List of landforms

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Landforms are categorised by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, rock exposure, and soil type.

Landforms by process[edit]

Landforms organized by the processes that create them.

Aeolian landforms[edit]

Aeolian landform – Landforms produced by action of the winds are formed by the wind and include:

  • Dry lake – A basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body
  • Sandhill – A type of ecological community or xeric wildfire-maintained ecosystem
  • Ventifact – A rock that has been abraded, pitted, etched, grooved, or polished by wind-driven sand or ice crystals
  • Yardang – A streamlined aeolian landform

Coastal and oceanic landforms[edit]

Coastal and oceanic landforms include:

image
Coastal and oceanic landforms.
  • Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Archipelago – A group of islands
  • Atoll – Ring-shaped coral reef, generally formed over a subsiding oceanic volcano, with a central lagoon and perhaps islands around the rim
  • Arch – A natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Ayre – Shingle beaches in Orkney and Shetland
  • Barrier bar
  • Barrier island – A coastal dune landform that forms by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast
  • Bay – A recessed, coastal body of water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Baymouth bar – A depositional feature as a result of longshore drift, a sandbank that partially or completely closes access to a bay.
  • Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Raised beach – A beach or wave-cut platform raised above the shoreline by a relative fall in the sea level
  • Beach cusps – Shoreline formations made up of various grades of sediment in an arc pattern
  • Beach ridge – Wave-swept or wave-deposited ridge running parallel to a shoreline
  • Bight – Shallowly concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature
  • Blowhole – Hole at the top of a sea-cave which allows waves to force water or spray out of the hole
  • Channel – A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Cape – A large headland extending into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Calanque – A narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Cliff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Coast – Area where land meets the sea or ocean
  • Continental shelf – A portion of a continent that is submerged under an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea
  • Coral reef – Outcrop of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of stony coral skeletons
  • Cove – A small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Cuspate foreland – Geographical features found on coastlines and lakeshores that are created primarily by longshore drift
  • Dune system – A hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Estuary – A partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
  • Firth – Scottish word used for various coastal inlets and straits
  • Fjard – A glacially formed, broad, shallow inlet
  • Fjord – A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Geo – An inlet, a gully or a narrow and deep cleft in the face of a cliff
  • Gulf – A large inlet from the ocean into the landmass
  • Headland – A landform extending into a body of water, often with significant height and drop
  • Inlet – An indentation of a shoreline that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh
  • Island – Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
  • Islet – A very small island
  • Isthmus – Narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
  • Lagoon – A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
  • Machair – A fertile low-lying grassy plain
  • Marine terrace
  • Mid-ocean ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Oceanic basin – Large geologic basins that are below sea level
  • Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Oceanic ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Peninsula – A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland
  • Ria – A coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley
  • River delta – Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river
  • Salt marsh – A coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides
  • Sea cave – A cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Seamount – A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Seamount chains
  • Shoal – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Shore – The fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water
  • Sound – A long, relatively wide body of water, connecting two larger bodies of water
  • Spit – A coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift
  • Strait – A naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Strandflat – A landform typical of the Norwegian coast consisting of a flattish erosion surface on the coast and near-coast seabed
  • Stack – A geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast, formed by wave erosion, and stump
  • Submarine canyon – A steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope
  • Surge channel – A narrow inlet, usually on a rocky shoreline, and is formed by differential erosion of those rocks by coastal wave action
  • Tessellated pavement – A relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Tide pool – A rocky pool on a seashore, separated from the sea at low tide, filled with seawater
  • Tombolo – A deposition landform in which an island is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus
  • Volcanic arc – A chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate
  • Wave-cut platform – The narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake, bay, or sea that was created by erosion

Cryogenic landforms[edit]

  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Earth hummocks
  • Lithalsa – A frost-induced raised land form in permafrost areas
  • Nivation hollow – A geomorphic processes associated with snow patches
  • Palsa – A low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates
  • Permafrost plateau – A low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates
  • Pingo – A mound of earth-covered ice
  • Rock glacier – Landform of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, former "true" glaciers overlain by a layer of talus, or something in between
  • Solifluction lobes and sheets
  • Thermokarst – A land surface with very irregular surfaces of marshy hollows and small hummocks formed as ice-rich permafrost thaws

Erosion landforms[edit]

Landforms produced by erosion and weathering usually occur in coastal or fluvial environments, and many also appear under those headings.

  • Arête – A narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Badlands – A type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded
  • Bornhardt – A large dome-shaped, steep-sided, bald rock
  • Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Cliff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Cuesta – A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Dissected plateau – Plateau area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Erg – A broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand
  • Etchplain – A plain where the bedrock has been subject to considerable subsurface weathering
  • Exhumed river channel – A ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Fjord – A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Flared slope – A rock-wall with a smooth transition into a concavity at the foot zone
  • Flatiron – A steeply sloping triangular landform created by the differential erosion of a steeply dipping, erosion-resistant layer of rock overlying softer strata.
  • Gulch – Deep V-shaped valley formed by erosion
  • Gully – Landform created by running water eroding sharply into soil
  • Hogback – A long, narrow ridge or a series of hills with a narrow crest and steep slopes of nearly equal inclination on both flanks
  • Hoodoo – A tall, thin spire of relatively soft rock usually topped by harder rock
  • Homoclinal ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Inselberg, also known as Monadnock – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Inverted relief – Landscape features that have reversed their elevation relative to other features
  • Lavaka – A type of gully, formed via groundwater sapping
  • Limestone pavement – A natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Natural arch – A natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Paleoplain
  • Paleosurface – A surface made by erosion of considerable antiquity
  • Pediment – A very gently sloping inclined bedrock surface
  • Pediplain – An extensive plain formed by the coalescence of pediments
  • Peneplain – A low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Planation surface – A large-scale surface that is almost flat
  • Potrero – A long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain.
  • Ridge – A geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Rôche moutonnée
  • List of rock formations – Links to Wikipedia articles about notable rock outcrops
  • Strike ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Structural bench – A long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Structural terrace – A step-like landform
  • Tea table – A type of rock column comprising discrete layers, usually of sedimentary rock, with the top layers being wider than the base
  • Tepui – A table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Tessellated pavement – A relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Truncated spur – A ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest
  • Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Wave-cut platform – The narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake, bay, or sea that was created by erosion

Fluvial landforms[edit]

Fluvial landforms include:

  • Ait – Islands found on the River Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Alluvial fan – A fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams
  • Anabranch – A section of a river or stream that diverts from the main channel and rejoins it downstream.
  • Arroyo – A dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
  • Asymmetric valley – A valley that has steeper slopes on one side
  • Backswamp – Environment on a floodplain where deposits settle after a flood
  • Bar – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Bayou – French term for a body of water typically found in flat, low-lying area
  • Bench – A long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Braided channel – A network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars
  • Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Cliff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Cut bank – Outside bank of a water channel, which is continually undergoing erosion
  • Crevasse splay – Sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream which breaks its levees
  • Confluence – Meeting of two or more bodies of flowing water
  • Drainage basin – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Drainage divide – Elevated terrain that separates neighbouring drainage basins
  • Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Entrenched meander
  • Epigenetic valley – Valley created by erosion and with little or no sympathy for bedrock structure
  • Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Exhumed river channel – A ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Floodplain – Land adjacent to a stream or river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Fluvial island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Gorge – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Gully – Landform created by running water eroding sharply into soil
  • Natural levee – Ridge or wall to hold back water
  • Marsh – A wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
  • Meander – A sinuous bend in a series in the channel of a river
  • Misfit stream – a river too large or too small to have eroded the valley or cave passage in which it flows
  • Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake formed by a cut-off meander of a river
  • Point bar – A depositional feature of alluvium that accumulates on the inside bend of streams and rivers below the slip-off slope
  • Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall created by the erosional force of falling water and rocks where it lands
  • Rapid – A section of a river where the river bed is relatively steep, increasing the water's velocity and turbulence
  • Riffle – Shallow landform in a flowing channel
  • River – Natural flowing watercourse
  • River delta – Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river
  • River island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Rock-cut basin – Cylindrical depressions cut into stream or river beds
  • Shut-in – A type of rock formation found in Ozarks streams
  • Thalweg – Line of lowest elevation in a watercourse or valley
  • Towhead – Exposed land within a river.
  • Shoal – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Spring – A point at which water emenges from an aquifer to the surface
  • Strath
  • Stream – A body of surface water flowing down a channel
  • Stream pool – A stretch of a river or stream in which the water is relatively deep and slow moving
  • Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Vale – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Wadi – River valley, especially a dry (ephemeral) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain
  • Waterfall – Place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a river
  • Watershed – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Yazoo stream – Tributary stream that runs parallel to, and within the floodplain of a larger river for considerable distance
  • V-shaped valley

Impact landforms[edit]

Landforms created by extraterrestrial impacts – Collision of two astronomical objects with measurable effects – include:

Karst landforms[edit]

Karst – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks – includes:

  • Abîme – A vertical shaft in karst terrain that may be very deep and usually opens into a network of subterranean passages
  • Calanque – A narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote – A natural pit, or sinkhole, that exposes groundwater underneath
  • Foiba – A type of deep natural sinkhole
  • Karst fenster – An unroofed portion of a cavern which reveals part of a subterranean river
  • Limestone pavement – A natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Mogote – A steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Polje – Large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Scowle – Landscape features which range from amorphous shallow pits to irregular labyrinthine hollows up to several metres deep
  • Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Turlough – Type of disappearing lake found in limestone areas of Ireland
  • Uvala – A local toponym in some regions in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia for a closed karst depression

Lacustrine landforms[edit]

Lacustrine – associated with lakes – landforms include:

  • Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Raised beach – A beach or wave-cut platform raised above the shoreline by a relative fall in the sea level
  • Carolina bay – Elliptical depressions concentrated along the Atlantic seaboard of North America
  • Dry lake – A basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body
  • Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Lacustrine plain – Lakes filled by sediment
  • Lacustrine terraces – A step-like landform
  • Lake – A body of relatively still water, in a basin surrounded by land
  • Oasis – Isolated source of fresh water in a desert
  • Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake formed by a cut-off meander of a river
  • Parallel Roads of Glen Roy – Nature reserve in the Highlands of Scotland with ancient shoreline terraces
  • Pond – A relatively small body of standing water
  • Proglacial lake – A lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet
  • Salt pan, also known as salt flat – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals

Mountain and glacial landforms[edit]

Mountain and glacial landform – Landform created by the action of glacierss – include:

  • Arête – A narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Col – The lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Crevasse – A deep crack, or fracture, in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Corrie – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion or cwm
  • Cove (mountain) – A small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Dirt cone – Depositional glacial feature of ice or snow with an insulating layer of dirt
  • Drumlin – Elongated hill formed by the action of glacial ice on the substrate and drumlin field
  • Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Fjord – A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Flyggberg – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Glacier – Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight
  • Glacier cave – A cave formed within the ice of a glacier
  • Glacier foreland – The region between the current leading edge of the glacier and the moraines of latest maximum
  • Hanging valley – A tributary valley that meets the main valley above the valley floor
  • Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Inselberg, also known as monadnock – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Kame – Mound formed on a retreating glacier and deposited on land
  • Kame delta – A landform formed by a stream of melt water flowing through or around a glacier and depositing sediments in a proglacial lake
  • Kettle – A depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Moraine – Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris
    • Rogen moraine, also known as Ribbed moraines – Landform of ridges deposited by a glacier or ice sheet transverse to ice flow
  • Moulin – Shaft within a glacier or ice sheet which water enters from the surface
  • Mountain – A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area
  • Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Mountain range – A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains
  • Nunatak – Exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within an ice field or glacier
  • Proglacial lake – A lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet
  • Pyramidal peak, also known as Glacial horn – Angular, sharply pointed mountain peak
  • Outwash fan – A fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Rôche moutonnée
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Side valley – A valley with a tributary to a larger river
  • Summit – A point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it, in topography
  • Trim line – A clear line on the side of a valley marking the most recent highest extent of the glacier
  • Truncated spur – A ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Tunnel valley – A U-shaped valley originally cut by water under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets
  • Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • U-shaped valley – Valleys formed by glacial scouring

Slope landforms[edit]

Slope landforms include:

  • Bluff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Cliff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Col – The lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Cuesta – A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Dale – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Defile – A narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills
  • Dell – Small secluded hollow
  • Doab, also known as Interfluve – Land between two converging, or confluent, rivers
  • Draw – Terrain feature formed by two parallel ridges or spurs with low ground in between
  • Escarpment, also known as scarp – Steep slope or cliff separating two relatively level regions
  • Flat (landform) – A relatively level surface of land within a region of greater relief
  • Glen – Name for valley commonly used in Scotland and the Isle of Man
  • Gully – Landform created by running water eroding sharply into soil
  • Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Hillock, also known as Knoll – A small hill
  • Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Plain – Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation
  • Plateau – An area of a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Ravine – Small valley, which is often the product of streamcutting erosion
  • Ridge – A geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Rock shelter – A shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff
  • Scree – Broken rock fragments at the base of steep rock faces, that has accumulated through periodic rockfall
  • Solifluction lobes and sheets
  • Strath
  • Summit – A point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it, in topography
  • Terrace – A step-like landform
  • Terracette – A ridge on a hillside formed when saturated soil particles expand, then contract as they dry, causing them to move slowly downhill
  • Vale
  • Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Valley shoulder

Tectonic landforms[edit]

Landforms created by tectonic activity include:

  • Asymmetric valley – A valley that has steeper slopes on one side
  • Dome – Deformational feature in structural geology of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices.
  • Faceted spur – A ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Fault scarp – A small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other
  • Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel faults
  • Horst – A raised fault block bounded by normal faults
  • Mid-ocean ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Mud volcano – Landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases
  • Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Pull-apart basin – A structural basin where two overlapping faults or a fault bend creates an area of crustal extension which causes the basin to subside
  • Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Sand boil – A cone of sand formed by the ejection of sand onto a surface from a central point by water under pressure

Volcanic landforms[edit]

Volcanic landforms include:

  • Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a magma chamber
  • Cinder cone – A steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Complex volcano – A landform of more than one related volcanic centre
  • Crater lake – Lake formed within a (usually volcanic) crater
  • Cryptodome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Cryovolcano – A type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock
  • Diatreme – A volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion
  • Dike – A sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body
  • Fissure vent – Linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts
  • Geyser – Hot spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam
  • Guyot – An isolated, flat-topped underwater volcano mountain
  • Hornito – Conical structures built up by lava ejected through an opening in the crust of a lava flow
  • Kīpuka – Area of land surrounded by one or more younger lava flows
  • Lava – Molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption
  • Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava coulee – Type of valley or drainage zone
  • Lava field, also known as Lava plain
  • Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Lava spine – A vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly forced from a volcanic vent, such as those growing on a lava dome
  • Lava tube – Natural conduit through which lava flows beneath the solid surface
  • Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Malpais – A rough and barren landscape of relict and largely uneroded lava fields
  • Mamelon – A rock formation created by eruption of relatively thick or stiff lava through a narrow vent
  • Mid-ocean ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Pit crater – A depression formed by a sinking or collapse of the surface lying above a void or empty chamber
  • Pyroclastic shield – Shield volcano formed mostly of pyroclastic and highly explosive eruptions
  • Resurgent dome – A dome formed by swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber beneath it
  • Rootless cone, also known as pseudocrater
  • Seamount – A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Shield volcano – Low profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Stratovolcano – Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta
  • Somma volcano – A volcanic caldera that has been partially filled by a new central cone
  • Spatter cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Subglacial mound – Volcano formed when lava erupts beneath a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Submarine volcano – Underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt
  • Supervolcano – Volcano that has erupted 1000 cubic km in a single eruption
  • Tuff cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Tuya – A flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Volcanic vent
  • Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic dam – A natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism
  • Volcanic field – Area of the Earth's crust prone to localized volcanic activity
  • Volcanic group – A collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms
  • Volcanic island – Island of volcanic origin
  • Volcanic plateau – A plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic plug – Volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano
  • Volcano – A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

Weathering landforms[edit]

Weathering landforms include:

  • Bornhardt – A large dome-shaped, steep-sided, bald rock
  • Etchplain – A plain where the bedrock has been subject to considerable subsurface weathering
  • Flared slope – A rock-wall with a smooth transition into a concavity at the foot zone
  • Flute
  • Honeycomb weathering – A form of cavernous weathering and subcategory of tafoni
  • Inselberg – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Karst – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks
  • Nubbin – A small and gentle hill consisting a bedrock core dotted with rounded residual blocks.
  • Panhole – A shallow depression or basin eroded into flat or gently sloping cohesive rock (Weathering pit)
  • Tafoni – Small to large indentations in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest

Landforms by shape[edit]

Positive landforms[edit]

  • Bornhardt – A large dome-shaped, steep-sided, bald rock
  • Cinder cone – A steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Cryptodome
  • Dome – Deformational feature in structural geology of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices.
  • Drumlin – Elongated hill formed by the action of glacial ice on the substrate
  • Granite dome – Rounded hills of bare granite formed by exfoliation
  • Hillock – A small hill
  • Inselberg – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava spine – A vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly forced from a volcanic vent, such as those growing on a lava dome
  • Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mogote – A steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Nubbin – A small and gentle hill consisting a bedrock core dotted with rounded residual blocks.
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest
  • Tower karst
  • Tuya – A flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Palsa – A low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates
  • Pingo – A mound of earth-covered ice
  • Pyroclastic shield – Shield volcano formed mostly of pyroclastic and highly explosive eruptions
  • Resurgent dome – A dome formed by swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber beneath it
  • Seamount – A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Shield volcano – Low profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Stratocone
  • Stratovolcano – Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta
  • Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Volcanic island

Depressions[edit]

  • Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a magma chamber
  • Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote – A natural pit, or sinkhole, that exposes groundwater underneath
  • Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Crevasse – A deep crack, or fracture, in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Deflation hollow
  • Doline – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Gnamma
  • Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel faults
  • Honeycomb weathering – A form of cavernous weathering and subcategory of tafoni
  • Impact crater – Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a hypervelocity impact of a smaller object
  • Joint valley
  • Kettle – A depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Lagoon – A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
  • Lake – A body of relatively still water, in a basin surrounded by land
  • Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Nivation hollow – A geomorphic processes associated with snow patches
  • Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake formed by a cut-off meander of a river
  • Panhole – A shallow depression or basin eroded into flat or gently sloping cohesive rock
  • Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall created by the erosional force of falling water and rocks where it lands
  • Pond – A relatively small body of standing water
  • Pull-apart basin – A structural basin where two overlapping faults or a fault bend creates an area of crustal extension which causes the basin to subside
  • Quarry – A place from which a geological material has been excavated from the ground
  • Rift – Part of a volcano where a set of linear cracks form
  • Sea cave – A cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Tafoni – Small to large indentations in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Thermokarst – A land surface with very irregular surfaces of marshy hollows and small hummocks formed as ice-rich permafrost thaws
  • Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic dam – A natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism

Flat landforms[edit]

  • Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Bench – A long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Continental shelf – A portion of a continent that is submerged under an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea
  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Dissected plateau – Plateau area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Etchplain – A plain where the bedrock has been subject to considerable subsurface weathering
  • Floodplain – Land adjacent to a stream or river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Inselberg plain – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Lacustrine terrace – A step-like landform
  • Lava field, also known as lava plain
  • Oceanic basin – Large geologic basins that are below sea level
  • Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Outwash fan – A fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Paleoplain
  • Pediplain – An extensive plain formed by the coalescence of pediments
  • Peneplain – A low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Plain – Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation
  • Planation surface – A large-scale surface that is almost flat
  • Plateau – An area of a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Polje – Large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Raised beach, also known as Marine terrace – A beach or wave-cut platform raised above the shoreline by a relative fall in the sea level
  • River delta – Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river
  • Salt marsh – A coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides
  • Salt pan – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Strandflat – A landform typical of the Norwegian coast consisting of a flattish erosion surface on the coast and near-coast seabed
  • Strath
  • Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Table – Raised landforms that have a flat top
  • Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Tepui – A table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Volcanic plateau – A plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Wave-cut platform – The narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake, bay, or sea that was created by erosion

Landforms, alphabetic[edit]

  • Abîme – A vertical shaft in karst terrain that may be very deep and usually opens into a network of subterranean passages
  • Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Ait – Islands found on the River Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Alluvial fan – A fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams
  • Anabranch – A section of a river or stream that diverts from the main channel and rejoins it downstream.
  • Arch – A natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Archipelago – A group of islands
  • Arête – A narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Arroyo – A dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
  • Atoll – Ring-shaped coral reef, generally formed over a subsiding oceanic volcano, with a central lagoon and perhaps islands around the rim
  • Ayre – Shingle beaches in Orkney and Shetland
  • Badlands – A type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded
  • Bar – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Barchan – A crescent-shaped dune
  • Barrier bar – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Barrier island – A coastal dune landform that forms by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast
  • Bay – A recessed, coastal body of water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Baymouth bar – A depositional feature as a result of longshore drift, a sandbank that partially or completely closes access to a bay.
  • Bayou – French term for a body of water typically found in flat, low-lying area
  • Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Beach cusps – Shoreline formations made up of various grades of sediment in an arc pattern
  • Beach ridge – Wave-swept or wave-deposited ridge running parallel to a shoreline
  • Bench – A long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Bight – Shallowly concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature
  • Blowhole – Hole at the top of a sea-cave which allows waves to force water or spray out of the hole
  • Blowout – Depressions in a sand dune ecosystem caused by the removal of sediments by wind
  • Bluff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Bornhardt – A large dome-shaped, steep-sided, bald rock
  • Braided channel – A network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars
  • Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Calanque – A narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a magma chamber
  • Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Cape – A large headland extending into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Carolina bay – Elliptical depressions concentrated along the Atlantic seaboard of North America
  • Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote – A natural pit, or sinkhole, that exposes groundwater underneath
  • Channel – A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Corrie – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion or cwm
  • Cliff – A vertical, or near vertical, rock face of substantial height
  • Coast – Area where land meets the sea or ocean
  • Col – The lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Complex crater – large impact crater morphology with uplifted centres
  • Complex volcano – A landform of more than one related volcanic centre
  • Confluence – Meeting of two or more bodies of flowing water
  • Continental shelf – A portion of a continent that is submerged under an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea
  • Coral reef – Outcrop of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of stony coral skeletons
  • Cove – A small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Cove (mountain) – A small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Crater lake – Lake formed within a (usually volcanic) crater
  • Crevasse splay – Sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream which breaks its levees
  • Crevasse – A deep crack, or fracture, in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Cryovolcano – A type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock
  • Cuesta – A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Cuspate foreland – Geographical features found on coastlines and lakeshores that are created primarily by longshore drift
  • Cut bank – Outside bank of a water channel, which is continually undergoing erosion
  • Dale – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Defile – A narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills
  • Dell – Small secluded hollow
  • Delta, River – Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river
  • Desert pavement – A desert surface covered with closely packed, interlocking angular or rounded rock fragments of pebble and cobble size.
  • Diatreme – A volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion
  • Dike – A sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body
  • Dirt cone – Depositional glacial feature of ice or snow with an insulating layer of dirt
  • Dissected plateau – Plateau area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Doab – Land between two converging, or confluent, rivers
  • Doline – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Dome – Deformational feature in structural geology of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices.
  • Drainage basin – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Drainage divide – Elevated terrain that separates neighbouring drainage basins
  • Draw – Terrain feature formed by two parallel ridges or spurs with low ground in between
  • Dreikanter – A type of ventifact that typically forms in desert or periglacial environments due to the abrasive action of blowing sand
  • Drumlin – Elongated hill formed by the action of glacial ice on the substrate
  • Dry lake – A basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body
  • Dune – A hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Dune system – A hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Ejecta blanket – A generally symmetrical apron of ejecta that surrounds an impact crater
  • Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Erg – A broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand
  • Escarpment – Steep slope or cliff separating two relatively level regions (scarp)
  • Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Estuary – A partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
  • Exhumed river channel – A ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Faceted spur – A ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Fault scarp – A small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other
  • Firth – Scottish word used for various coastal inlets and straits
  • Fissure vent – Linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts
  • Fjard – A glacially formed, broad, shallow inlet
  • Fjord – A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Flat – A relatively level surface of land within a region of greater relief
  • Flatiron – A steeply sloping triangular landform created by the differential erosion of a steeply dipping, erosion-resistant layer of rock overlying softer strata.
  • Floodplain – Land adjacent to a stream or river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Fluvial island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Foiba – A type of deep natural sinkhole
  • Geo – An inlet, a gully or a narrow and deep cleft in the face of a cliff
  • Geyser – Hot spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam
  • Glacial horn – Angular, sharply pointed mountain peak
  • Glacier cave – A cave formed within the ice of a glacier
  • Glacier foreland – The region between the current leading edge of the glacier and the moraines of latest maximum
  • Glacier – Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight
  • Parallel Roads of Glen Roy – Nature reserve in the Highlands of Scotland with ancient shoreline terraces
  • Glen – Name for valley commonly used in Scotland and the Isle of Man
  • Gorge – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel faults
  • Gulf – Links to Wikipedia articles on gulfs
  • Gully – Landform created by running water eroding sharply into soil
  • Guyot – An isolated, flat-topped underwater volcano mountain
  • Hanging valley – A tributary valley that meets the main valley above the valley floor
  • Headland – A landform extending into a body of water, often with significant height and drop
  • Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Hogback – A long, narrow ridge or a series of hills with a narrow crest and steep slopes of nearly equal inclination on both flanks
  • Homoclinal ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Hoodoo – A tall, thin spire of relatively soft rock usually topped by harder rock
  • Horst – A raised fault block bounded by normal faults
  • Impact crater – Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a hypervelocity impact of a smaller object
  • Inlet – An indentation of a shoreline that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh
  • Interfluve – Land between two converging, or confluent, rivers
  • Inverted relief – Landscape features that have reversed their elevation relative to other features
  • Island – Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
  • Islet – A very small island
  • Isthmus – Narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
  • Kame delta – A landform formed by a stream of melt water flowing through or around a glacier and depositing sediments in a proglacial lake
  • Kame – Mound formed on a retreating glacier and deposited on land
  • Karst – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks
  • Karst fenster – An unroofed portion of a cavern which reveals part of a subterranean river
  • Karst valley – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks
  • Kettle – A depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Kīpuka – Area of land surrounded by one or more younger lava flows
  • Knoll – A small hill
  • Lacustrine plain – Lakes filled by sediment
  • Lagoon – A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
  • Lake – A body of relatively still water, in a basin surrounded by land
  • Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava – Molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption
  • Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Lava field, also known as Lava plain
  • Lava spine – A vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly forced from a volcanic vent, such as those growing on a lava dome
  • Lava tube – Natural conduit through which lava flows beneath the solid surface
  • Lavaka – A type of gully, formed via groundwater sapping
  • Levee – Ridge or wall to hold back water, natural
  • Limestone pavement – A natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Loess – A predominantly silt-sized clastic sediment of accumulated wind-blown dust
  • Lacustrine terraces – A step-like landform
  • Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Machair – A fertile low-lying grassy plain
  • Malpaís – A rough and barren landscape of relict and largely uneroded lava fields
  • Mamelon – A rock formation created by eruption of relatively thick or stiff lava through a narrow vent
  • Marine terrace – A beach or wave-cut platform raised above the shoreline by a relative fall in the sea level
  • Marsh – A wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
  • Meander – A sinuous bend in a series in the channel of a river
  • Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mid-ocean ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Mogote – A steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Monadnock – Isolated rock hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Moraine – Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris
  • Moulin – Shaft within a glacier or ice sheet which water enters from the surface
  • Mountain – A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area
  • Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Mountain range – A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains
  • Mud volcano – Landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases
  • Natural arch – A natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Nunatak – Exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within an ice field or glacier
  • Oasis – Isolated source of fresh water in a desert
  • Oceanic basin – Large geologic basins that are below sea level
  • Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Oceanic ridge – An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Outwash fan – A fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake formed by a cut-off meander of a river
  • Pediment – A very gently sloping inclined bedrock surface
  • Pediplain – An extensive plain formed by the coalescence of pediments
  • Peneplain – A low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Peninsula – A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland
  • Pingo – A mound of earth-covered ice
  • Pit crater – A depression formed by a sinking or collapse of the surface lying above a void or empty chamber
  • Plain – Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation
  • Plateau – An area of a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Playa lake
  • Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall created by the erosional force of falling water and rocks where it lands
  • Point bar – A depositional feature of alluvium that accumulates on the inside bend of streams and rivers below the slip-off slope
  • Polje – Large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Pond – A relatively small body of standing water
  • Potrero – A long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain.
  • Proglacial lake – A lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet
  • Pseudocrater
  • Pull-apart basin – A structural basin where two overlapping faults or a fault bend creates an area of crustal extension which causes the basin to subside
  • Quarry – A place from which a geological material has been excavated from the ground
  • Raised beach – A beach or wave-cut platform raised above the shoreline by a relative fall in the sea level
  • Rapid – A section of a river where the river bed is relatively steep, increasing the water's velocity and turbulence
  • Ravine – Small valley, which is often the product of streamcutting erosion
  • Ria – A coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley
  • Ridge – A geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Riffle – Shallow landform in a flowing channel
  • Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • River – Natural flowing watercourse
  • River delta – Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river
  • River island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Rôche moutonnée
  • Rogen moraine – Landform of ridges deposited by a glacier or ice sheet transverse to ice flow
  • Rock formations – Links to Wikipedia articles about notable rock outcrops
  • Rock shelter – A shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff
  • Rock-cut basin – Cylindrical depressions cut into stream or river beds
  • Salt marsh – A coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides
  • Salt pan – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals (salt flat)
  • Sand boil, also known as sand volcano – A cone of sand formed by the ejection of sand onto a surface from a central point by water under pressure
  • Sandhill – A type of ecological community or xeric wildfire-maintained ecosystem
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Scowle – Landscape features which range from amorphous shallow pits to irregular labyrinthine hollows up to several metres deep
  • Scree – Broken rock fragments at the base of steep rock faces, that has accumulated through periodic rockfall
  • Sea cave – A cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Seamount – A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Shield volcano – Low profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Shoal – A natural landform that rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface and is covered by unconsolidated material
  • Shore – The fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water
  • Shut-in – A type of rock formation found in Ozarks streams
  • Side valley – A valley with a tributary to a larger river
  • Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Sound – A long, relatively wide body of water, connecting two larger bodies of water
  • Spit – A coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift
  • Spring – A point at which water emenges from an aquifer to the surface
  • Stack – A geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast, formed by wave erosion and stump
  • Strait – A naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Strandflat – A landform typical of the Norwegian coast consisting of a flattish erosion surface on the coast and near-coast seabed
  • Strath
  • Stratovolcano – Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta
  • Stream pool – A stretch of a river or stream in which the water is relatively deep and slow moving
  • Stream – A body of surface water flowing down a channel
  • Strike ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Structural bench – A long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Structural terrace – A step-like landform
  • Subglacial mound – Volcano formed when lava erupts beneath a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Submarine canyon – A steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope
  • Submarine volcano – Underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt
  • Summit – A point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it, in topography
  • Supervolcano – Volcano that has erupted 1000 cubic km in a single eruption
  • Surge channel – A narrow inlet, usually on a rocky shoreline, and is formed by differential erosion of those rocks by coastal wave action
  • Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Tea table – A type of rock column comprising discrete layers, usually of sedimentary rock, with the top layers being wider than the base
  • Tepui – A table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Terrace – A step-like landform
  • Terracette – A ridge on a hillside formed when saturated soil particles expand, then contract as they dry, causing them to move slowly downhill
  • Tessellated pavement – A relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Thalweg – Line of lowest elevation in a watercourse or valley
  • Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Tide pool – A rocky pool on a seashore, separated from the sea at low tide, filled with seawater
  • Tombolo – A deposition landform in which an island is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest
  • Tower karst – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks
  • Towhead – Exposed land within a river.
  • Trim line – A clear line on the side of a valley marking the most recent highest extent of the glacier
  • Truncated spur – A ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Tunnel valley – A U-shaped valley originally cut by water under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets
  • Turlough – Type of disappearing lake found in limestone areas of Ireland
  • Tuya – A flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • U-shaped valley – Valleys formed by glacial scouring
  • Uvala – A local toponym in some regions in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia for a closed karst depression
  • Vale
  • Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
  • Valley shoulder
  • Ventifact – A rock that has been abraded, pitted, etched, grooved, or polished by wind-driven sand or ice crystals
  • Volcanic arc – A chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate
  • Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic dam – A natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism
  • Volcanic field – Area of the Earth's crust prone to localized volcanic activity
  • Volcanic group – A collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms
  • Volcanic island – Island of volcanic origin
  • Volcanic plateau – A plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic plug – Volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano
  • Volcanic vent
  • Volcano – A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface
  • Wadi – River valley, especially a dry (ephemeral) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain
  • Waterfall – Place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a river
  • Watershed – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Wave-cut platform – The narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake, bay, or sea that was created by erosion
  • Wetland – A land area that is permanently or seasonally saturated with water
  • Yardang – A streamlined aeolian landform

See also[edit]

  • Geomorphology – The scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them
  • Ocean – A body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere
  • Sea – Large body of salt water