List of large historical volcanic eruptions

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Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai

This is a list of volcanoes that have had large explosive eruptions during the Holocene, with a VEI of 5 or higher, or plume height of at least 30 km. To date, there have been no eruptions with a confirmed VEI of 8 in the Holocene, and only a few VEI-7 eruptions are thought to have occurred during this time, with the most recent being the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. This is not a complete list.

List[edit]

VEI[1] Volcano Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Bulk or DRE material volume (km3)[2] Plume height (km)[2] Historical date[1] Tephra or eruption name Notes
5 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga-Kermadec Islands volcanic arc 9.5 58 2022-01-15 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai eruption and tsunami Largest atmospheric explosion recorded by modern instrumentation, heard as far away as Alaska, 10,000 km distant.
5 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Andean Volcanic Belt 1 14 2011-06-04 2011–2012 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption Major flight disruptions in the Southern Hemisphere.
4 Chaitén Andean Volcanic Belt 30 2008-05-02
4 Mount Tavurvur Bismarck Volcanic Arc 30 1994-09-19
5 Mount Hudson Andean Volcanic Belt 4.3 18 1991-08-08
6 Mount Pinatubo[3] Luzon Volcanic Arc 13 40 1991-06-15 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
3 Nevado del Ruiz Andean Volcanic Belt 31 1985-11-13 Armero tragedy
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2 32 1982-04-04 tephra unit A
5 Mount St. Helens[3] Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.3 24 1980-05-18 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens landslide volume 0.7 mi3 (2.9 km3)
5 Mount Agung Sunda Arc, Bali 1 28 1963-03-17
5 Bezymianny Kamchatka 1.9 45 1955
5 Kharimkotan Kuril Islands 1 1933
5 Quizapú Andean Volcanic Belt 9.5 30 1932
5 Submarine Volcano NNE of Iriomote Island Japan 1 1924-10-31 Underwater volcano.
6 Novarupta[3] SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 31.2 26 1912-06-06
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 1.75 22 1907-03-28
6 Santa María[3] Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 20 34 1902-10-24
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 2 34 1886-06-15 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera
6 Krakatoa[3] Sunda Arc 26 80 1883-08-26 1883 eruption of Krakatoa The eruption of Krakatoa caused the loudest sound in recorded history
5 Askja Iceland 1.83 26 1875-03-28
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 2 1854-02-18
5 Mount Agung Sunda Arc, Bali 1 1843
5 Cosigüina Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 4.25 28 1835-01-20
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 2 1822-10-08 killed over 4,000 people
7 Mount Tambora[3] Sunda Arc, Sumbawa 160-213 43 1815-04-10 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora Caused the year without a summer, which caused crops to fail and killed over 100,000-200,000 people
6 Source unknown Source unknown 1808/1809 Undocumented 1808 eruption[4]
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.5 16 1800 T (Goat Rocks)
5 Katla Iceland 1 1755-10-17
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 4 1739-08-18 Ta-a
5 Katla Iceland 1 1721-05-11
5 Mount Fuji Honshū 1.7 1707-12-16 / 1708-2-24 Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji
5 Tangkoko Sangihe Volcanic Arc 1 1680
5 Mount Gamkonora Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1 1673-05-20
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 2.8 1667-09-24 Ta-b
5 Mount Usu Hokkaidō 2.78 1663-08-16
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 30 1660 CE Tibito tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1652 CE ±11 SH1
5 Mount Melibengoy,[5] Philippines Mindanao 1 1640-12-26
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 2.9 1640-07-31 Ko-d landslide volume 1.72 – 2 km3
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.1 28 1631-12-16
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 2.1 13 1630-09-03
5 Katla Iceland 1 1625-09-02
6 Huaynaputina Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 30 46 1600-02-19
5 Raung Sunda Arc, Java 1 1593 CE
5 Kelud Sunda Arc, Java 1 1586 CE
6 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 13.5 1580 CE BM2
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 1.3 19 1563-06-28 / 1563-07-26
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.5 21 1482 CE We (Kalama)
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 7.7 24 1480 CE Wn (Kalama)
6 Bárðarbunga Iceland 10 1477 CE Veidivatnahraun
5 Sakurajima Kyūshū 1 1471-1476 CE
7 1452/1453 mystery eruption Unknown 108 1452 - 1453
5 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 1 1450 CE ±50 Buag eruptive period
5 Öræfajökull Iceland 2.3 30[6] 1362-06-05 Then called Knappafellsjökull. Completely destroyed Litlahérað. Volcano renamed after eruption.
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2.8 31 1360 CE ±100 tephra unit B
6 Quilotoa Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 21 35 1280 CE
5 Katla Iceland 1 1262 CE
7 Mount Samalas Lombok Island 130-200 43 1257 CE 1257 Samalas eruption; May have triggered the Little Ice Age[7]
5 Mount Asama Honshū 1.3 1108-08-29 / 1108-10-11 Asama-B, Tennin eruption
5 Hekla Iceland 1.2 1104-10-15 H1 tephra
5 Ubinas Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2.8 1082 ±82
5 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 4.6 1080 ±100 Ma-b
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1034 CE ±11 SH2
5 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 7 1030 CE BM1
7 Baekdu Mountain[3] Balhae (China – North Korea border) 120 36 ~946 CE Baegdusan-Tomakomai Tephra Millennium eruption, Caldera stage IV
5 Katla Iceland 4.5 15 934-940 CE Eldgjá eruption over 18 km3 of basalt erupted from a fissure vents
6 Ceboruco Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 10.95 31 930 CE ±200 Jala Pumice
5 Towada[8] Honshū 6.54 30 915-08-17 eruption episode A
5 Puyehue Andean Volcanic Belt 4.32 860 CE ±75 MH tephra
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska 50 45 847 CE ±1 WRAe Formed the Pumice Terrace
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc > 1 780 CE ±100 tephra unit D
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 710 CE ±75 Witori-Galilo tephra
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 690 CE ±90 Witori-Kimbe 4 tephra
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 24 683 CE Rabaul Pyroclastics
6 Dakataua Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 653 CE ±18 Dk
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 650 CE ±40 SH3
5 Opala Kamchatka 3.7 20 610 CE ±50 Baranii Amphitheatre crater
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 600 CE
5 Mount Haruna Honshū 1.6 550 CE ±10 Futatsudake-Ikaho eruption
6-7 Unknown source Unknown 535 CE

Volcanic winter of 536

David Keys, Ken Wohletz, and others have postulated that a violent volcanic eruption, possibly of Krakatoa, in 535 was responsible for the global climate changes of 535–536.[9] Keys explores what he believes to be the radical and far-ranging global effects of such a putative 6th-century eruption in his book Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. This eruption was believed to have been even more violent than Krakatoa's 1883 eruption, and also the one that created Krakatoa's original caldera, which resulted in the creation of Verlaten Island and Lang Island.[10] However, there are other explanations for the climate change, including an eruption of Ilopango in El Salvador, in Central America.
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.2 25 472-11-05 Pollena
6-7 Lake Ilopango Central America Volcanic Arc, El Salvador 84-104 31 450 CE ±20

Tierra Blanca Joven eruption

5 Akutan Aleutian Arc 1 340 Akutan tephra
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 310 CE ±100 Witori-Kimbe 3 tephra
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 18.5 30 240 CE ±100 KS1
7 Taupo Volcano[3] Taupo Volcanic Zone 110 51 233 ±13 CE Hatepe eruption
5 Masaya[3] Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 6.6 26 150 Masaya Tuff
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 1.54 17 80 ±100 Tephra layer C
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 3.25 32 79-10-24? Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska 10 60 CE ±200 WRAn
6 Ambrym Vanuatu 70 50 CE ±100 Ambrym Pyroclastic Series
6 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 18 40 50 BCE ±100 Apoyeque, Chiltepe Tephra
6 Okmok Caldera Umnak, Aleutian Arc 50 100 BCE ±50 Okmok II
5 Mount Etna Campanian volcanic arc 1 26 122 BCE S flank, summit (Cratere del Piano caldera)
5 Masaya[3] Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 3.4 29 170 BCE ±100 Masaya Tuff
5 Popocatépetl Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 3.2 30 200 BCE ±300 I.A1 Yellow Pumice
6 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 28.8 250 BCE ±75 Fleetwood
5 Mount Meager massif Garibaldi Volcanic Belt ⩾ 1 410 BCE ±200 Bridge River eruption
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.2 15 530 BCE Ps/Pu (Pine Creek)
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 3.3 550 BCE Ta-c
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 550 BCE ±200
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1 780 BCE SH5
5 Yantarni Volcano SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 1 800 BCE ±500
5 Mount Fuji Honshū 1 930 BCE Upper SE flank, Tephra layer Zu
5 Khodutka Kamchatka 1.25 930 BCE ±100 KHD tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 950 BCE
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 1050 BCE ±150 Maraunot eruptive period
5 Hekla Iceland 7.5 1100 BCE ±50 H3 tephra
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 8 29 1310 BCE ±12 Kaharoa eruption
5 Mount Fuji Honshū 1 1350 BCE Tephra layer Os
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.75 1350 BCE Tephra layer IIAV3
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 30 1370 BCE ±160 Witori-Kimbe 2 tephra
6 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 17 37 1460 BCE ±40 Waimihia eruption
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 3.6 1500 BCE Tephra layer AV1
5 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 1 1500 BCE ±50
5 Hayes Volcano SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 8.1 1550 BCE Hayes Tephra set H
7 Youngest Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 123 36 1610 BCE Minoan eruption
6 Mount Aniakchak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 50 1645 BCE ±10 Aniakchak II
6 Mount Veniaminof SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 50 1750 BCE V2
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 3.5 1770 BCE ±100 Ye (Smith Creek)
5 Villarrica Andean Volcanic Belt 3.3 1810 BCE ±200 Pucón Ignimbrite
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 15.3 1860 BCE Yn (Smith Creek)
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 12 1890 BCE
5 Mount Dana SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 1 1890 BCE 1890 BCE eruption
6 Black Peak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 30 1900 BCE ±150
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2000 BCE SHsp
6-7? Deception Island[11] South Shetland Islands 30-60 (DRE) 2030 BCE Outer Coast Tuff
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2 2030 BCE ±100 Unit K (SI; Espindola 2000) Unit E (Macias 1997)
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 10 2040 BCE ±100 biliau beds
5 Rungwe Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 2.2 30 2050 BCE Rungwe pumice
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 2050 BCE Mitsune-7 scoria
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2100 BCE SHsp
5 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 1.8 27 2150 BCE ±500 Agnano Monte Spina
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 1 2250 BCE ±150
7 Cerro Blanco (Argentina) Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 172 2300 BCE ±160
5 Hekla Iceland 5.6 2310 BCE ±20 H4 tephra
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.2 2340 BCE Yb (Smith Creek)
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.0 31 2420 BCE ±40 Avellino eruption
5 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 1 16 2550 BCE ±1500 W Chiltepe Peninsula, Mateare Tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2620 BCE ±300 SHdv
5 Lake Ikeda Kyūshū 2.3 2690 BCE ±75 Ikeda-ko caldera, Tephra layer Ikp
5 Piton de la Fournaise Réunion 1.8 2700 BCE Bellecombe Ash Member
5 Ilyinsky Kamchatka 1.3 2850 BCE ZLT-tephra; IL-tephra
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 5.4 30 2990 BCE Fogo A
5 Chaitén Andean Volcanic Belt 4.7 3100 BCE ±220 Cha2/Mic2 tephra
5-6 Fisher Caldera Unimak, Aleutian Arc 5.5 DRE 3170 BCE ±75 Turquoise Cone
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.5 3200 BCE ±150 Tephra layer IAv20; AV3
5 Lake Numazawa[8] Honshū 4.71 3400 BCE
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3500 BCE
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 3550 BCE Crow Valley eruptive period
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 6 3576 BCE ±145 Whakatane tephra
6 Taal Luzon Volcanic Arc 50 3580 BCE Taal scoria pyroclastic flow
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3650 BCE
5 Popocatépetl Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt ⩾ 5 39 3700 BCE ±300 I.A1 Yellow Pumice
5 Kaguyak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 3.9 3850 BCE Caldera formation
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 4000 BCE ±210 Witori-Kimbe 1 tephra
6 Masaya Volcano Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 14.8 28 4050 BCE
5 Hekla Iceland 1 4110 BCE ±100 Hekla Ö tephra
5 Towada Honshū 9.18 29 4150 BCE eruption episode C
5 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 1.9 28 4160 BCE ±30 Laguna Xiloá
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 4 4340 BCE ±75 Tephra layer IAv12; AV4
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 180 43 4350 BCE Akahoya eruption
6-7 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands 100 4360 BCE ±200
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 4400 BCE
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 3 4600 BCE ±50 Ko-g
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 4650 BCE Mitsune-5 scoria
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 18 4750 BCE
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 7.5 4900 BCE KS2
5 Tavui Bismarck Volcanic Arc 5.75 4946 BCE ±40 Raluan Pyroclastics
5 Mayor Island/Tuhua Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.6 5060 BCE ±200 Taratimi Bay
5 Puyehue Andean Volcanic Belt 1.66 5080 BCE ±150 PU-2 tephra
5 Hekla Iceland 1.7 5150 BCE H5 tephra
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 3 5200 BCE KS3
5 Ichinsky Kamchatka 2.5 5400 BCE
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1.2 5500 BCE
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 18.6 5550 BCE Ma-f/g/h/i/j
6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Onekotan, Kuril Islands 55 5550 BCE ±75
7 Crater Lake
(as Mount Mazama)
Cascade Volcanic Arc 120 55 5680 BCE ±150 Mazama Tephra Caldera formation
6 Khangar Kamchatka 15 5700 BCE ±16 KHG tephra
6 Crater Lake Cascade Volcanic Arc 10 5900 BCE ±50 Lower Pumice, Llao Rock
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 9 5980 BCE ±100 Tephra layer IAv2
6 Menengai East African Rift 70 6050 BCE
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 6060 BCE ±50 Haroharo (Te Horoa & other domes)
5 Makushin Volcano Unalaska, Aleutian Arc 7.5 6100 BCE ±50
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Arc 30 6300 BCE ±1250 Aniakchak I
6? Karkar Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 6318 BCE Wadau deposit
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4.9 6400 BCE ±50 KZII
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka 155 6440 BCE ±25 Ilinsky eruption
6 Karymsky Kamchatka 14.5 6600 BCE Tephra layer KRM
5 Pico de Orizaba Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 1 6710 BCE ±150 Upper Citlaltépetl ignimbrite
5 Calbuco Southern Chile & Argentina 1 6760 BCE ±825 Ca8 tephra layer
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1 6800 BCE
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 5.1 22.5 6940 BCE ±100 Mercato eruption
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 1.9 6950 BCE Ta-d
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7150 BCE
5 Towada Honshū 2.5 25 7250 BCE eruption episode E
6? Okmok Caldera Umnak, Aleutian Arc 75 7276 BCE ±1180 Okmok I
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 1 7300 BCE
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7400 BCE ±150
6-7 Fisher Caldera Unimak, Aleutian Arc 55 DRE 22 7420 BCE ±200 Fisher Tuff Caldera formation
5? Morne Trois Pitons Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 2.4 7441 BCE ±94 PPR3 - Link fall
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc ⩾10 7460 BCE ±150 Tayawan caldera, Pasbul eruptive period
6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 75 7480 BCE ±50 Moikeshi
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 7560 BCE ±18 Lake Rotoma
5 Roundtop Volcano Unimak, Aleutian Arc 7 7600 BCE ±500
5 Chaitén Andean Volcanic Belt 3.54 30 7750 BCE ±200 Cha1 tephra
6? Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 11.5 8000 BCE Inner Caldera Formation
7? Semisopochnoi Island Aleutian Arc 120 8000 BCE Caldera formation
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4 8050 BCE KZI
6 Aira Kyūshū 12 8050 BCE ±1000 Wakamiko Caldera
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 4.8 37 8130 BCE ±200 Unit E (Opepe Tephra)
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 15 8230 BCE ±50 Saksunarvatn tephra
5 Lake Ngozi Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 7 8250 BCE Kitulo pumice
5 Towada Honshū 1.3 23 8250 BCE eruption episode F
5 Calbuco Southern Chile & Argentina 1 8460 BCE ±155 Ca1 tephra layer
6 Ulreung South Korea 28.5 8750 BCE Ulleungdo-Oki tephra
5 Askja Iceland 3.45 8910 BCE ±200 Dyngjufjöll Tephra
6? Longonot Great Rift Valley, Kenya 50 8910 BCE
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 28 9240 BCE ±75 4 km W of Te Kohaiakahu Point, Unit C (Poronui)
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 9350 BCE
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 9450 BCE Poutu Lapilli (Mangamate)
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.4 27 9460 BCE ±200
5 Hijiori Honshū 2.3 9550 BCE ±500 Obanazawa Pumice
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 9650 BCE

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Global Volcanism Program". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  2. ^ a b "VOGRIPA". VOGRIPA.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. S2CID 131663534.
  4. ^ South Dakota State University (December 7, 2009). "Undocumented volcano contributed to extremely cold decade from 1810-1819". ScienceDaily.
  5. ^ Briffa, K. R.; Jones, P. D.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Osborn, T. J. (1998-06-04). "Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years". Nature. 393 (6684): 450–455. Bibcode:1998Natur.393..450B. doi:10.1038/30943. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4392636.
  6. ^ "The AD 1362 Öræfajökull eruption". Science Direct. Elsevier B.V.
  7. ^ Klemetti, Erik (September 30, 2013). "Samalas in Indonesia Identified as Source of the 1257 A.D. 'Missing' Eruption". WIRED. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Yamamoto, Takahiro (2014). "Cumulative volume step-diagrams for eruptive magmas from major Quaternary volcanoes in Japan". gsj.jp (in Japanese). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Retrieved 2021-01-04.
  9. ^ Wohletz, K. H. (2000). "Were the dark ages triggered by volcano-related climate changes in the 6th century". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 48 (81): F1305. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  10. ^ "The eruption of Krakatoa, August 27, 1883". Commonwealth of Australia 2012, Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-18. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  11. ^ Antoniades, Dermot; Giralt, Santiago; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Granados, Ignacio; Liu, Emma J.; Toro, Manuel; Smellie, John L.; Oliva, Marc (22 November 2018). "The timing and widespread effects of the largest Holocene volcanic eruption in Antarctica". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 17279. Bibcode:2018NatSR...817279A. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35460-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6250685. PMID 30467408.

See also[edit]

References[edit]