List of languages by type of grammatical genders

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This article lists languages depending on their use of grammatical gender.

No grammatical gender[edit]

Certain language families, such as the Austronesian, Turkic and Uralic, Persian language families, usually have no grammatical genders (see genderless language). Many indigenous American languages (across language families) have no grammatical gender.[1]

Austronesian

Constructed

Creoles

Isolates

Indo-European

Niger-Congo

Turkic

Uralic

Uto-Aztecan

Other

Noun classifiers[edit]

Some languages without noun class may have noun classifiers instead. This is common in East Asian languages.

Masculine and feminine[edit]

Afro-Asiatic

Indo-European

  • Albanian - the neuter has almost disappeared.
  • Breton (Brythonic)
  • Catalan - although it has the pronoun "ho" which substitutes antecedents with no gender, like a subordinate clause or a neuter demonstrative ("això", "allò"). For example: "vol això" (he wants this)→"ho vol" (he wants it), or "ha promès que vindrà" (he has promised he will come)→"ho ha promès" (he has promised it).
  • Cornish (Brythonic)
  • Corsican
  • French
  • Friulan
  • Galician (with some remains of neuter in the demonstratives isto (this here), iso (this there/that here) and aquilo (that there), which can also be pronouns)
  • Hindi
  • Irish (Goidelic)
  • Italian - there is a trace of the neuter in some nouns and personal pronouns. E.g.: singular l'uovo, il dito; plural le uova, le dita ('the egg(s)', 'the finger(s)'), although singulars of the type dito and uovo and their agreements coincide in form with masculine grammatical gender and the plurals conform to feminine grammatical morphology.
  • Kashmiri
  • Kurdish (only Northern dialect and only in singular nouns and pronouns, not in plural and not in adjectives or verbs; Central or Southern dialects have lost grammatical gender altogether)
  • Ladin
  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian - there is a neuter gender for all declinable parts of speech (most adjectives, pronouns, numerals, participles), except for nouns, but it has a very limited set of forms.
  • Manx (Goidelic)
  • Occitan
  • Pashto - the neuter has almost disappeared.
  • Portuguese - there is a trace of the neuter in the demonstratives (isto/isso/aquilo) and some indefinite pronouns.
  • Punjabi (see also Punjabi dialects)
  • Romani
  • Sardinian
  • Scottish Gaelic (Goidelic)
  • Sicilian
  • Spanish - there is a neuter of sorts, though generally expressed only with the definite article lo, used with adjectives denoting abstract categories: lo bueno, or when referring to an unknown object eso.
  • Urdu (Lashkari)
  • Venetian
  • Welsh (Brythonic)
  • Zazaki

Common and neuter[edit]

In these languages, animate nouns are predominantly of common gender, while inanimate nouns may be of either gender.

  • Danish (Danish has four gendered pronouns, but only two grammatical genders in the sense of noun classes. See Gender in Danish and Swedish.)
  • Dutch (The masculine and the feminine have merged into a common gender in standard Dutch, but a distinction is still made by some when using pronouns, and in Southern-Dutch varieties. See Gender in Dutch grammar.)
  • Filipino
  • (West) Frisian
  • Hittite (The Hittite "common" gender contains nouns that are either masculine or feminine in other Indo-European languages, while the "neuter" gender continues the inherited Indo-European neuter gender.)
  • Norwegian (In the Bergen dialect, and in some sociolects of Oslo.)
  • Swedish (The distinction between masculine and feminine still exists for people and some animals. Some dialects retain all three genders for all nouns.) (Swedish has four gendered pronouns, but only two grammatical genders in the sense of noun classes. See Gender in Danish and Swedish.)

Animate and inanimate[edit]

In many such languages, what is commonly termed "animacy" may in fact be more accurately described as a distinction between human and non-human, rational and irrational, "socially active" and "socially passive" etc.

Masculine, feminine, and neuter[edit]

Indo-European

Proto-Indo-European originally had two genders (animate and inanimate), and later the animate split into masculine and feminine, and the inanimate became neuter.[9]

Note: in Slavic languages marked with an asterisk (*), traditionally only masculine, feminine and neuter genders are recognized, with animacy as a separate category for the masculine and feminine (in East Slavic languages) or masculine only (elsewhere); the actual situation is similar to Czech.

Other

More than three grammatical genders[edit]

  • Burushaski: masculine, feminine, animals/countable nouns and inanimates/uncountable nouns/abstracts/fluids
  • Burmese: masculine, feminine, neuter and dual gender.
  • Chechen: 6 classes[11] (masculine, feminine and 4 other miscellaneous classes)
  • Czech, Slovak and Rusyn: Masculine animate, Masculine inanimate, Feminine, Neuter (traditionally, only masculine, feminine and neuter genders are recognized, with animacy as a separate category for the masculine).
  • Polish: Masculine personal, Masculine animate, Masculine inanimate, Feminine, Neuter (traditionally, only masculine, feminine and neuter genders are recognized).
  • Pama–Nyungan languages including Dyirbal and other Australian languages have gender systems such as: Masculine, feminine (see Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things), vegetable and neuter.[12][13] (Some linguists[which?] do not regard the noun class system of this language as grammatical gender.)[citation needed]
    • Many Australian languages have a system of gender superclassing in which membership in one gender can mean membership in another.[14]
  • Kannada: Originally had 9 gender pronouns but only 3 exist at present.[citation needed]
  • Zande: Masculine, feminine, animate, and inanimate.
  • Bantu languages have many noun classes.[15]
    • Rwanda-Rundi family of languages (including Kinyarnwanda,[16] Kirundi,[17] and Ha[18]): 16 noun classes grouped in 10 pairs.
    • Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns
    • Shona: 20 noun classes (singular and plural are considered separate classes)
    • Swahili: 18 noun classes (singular and plural are considered separate classes)
  • Tuyuca: Tuyuca has 50–140 noun classes.[19][unreliable source]
  • Sepik languages: Sepik languages all distinguish between at least masculine and feminine genders, but some distinguish three or more genders.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Corbett, Greville G. (2013). Dryer, Matthew S.; Haspelmath, Martin (eds.). "Number of Genders". The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. – via WALS.
  2. ^ http://babel.ucsc.edu/~hank/105/Esperanto16.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ "Basic Grammar of the International Language Ido". idolinguo.org.uk. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Questions/en - La Lojban". mw.lojban.org. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  5. ^ Elbert, Samuel H.; Pukui, Mary Kawena (1979). Hawaiian Grammar. University of Hawaii Press - HONOLULU. pp. 136–144. ISBN 9780824824891.
  6. ^ van den Heuvel, Wilco (2006). Biak: Description of an Austronesian Language of Papua. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, fn. p. 100.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). www.latrobe.edu.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, 1996. p.437
  9. ^ Luraghi, Silvia (2011). "The origin of the Proto-Indo-European gender system: Typological considerations" (PDF). Folia Linguistica. Mouton de Gruyter – Societas Linguistica Europa. 45/2 (2): 435–464. doi:10.1515/flin.2011.016. ISSN 0165-4004. S2CID 59324940.
  10. ^ "Ket – Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  11. ^ Awde, Nicholas; Galaev, Muhammad (2014-05-22). Chechen-English English-Chechen Dictionary and Phrasebook. ISBN 9781136802331.
  12. ^ Kibort, Anna; Corbett, Greville G. (2010-08-19). Features: Perspectives on a Key Notion in Linguistics. ISBN 9780199577743.
  13. ^ https://scholar.harvard.edu/mpolinsky/files/Dyirbal.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  14. ^ https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/data/UQ_11037/rpopt.pdf?Expires=1495704752&Signature=f5dJsIP1bJ4D3ICf4UTKiBehPDgx4Q8AUj~SIe4tL1-2n-fkAHl7fKtYDxYQ918mu0UUKM9OfGxw~DC3I-T~QRiGWHUhtl~RnJ4hH5TZNFO7RFouVpXeaBlRRd1fT0t8I7sTswoT9qjwZ3zqV3O-fGfOHUoblz4Aayl7U5IsPGK6sXpacpkketqOf~bXayFbg9C~kj~QJkm-naqsAdVeQkngzUw1~hymGbd2rNcVnGXxeq4g6S04aoF2idHVfE8JAlJ1ov6~MG83dp6BhqtRRzCxV396TyyUjc4AdHqUZrsvchvpYnjPBqNH5MKMfKD8CKGDG7Fgtf9fBgTAiBz2qg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJKNBJ4MJBJNC6NLQ
  15. ^ Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (2016-09-05). How Gender Shapes the World. ISBN 9780191035692.
  16. ^ "East Africa Living Encyclopedia".
  17. ^ Ndayiragije, Juvénal; Nikiema, Emmanuel; Bhatt, Parth (2012). "The Augment in Kirundi: When Syntax Meets Phonology" (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Toronto. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  18. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324224169_The_Ha_Language_of_Tanzania_Grammar_Texts_and_Vocabulary
  19. ^ "Difficult Languages: Tongue Twisters - In search of the world's hardest language". The Economist. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  20. ^ Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.