]

Lebanon Lebanon (September 14 to September 16, 2012)[edit]

The Pope visited Lebanon to promulgate his post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation at Harissa, Lebanon following the Synod on the Middle East, held in 2010. He met with political leaders of the country and religious leaders of the Muslim community at Baabda. During his stay the pope also visited the settlements of Bzommar and Bkerké, holding meetings with Patriarchs and Bishops of Lebanon an the youth. [60][63]

Previously confirmed journeys[edit]

Brazil Brazil II (July 23 to July 28, 2013)[edit]

The Pope was scheduled to travel to Brazil for World Youth Day 2013 in Rio de Janeiro,[64] until his resignation on 28 February. This journey was made by his successor Pope Francis.


  1. ^ Pope Paul VI was the first Pope to travel outside Europe, and Pope Benedict has now attained a greater age than either Paul VI or John Paul II, while continuing to travel outside Europe at ages they never reached.
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  4. ^ "Apostolic Journey to Valencia (8–9 July 2006)". Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
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  6. ^ IOL | Massive security for Pope's Turkey visit
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  18. ^ Heiligenkreuz webpage Archived 2009-04-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
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  33. ^ "Płaskorzeźba w darze" (in Polish). Dziennik Polski. 13 May 2009. Retrieved May 15, 2009.  English language translation from Google Translate
  34. ^ Pope Benedict XVI accepted invitation to visit the Czech Republic in autumn
  35. ^ "Apostolic Journey to the Czech Republic (September 26–28, 2009)". Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  36. ^ Giáo Hoàng đến Tiệp, lên án việc đàn áp tôn giáo thời cộng sản (in Vietnamese)
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  38. ^ "Vatican spokesman not surprised by record Fátima Mass turnout" Catholic News Agency 14 May 2010 Retrieved 5 December 2010
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  41. ^ Pope Benedict consecrates Barcelona's Sagrada Familia BBC 7 November 2010 Retrieved 7 November 2010
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  43. ^ "Pope Will Go To Croatia".  Catholic News Service
  44. ^ "Pope Benedict: Backs Croatia's EU bid on Zagreb visit" BBC News 4 June 2011 Retrieved 26 June 2011
  45. ^ "Holy See confirms papal visit to microstate of San Marino in Summer 2011".  Catholic News Agency
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-02. Retrieved 2012-03-26. 
  47. ^ "Pope Benedict XVI in Madrid for World Youth Day events" BBC News 18 August 2011 Retrieved 19 August 2011
  48. ^ "Pope Benedict celebrates World Youth Day closing Mass" BBC News 21 August 2011 Retrieved 21 August 2011
  49. ^ Pope becomes first person to register for 2011 World Youth Day "Pope Benedict will join the young people for a vigil Aug. 20 and Mass Aug. 21." Catholic News Service 6 July 2010 Retrieved 21 November 2010
  50. ^ a b A 'routine' year: Pope's 2011 calendar holds full slate of events
  51. ^ "Pope to visit native Germany in 2011". [dead link] The Washington Post
  52. ^ "Pope to visit Benin, November 2011"[permanent dead link] Vatican Radio 27 November 2010 Retrieved 28 November 2010
  53. ^ "Pope to visit Benin in 2011 " Times Live 27 November 2010 Retrieved 28 November 2010
  54. ^ "Pope celebrates stadium Mass as Africa tour ends" BBC News 20 November 2011 Retrieved 20 November 2011
  55. ^ Organización Editorial Mexicana (2012-03-23). "Spanish: Pope's plane lands in Guanajuato". Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  56. ^ Nicole Winfield (2012-03-23). "Pope arrives in Mexico, denouncing violence". Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  57. ^ Agence France-Presse (2012-03-21). "Spanish: Schedule of Pope's Visit to Mexico and Cuba". Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  58. ^ Conferencia del Episcopado Mexicano (2012-03-21). "Spanish: Pope's itinerary in Mexico". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  59. ^ "Pope Benedict: Mexico and Cuba trips on 2012 agenda" 10 November 2011 Retrieved 10 November 2011
  60. ^ a b "The Pope's visit to Fidel's island" Archived April 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Vatican Insider 30 November 2011 Retrieved 10 December 2011
  61. ^ Marxism 'no longer responds to reality,' pope says of Cuba March 23, 2012
  62. ^ Pope Benedict Ends Cuba Visit March 28, 2012
  63. ^ retrieved 10 August 2016
  64. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 

External links[edit]