List of large volcanic eruptions

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Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai

This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume. This is not a comprehensive list.

List[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Historical date Age in Ma[1] Tephra or eruption name Comments
5 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga-Kermadec Islands volcanic arc 6.5 2022-01-15 -0.000072 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai eruption and tsunami
5 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Andean Volcanic Belt 1 2011-06-04 -0.000061 2011–2012 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption
5 Mount Hudson Andean Volcanic Belt 7.6 1991-08-08 -0.000041
6 Mount Pinatubo[2] Luzon Volcanic Arc 13 1991-06-15 -0.000041 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
5 El Chichón[2] Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2 1982-04-04 -0.000032 tephra unit A
5 Mount St. Helens[2] Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.3 1980-05-18 -0.00003 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens landslide volume 0.7 mi3 (2.9 km3)
5 Mount Awu Sangihe Volcanic Arc 3 1966-08-12 -0.000016 More than 8,000 dead
5 Mount Agung Sunda Arc, Bali 1 1963-03-17 -0.000013
5 Bezymianny Kamchatka 0.45 1955 -0.000005
5 Kharimkotan Kuril Islands 1 1933 0.000017
5 Quizapú Andean Volcanic Belt 1932 0.000018
5 Volcán de Colima Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 1.66 1913-01-20 0.000037
6 Novarupta[2] SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 31.2 1912-06-06 0.000038
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 1.75 1907-03-28 0.000043
6 Santa María[2] Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 20 1902-10-24 0.000048
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 2 1886-06-15 0.000064 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera
6 Krakatoa[2] Sunda Arc 26 1883-08-26 0.000067 1883 eruption of Krakatoa The eruption of Krakatoa caused the loudest sound in recorded history
5 Askja Iceland 1.83 1875-03-28 0.000075
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 2 1854-02-18 0.000096
5 Cosigüina Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 4.25 1835-01-20 0.000115
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 2 1822-10-08 0.000128 killed over 4,000 people
7 Mount Tambora[2] Sunda Arc, Sumbawa 160-213 1815-04-10 0.000135 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora Caused the year without a summer, which caused crops to fail and killed over 100,000-200,000 people
6? Source unknown Source unknown 1808/1809 0.000141 Undocumented 1808 eruption[3]
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.5 1800 0.00015 T (Goat Rocks)
5 Mount Westdahl Unimak, Aleutian Arc 1 1795 CE 0.000155
5 Katla Iceland 1 1755-10-17 0.000195
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 4 1739-08-18 0.000211 Ta-a
5 Katla Iceland 1 1721-05-11 0.000229
5 Mount Fuji Honshū 1.7 1707-12-16 / 1708-2-24 0.000243 Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji
5 Tangkoko Sangihe Volcanic Arc 1 1680 0.00027
5 Mount Gamkonora Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1 1673-05-20 0.000277
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 2.8 1667-09-24 0.000283 Ta-b
5 Mount Usu Hokkaidō 2.78 1663-08-16 0.000287
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 30 1660 CE 0.00029 Tibito tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1650 CE ±10 0.0003 SH1
6 Mount Melibengoy,[4] Philippines Mindanao ~13 1641 CE 0.000309
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 2.9 1640-07-31 0.00031 Ko-d landslide volume 1.72 – 2 km3
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 2.1 1630-09-03 0.00032
5 Katla Iceland 1 1625-09-02 0.000325
6 Huaynaputina Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 30 1600-02-19 0.00035
5 Raung Sunda Arc, Java 1 1593 CE 0.000357
5 Kelud Sunda Arc, Java 1 1586 CE 0.000364
6 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 13.5 1580 CE 0.00037 BM2
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 1.3 1563-06-28 / 1563-07-26 0.000387
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.5 1482 CE 0.000468 We (Kalama)
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 7.7 1480 CE 0.000470 Wn (Kalama)
6 Bárðarbunga Iceland 1477 CE 0.000473 Veidivatnahraun
7 1452/1453 mystery eruption[2] Vanuatu 108 1452 - 1453 0.000498
6 Öræfajökull[5] Iceland 10 1362-06-05 0.000588 Then called Knappafellsjökull. Completely destroyed Litlahérað. Volcano renamed after eruption.
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2.8 1360 CE ±100 0.00059 tephra unit B
6 Quilotoa Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 21 1280 CE 0.00067
5 Katla Iceland 1 1262 CE 0.000688
7 Mount Samalas Lombok Island 130-200 1257 CE 0.000693 1257 Samalas eruption; May have triggered the Little Ice Age[6]
5 Mount Asama Honshū 1.3 1108-08-29 / 1108-10-11 0.000842 Asama-B, Tennin eruption
5 Hekla Iceland 1.2 1104-10-15 0.000846 H1 tephra
5 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 4.6 1080 ±100 0.00087 Ma-b
5 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 7 1030 CE 0.00092 BM1
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1030 CE ±100 0.00092 SH2
6 Ceboruco Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 10.95 1005 CE ±15 0.000945 Jala Pumice
7 Baekdu Mountain[2] Balhae (China – North Korea border) 120 ~946 CE 0.001004 Baegdusan-Tomakomai Tephra Millennium eruption, Caldera stage IV
5 Katla Iceland 4.5 934-940 CE 0.001016 Eldgjá eruption over 18 km3 of basalt erupted from a fissure vents
5 Towada[7] Honshū 6.54 915-08-17 0.001035 eruption episode A
5 Tolbachik Kamchatka 1 900 CE 0.00105 Peschanie Gorky
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska 50 847 CE ±1 0.001103 WRAe Formed the Pumice Terrace
5 Popocatépetl Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 1.42 823 CE 0.001127 II.A2&A3 White Pumice
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc > 1 780 CE ±100 0.00117 tephra unit D
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 710 CE ±75 0.00124 Witori-Galilo tephra
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 690 CE ±90 0.00126 Witori-Kimbe 4 tephra
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 24 683 CE 0.001267 Rabaul Pyroclastics
6 Dakataua Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 653 CE 0.001297 Dk
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 650 CE ±40 0.0013 SH3
5 Opala Kamchatka 3.7 610 CE ±50 0.00134 Baranii Amphitheatre crater
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 600 CE 0.00135
5 Mount Haruna Honshū 1.6 537 CE ±13 0.001413 Futatsudake-Ikaho eruption
6-7 Unknown source Unknown 535 CE 0.001415

Volcanic winter of 536

David Keys, Ken Wohletz, and others have postulated that a violent volcanic eruption, possibly of Krakatoa, in 535 was responsible for the global climate changes of 535–536.[8] Keys explores what he believes to be the radical and far-ranging global effects of such a putative 6th-century eruption in his book Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. This eruption was believed to have been even more violent than Krakatoa's 1883 eruption, and also the one that created Krakatoa's original caldera, which resulted in the creation of Verlaten Island and Lang Island.[9] However, there are other explanations for the climate change, including an eruption of Ilopango in El Salvador, in Central America.
6-7 Lake Ilopango Central America Volcanic Arc, El Salvador 84-104 430 CE 0.001415

Tierra Blanca Joven eruption

5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.2 472-11-05 0.001478 Pollena
5 Akutan Aleutian Arc 1 340 0.00161 Akutan tephra
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 310 CE ±100 0.00164 Witori-Kimbe 3 tephra
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska 10 245 CE ±100 0.001705 WRAn
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 18.5 240 CE ±100 0.00171 KS1
7 Taupo Volcano[2] Taupo Volcanic Zone 110 232 ± 5 CE 0.00172 Hatepe eruption
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 1.54 165 CE ±157 0.001785 Tephra layer C
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 3.25 79-10-24? 0.001871 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79
6 Ambrym Vanuatu 70 50 CE 0.0019 Ambrym Pyroclastic Series
6 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 18 50 BCE 0.002
6 Okmok Caldera Umnak, Aleutian Arc 50 76 BCE ±79 0.002026 Okmok II
6 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 28.8 250 BCE 0.0022 Fleetwood
5 Popocatépetl Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 3.2 305 BCE ±95 0.002255 I.A1 Yellow Pumice
5 Mount Meager massif Garibaldi Volcanic Belt ⩾ 1 410 BCE ±200 0.00236 Bridge River eruption
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 3.3 500 BCE 0.00245 Ta-c
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.2 530 BCE 0.00248 Ps/Pu (Pine Creek)
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 550 BCE 0.0025
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1 780 BCE 0.00273 SH5
5 Yantarni Volcano SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc > 1 800 BCE ±500 0.00275
5 Khodutka Kamchatka 1.25 930 BCE ±100 0.00288 KHD tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 950 BCE 0.0029
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 1050 BCE 0.003 Maraunot eruptive period
5 Hekla Iceland 7.5 1100 BCE ±50 0.00305 H3 tephra
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.75 1350 BCE 0.0033 Tephra layer IIAV3
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 30 1370 BCE ±160 0.00332 Witori-Kimbe 2 tephra
6 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 17 1460 BCE 0.003410 Waimihia eruption
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 3.6 1500 BCE 0.00345 Tephra layer AV1
5 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 1 1500 BCE ±50 0.00345
6 Mount Aniakchak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 50 1541 BCE ±95 0.003491 Aniakchak II
7 Youngest Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 123 1610 BCE 0.00356 Minoan eruption
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 3.5 1770 BCE ±100 0.00372 Ye (Smith Creek)
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 15.3 1860 BCE 0.00381 Yn (Smith Creek)
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 1890 BCE 0.00384
6 Black Peak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 30 1900 BCE ±150 0.00385
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2000 BCE 0.00395 SHsp
5 Hayes Volcano SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 8.1 2025 BCE ±250 0.003975 Hayes Tephra set H
6-7 Deception Island[10] South Shetland Islands 30-60 (DRE) 2030 BCE 0.00398 Outer Coast Tuff
5 El Chichón Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2 2030 BCE ±100 0.00398 Unit K (SI; Espindola 2000) Unit E (Macias 1997)
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 10 2040 BCE 0.00399 biliau beds
5 Rungwe Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 2.2 2050 BCE 0.004 Rungwe pumice
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 2050 BCE 0.004 Mitsune-7 scoria
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2100 BCE 0.00405 SHsp
5 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 1.8 2150 BCE ±4000 0.0041 Agnano Monte Spina
7 Paektu Mountain Balhae (China – North Korea border) 2264 BCE? 0.004214 - 0.051[11] Tianwenfeng eruption
5 Mount Dana SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 1 2293 BCE ±603 0.004243 1890 BCE eruption
7 Cerro Blanco (Argentina) Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 172 2300 BCE 0.00425
5 Hekla Iceland 5.6 2310 BCE ±20 0.00426 H4 tephra
6 Mount Veniaminof SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc > 50 2304 BCE ±151 0.004254 V2
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.2 2340 BCE 0.00429 Yb (Smith Creek)
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.0 2420 BCE ±40 0.00437 Avellino eruption
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2620 BCE 0.00457 SHdv
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 1 2695 BCE ±203 0.004645
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 5.4 2995 BCE 0.004945 Fogo A
5 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 2? 3081 BCE ±182 0.005031 Talili Pyroclastics
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.5 3200 BCE ±150 0.00515 Tephra layer IAv20; AV3
5 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 3.1 3269 BCE ±688 0.005219 Mi-ike pyroclastic fall
5 Tolmachev Dol Kamchatka 1 3366 BCE 0.005316 Optr
5 Lake Numazawa[7] Honshū 4.71 3400 BCE 0.00535
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3500 BCE 0.00545
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 1 3510 BCE 0.00546 Pisão Formation
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 3550 BCE 0.0055 Crow Valley eruptive period
6 Taal Volcano Luzon Volcanic Arc 50 3580 BCE 0.00553 Taal scoria pyroclastic flow
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 2.8 3580 BCE 0.00553
5 Ilyinsky Kamchatka 1.3 3594 BCE ±718 0.005544 ZLT-tephra; IL-tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3650 BCE 0.0056
5 Popocatépetl Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt ⩾ 5 3700 BCE ±250 0.00565 I.A1 Yellow Pumice
6 Fisher Caldera Unimak, Aleutian Arc 14.3 3891 BCE ±92 0.005841 Turquoise Cone
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 4000 BCE ±210 0.00595 Witori-Kimbe 1 tephra
6 Masaya Volcano Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 4050 BCE 0.006
5 Hekla Iceland 1 4110 BCE ±100 0.00606 Hekla Ö tephra
5 Towada Honshū 9.18 4150 BCE 0.0061 eruption episode C
5 Vestmannaeyjar Iceland 1.3 4270 BCE ±180 0.00622 Saefell
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 4 4340 BCE 0.00629 Tephra layer IAv12; AV4
6-7 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands ⩽ 100 4360 BCE 0.00631
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 4400 BCE 0.00635
5 Lake Ikeda Kyūshū 2.3 4450 BCE 0.0064 Ikeda pumice
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 4650 BCE 0.0066 Mitsune-5 scoria
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 4750 BCE 0.0067
5 Kaguyak SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 3.9 4730 BCE ±430 0.00673 Caldera formation
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 2 - 4 4850 BCE 0.0068 Ko-g
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 7.5 4900 BCE 0.00685 KS2
5 Tavui Bismarck Volcanic Arc 5.75 4946 BCE ±40 0.0069 Raluan Pyroclastics
5 Hekla Iceland 1.7 5150 BCE 0.0071 H5 tephra
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 3 5200 BCE 0.00715 KS3
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands > 170 5284 BCE ±69 0.007234[12] Akahoya eruption
5 Ichinsky Kamchatka 2.5 5400 BCE 0.00735
5 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 1.2 5400 BCE ±250 0.00735 Ushinosune ash
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1.2 5500 BCE 0.00745
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 18.6 5550 BCE 0.0075 Ma-f/g/h/i/j
5 Mayor Island/Tuhua Taupo Volcanic Zone 5560 BCE 0.00751
6 Khangar Kamchatka 5700 BCE 0.00765
7 Crater Lake
(as Mount Mazama)
Cascade Volcanic Arc 120 5783 BCE ±49 0.007733 Mazama Tephra Caldera formation
5-6 Crater Lake Cascade Volcanic Arc > 9 5900 BCE ±50 0.00785 Lower Pumice, Llao Rock
6 Khangar Kamchatka 15 5922 BCE ±50 0.007872 KHG tephra
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 9 5980 BCE 0.00793 Tephra layer IAv2
6 Menengai East African Rift 70 6050 BCE 0.008
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 6060 BCE 0.00801
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Arc 30 6300 BCE ±1250 0.00825 Aniakchak I
5 Lake Ngozi Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 7 6300 BCE 0.00825 Kitulo pumice
6 Karkar Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 6318 BCE 0.008268 Wadau deposit
6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Onekotan, Kuril Islands 55 6348 BCE ±90 0.008298
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4.9 6400 BCE ±50 0.00835 KZII
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka 155 6439 BCE ±23 0.008387 Ilinsky eruption
5 Mount Veniaminof SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc > 1 6550 BCE ±500 0.0085 V1
6 Karymsky Kamchatka 14.5 6600 BCE 0.00855 Tephra layer KRM
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1? 6800 BCE 0.00875
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 5.1 6940 BCE ±100 0.00889 Mercato eruption
5 Makushin Volcano Unalaska, Aleutian Arc 7.5 6953 BCE ±123 0.008903
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 1.9 7000 BCE 0.00895 Ta-d
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7150 BCE 0.0091
5 Towada Honshū 2.51 7250 BCE 0.0092 eruption episode E
6 Okmok Caldera Umnak, Aleutian Arc 75 7276 BCE ±1180 0.009226 Okmok I
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 1 7300 BCE 0.00925
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7400 BCE 0.00935
6 Morne Trois Pitons Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 58 7441 BCE ±94 0.009391 PPR3 - Link fall
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc ⩾10 7460 BCE 0.00941 Tayawan caldera, Pasbul eruptive period
5 Lake Rotoma Taupo Volcanic Zone 7560 BCE 0.00951
5 Roundtop Volcano Unimak, Aleutian Arc 7 7600 BCE ±500 0.00955
5 Pico de Orizaba Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt > 1 7761 BCE ±191 0.009711 Upper Citlaltépetl ignimbrite
6 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 11.5 8000 BCE 0.00995 Inner Caldera Formation
5 Koʻolau Range Honolulu Volcanic Series 8000 BCE 0.00995 [citation needed]
7 Semisopochnoi Island Aleutian Arc 120 8000 BCE 0.00995 Caldera formation
5 Tolbachik Kamchatka 1.8 8050 BCE 0.001
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4 8050 BCE 0.01 KZI
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 8130 BCE 0.01008
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 15 8230 BCE 0.01018 Saksunarvatn tephra
5 Towada Honshū 1.3 8250 BCE 0.0102 eruption episode F
6 Ulleung South Korea 28.5 8266 BCE ±39[12] 0.010216 Ulleungdo-Oki tephra
6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 75 8685 BCE ±71 0.010635
7 Fisher Caldera Unimak, Aleutian Arc 142 8722 BCE ±392 0.010672 Fisher Tuff Caldera formation
5 Askja Iceland 3.45 8880 BCE ±57 0.001083 Dyngjufjöll Tephra
6 Longonot Great Rift Valley, Kenya 50 8910 BCE 0.01086
5 Mount Shasta Cascade Volcanic Arc > 2.4 0.011 Red Banks Pumice
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9450 BCE 0.0114
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 9460 BCE 0.01141
5 Hijiori Honshū 2.3 9550 BCE 0.0115
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9650 BCE 0.0116
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 1.75 0.011706 KS4
6 Lolobau Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 50 0.0012 caldera formation
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 79 0.0149 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya < 25 0.012345 Ruplax Tuff
6 Nevado de Toluca Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 20 0.01245 Upper Toluca Pumice
6 Sakurajima Kyūshū 11 0.0128 Sakurajima-Satsuma Tuff
6 Laacher See Eifel hotspot 20 10900 BCE 0.0129
6 Nigorigawa Hokkaidō 10.9 0.0146
6 Maly Semyachik Kamchatka 17.5 0.015
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.0157
6 Towada Honshū 56 0.0155 eruption episode L
6 Mount Erebus Antarctica ⩾ 10 0.018 ±7k Younger caldera formation
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.3 0.019265 Green Pumice
7 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc 100 0.019278 Kiau Ignimbrite
7 Zavaritzki Caldera Simushir, Kuril Islands 200 0.02
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 10 0.020982 Kulau Ignimbrite
6 Cape Riva Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc > 20 0.0218 Cape Riva
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 0.021 Caldera formation 2
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.9 0.02203 Basal Pumice
6 Mount Katmai SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc ⩾ 10 0.0228 Late Pleistocene rhyodacite pumice fall and ignimbrite
6 Dôme Carva Kerguelen Islands 27.5 0.026 ±6k Trachytic ignimbrite
8 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.0265 Oruanui eruption First documented Supervolcanic eruption
6 Morne Diablotins Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 14 0.026581 Grand Savanne Ignimbrite
? Laguna Caldera Luzon Volcanic Arc 0.027-29
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.2 0.028555 Codola Pumice
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.02905 Y3
6 Emmons Lake caldera SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 50 0.029262 Dawson Tephra
6 Nemrut yanardağı Turkey 65.4 0.0297
7-8 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 940 - 1,040[13] 0.03[12] Ito Ignimbrite
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 10 0.03083 Nemo III
6 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 30 0.032161 caldera formation
6 Volcán Los Azufres Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 11 0.032804 Cieneguillas Ignimbrite
6 Morne Trois Pitons Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 58 0.033342 Roseau Tuff/Ignimbrite
7 Lake Ranau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 150 0.03364 Ranau Tuff
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 31.25 0.034 Nemo II
6 Mount Batur Sunda Arc, Bali 84 0.034565 Ubud Ignimbrite
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 25 0.035 Caldera II
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 0.03525[7] Nu-p
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 0.03562 Menengai Tuff
6 Towada Honshū 46 0.036 eruption episode N
7 Gorely Kamchatka 120 0.038981 Southern sea cliffs
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 0.03829[7] Nu-r
6 Mount Erebus Antarctica ⩾ 10 0.018 ±6k Older caldera formation
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 430 - 680 0.03985 Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 170 0.03931 Kp-1, Kutcharo Shoro Ash
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.04
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 40 0.04 Caldera I
6 Ugashik-Peulik SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 30 0.04 Caldera formation
6? Ulleung South Korea 10? 0.04[12] Ulleungdo-Yamato tephra
6 Irosin Caldera Bicol-Leyte Volcanic Arc 70 0.041 Irosin Ignimbrites
6 Qualibou Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc 11 0.042264 Choiseul Tuff
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 10.32 0.0425 C (Cs, Cy, Cm, Cw, Ct) (Ape Canyon)
7 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 150 0.43603 Uzon ignimbrite - northern field
6 Golovnin Kunashir, Kuril Islands 15 0.043683 Kn III-5 Tephra
6 Mount Akagi Honshū 25.9 0.044 Akagi-Kanuma pumice
6 Mendeleev Kunashir, Kuril Islands 60 0.044114 caldera formation
7 Opala Kamchatka 225 0.044484 caldera formation
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 - 10[7] 0.045 Yanagisawa Tuff
7 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands > 115 0.045 Nemo I
6 Smith Island Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 49 0.045
7 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 350 - 390[14] 0.046 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 14.4 DRE[7] > 0.043[16] Kt-1
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.2 DRE 0.05 Kt-2
7 Okataina Volcanic Complex Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.05 Rotoiti Ignimbrite
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 13.1 0.05095 Santa Lucia Tephra
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 235 0.052 Maninjau paroxysmal welded and unwelded tuffs
6 Mount Kujū Kyūshū 12[17] 0.05352 Kuju-Handa pyroclastic flow (Kj-Hd), Kuju-1 Pumice (Kj-P1)
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 13.75 0.054 Upper Scoriae 2
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 20.1 DRE 0.05 - 0.06 Kt-3
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.056 X2
6 Daisen Honshū 40 0.05957[12] Daisen-Kurayoshi Pumice
6 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 50 0.06 Shadai eruption
6 Towada Honshū 10 0.061 eruption episode Q
6 Newberry Volcano Cascade Volcanic Arc > 12.5 0.0625 Olema tephra, Paulina tephra
6 Hakone Honshū 20 0.066 Hakone-Tokyo Pumice
6 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 12.5 0.0694 Odnoboky O2 tuffs
6 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 37 0.069 Zaragoza Tuff
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc 40 0.056 Monte Epomeo Green Tuff
6 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 24 0.07 Faby Tuff
6 Pico do Fogo Cape Verde 0.073
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 - 10 0.073 Nisaka Tuff
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 2800 (DRE) - 13,200[18] 73000 BCE 0.074 Youngest Toba Tuff The eruption of Lake Toba was the biggest volcanic eruption in the Quaternary period.[19]
6 Barrier Volcano Great Rift Valley, Kenya 10 0.074 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō > 11 DRE 0.075 Kt-4
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 12.35 0.08 CA-1a Tephra
6 Bolshoy Semyachik Kamchatka 42 0.08 Bol'shoi Semiachik Caldera II
6 Hakone Honshū 10 0.08 Hakone-Obaradai Pumice
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 25 0.081 Inararo Tuff
6 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 10 0.00828 X4; I-7
7-8 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 300 0.084 Los Chocoyos eruption This eruption gave way for the Lake Atitlan
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 16.8 DRE 0.084 Kt-6
6 Kussharo Hokkaidō 25 0.085 Kp-2/3
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.8 DRE 0.084 - 0.087 Kt-7
7-8 Mount Aso Kyūshū 930 - 1,860[13] 0.087 Aso-4 Ignimbrite
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 9.9 DRE 0.087 - 0.106 Kt-8
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 0.095 Tozurahara eruption
6 Sierra la Primavera Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 90 0.0952 Tala Tuff
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 14 0.1 Middle Pumice
6 Ontake Honshū 50 0.0957 Ontake-1 Pumice
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 0.1 Boroi Ignimbrites
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 0.1 Malaguna Pyroclastics
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū 350 0.1[12] Ata pyroclastic deposits
6 Sanbe Honshū 20 0.105 Sanbe-Kisuki pumice
6 Tangkuban Perahu Sunda Arc, Java ≥ 10 0.105 Sunda Caldera
7 Lake Tōya Hokkaidō 230 – 310[13] 0.106
6 Santo Antão Cape Verde 10.33 0.106 Cão Grande I
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.1062 X5
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.1089 X6
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 175 0.1175 Kp-4, Kutcharo Haboro Ash
7 Emmons Lake caldera SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 220 0.124 Old Craw Tephra
7 Mount Aso Kyūshū > 150 0.13 Aso-3 Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 50 0.141 Aso-2 Ignimbrite
6 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 23? 0.143 Cold Mountain Creek Tuff
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.15 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit S
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.15
7 Kos-Nisyros Caldera South Aegean Volcanic Arc 110 0.1613 Kos Plateau Tuff
7 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 290 DRE[20] 0.164 Xáltipan Ignimbrite
7 Lake Akan Hokkaidō 56.8 (DRE) 0.175 AK-2
6 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 50 0.176 Bluff Point Tuff
7 Southern Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.18
7 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 103.5 0.18229
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.205
7 Rotorua Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Mamaku Ignimbrite
7 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ohakuri Ignimbrite
7 Reporoa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Kaingaroa Ignimbrite
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū > 150 0.24 Torihama eruption
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.24 Ohakui Ignimbrite
7 O'a Caldera Ethiopia 276 0.24 Qi3 Pumice
8 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.254 Whakamaru Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.266 Aso-1 Ignimbrite
6 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 46 0.278 Uzon ignimbrite - southern field
7 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Matahina Ignimbrite
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Pakai Ignimbrite
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 175 0.28
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.3 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit V
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.3 Chimpanzee Ignimbrite
7 Vulsini Campanian volcanic arc 460 0.3 Bolsena Caldera
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.315
7 Kakutō Caldera Kyūshū 0.325 Kakuto Ignimbrite
7? Suiendani Honshū 0.37 Okuhida Pyroclastics
7 Lake Bracciano Lazio, Italy > 200 0.374 Mophi Tephra
6 Roccamonfina Caldera Campanian volcanic arc 0.385
6-7 Medvezhia Iturup, Kuril Islands 90 0.41 Medvezhia Ignimbrite
7 Toussidé Tibesti Mountains 150 0.43 Yirrigué Ignimbrite
7 Pauzhetka Caldera Kamchatka 375 0.443 Golygin Ignimbrite
7 Tumalo Oregon 0.44 Tumalo tuff
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.45 Oda Ignimbrite
7 Diamante Caldera Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.45
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.5 Yoshino Ignimbrite
7 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 138 0.501 Middle Toba Tuff
7 Kobayashi Caldera Kyūshū 0.52 Kobayashi Ignimbrite
6 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.56
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 0.58 Hiwaki Ignimbrite
6? Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.6 Yufugawa Ignimbrite
6 Mount Lassen Cascade Volcanic Arc > 75 0.609 Rockland Caldera formation
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot ⩾ 1,000 0.6313 Lava Creek Tuff
7 Acatlán Volcanic Field Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 150 0.65 Acatlán Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.65 Seiganji-Toga Tephra
7 Kamitakara Honshū 0.65
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.68 Matahana A
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.71 Waiotapu Ignimbrite
7 Long Valley Caldera eastern California 790 0.76 Bishop Tuff
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.83 Matahana B
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.84 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit L
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 5,290[18] 0.84 Oldest Toba Tuff
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 0.87 Imaichi Ignimbrite
7 Tondano Caldera North Sulawesi, Sulawesi 600 - 950 0.871 A low-end supereruption
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.95 Marshall Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.97 Unit E
7 North Vate Vanuatu 1 Efaté Pumice Formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 Rocky Hill Ignimbrite
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 1 Yabakei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 1
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1 Saigō Ignimbrite
7 Tokachi-Mitsumata Caldera Hokkaidō > 130 1
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.01 Kidnappers Ignimbrite
8 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 1,000 1.09
8 Gakkel Ridge Caldera Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean 3000 1.1
7 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 100 1.13 Stena-Soboliny Ignimbrite
7 Kulshan Caldera Cascade Volcanic Arc > 117.5 1.149 Lake Tapps Tephra, Swift Creek Ignimbrite Kulshan caldera formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.18 Ahuroa Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 Unit D
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 1.2 Shikido Ignimbrite
6 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 1.2 Haranggoal Dacite Tuff
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.2 Ashino Ignimbrite
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.21 Ongatiti Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA
(Raton hotspot)
690 1.223 Upper Bandelier Tuff
7 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot > 280 (DRE) 1.27 Mesa Falls Tuff
7 Puricó Complex Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1.3 Puricó Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.4 Unit C
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.4 Kumado Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.4 Tokachi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.53 Unit B
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.55 Unit A
7 Mount Jiigatake[21] Honshū 1.6 Ōmine Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 690 1.61 Lower Bandelier Tuff
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.65
6 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1.7 Puripica Ch0ico ignimbrite
7 Young Island Valleny Islands 100 1.7 Eltanin
7 Bolshe-Bannaya Kamchatka 800 1.705
7 Mount Hotakadake[21] Honshū 1.75 Ebisutōge-Fukuda tephras
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 1.76 Nyūkawa Ignimbrite
7 Karymshina Kamchatka 1.78
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA ⩾ 100 1.78 San Diego Canyon Ignimbrite
7 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 1.8
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.88 Kitazawa Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.9 Biei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 2
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 2 Sonehara Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Nyūnomi Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ichiuda Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Reishōji Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ht-3 Ignimbrite
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 2,160 2.0794 Huckleberry Ridge Tuff A & B
7 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 290 2.113 Huckleberry Ridge Tuff C
7 Mount Jiigatake[21] Honshū 2.18 Taniguchi Ignimbrite
8 Cerro Galán Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1030 2.2 Cerro Galán Ignimbrite
7? Mount Erciyes Turkey 2.52 Valibabatepe Ignimbrite
7 Hiwada Caldera Honshū 2.8 Hotokezawa Ignimbrite
8 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1500 2.9 Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite
7 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 3.5 Tara Ignimbrite
7 Yunosawa Caldera Honshū 3.5 Obirakiyama Tuff
8 Pacana Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2800 4 Atana Ignimbrite
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 4.45 Kilgore Tuff
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 5.51 Conant Creek Tuff
8 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1300 5.7 Guacha ignimbrite
7 Cerro Panizos Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 6.1 Panizos Ignimbrite
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.27 Walcott Tuff
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.62 Blacktail Tuff
7 Black Mountain Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 7 Thirsty Canyon Tuff
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera or Vilama Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 8.3 Sifon Ignimbrite
? Twin Falls volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10-8.6
8 Grey's Landing Supereruption Yellowstone hotspot >2,800[22] 8.72 Grey's Landing Ignimbrite
8 McMullen Supereruption Yellowstone hotspot >1,700[22] McMullen Ignimbrite 8.99
? Picabo volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10.09 & 10.21 Arbon Valley Tuffs
7-8 Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera Yellowstone hotspot 950 10.0 to 12.5 Ashfall Fossil Beds eruption
7 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.45 Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks member
8 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.6 Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainer Mesa member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.7 Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.8 Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon member
7 Mount Sobo Kyūshū 12.8
7 Mount Katamuki Kyūshū 13
7 Silent Canyon caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13 Belted Range Tuff
7 Crater Flat Group Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13.25 Crater Flat Tuff, Bullfrog member
? Owyhee-Humboldt volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 13.9-12.8
8 Ōdai Caldera Honshū 13.7 Murō Ignimbrite
8 Mount Ōkue Kyūshū 13.7 Okueyama volcano-plutonic complex
7 Mount Ishizuchi Shikoku 14
7 Shitara Caldera Honshū 15.1-13.1
8 Kumano Caldera Honshū 14.4 Kumano Acidic rocks
8 Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1100 15 Huaylillas Ignimbrite
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15 Whitehorse Creek Tuff
8 Mount Osuzu Kyūshū 15.1 Osuzuyama volcano-plutonic complex
? Lake Owyhee volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15.5-15
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 2-3
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.7 Double H Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15.8 Trout Creek Mountains Tuff
? McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16 Hoppin Peaks Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16.548 Oregon Canyon Tuff
? Northwest Nevada volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 16.5-15.5
8 Oxaya Formation Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 3000 19 Oxaya Ignimbrites
7 Mount Belknap Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 19 Joe Lott member
7 Monroe Peak Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 23 Osiris Tuff
8 La Garita Caldera San Juan volcanic field 5000 27.8 Fish Canyon Tuff Second biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years
8? Bachelor San Juan volcanic field 1000 28 Carpenter Ridge Tuff
8 San Juan San Juan volcanic field 28 Sapinero Mesa Tuff
8? Uncompahgre San Juan volcanic field 1000 28.1 Dillon & Sapinero Mesa Tuffs
8? Platoro San Juan volcanic field 1000 28.2 Chiquito Peak Tuff
8 Bursum Southern New Mexico 28.5 Apache Springs Tuff
8 White Rock Caldera Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex 29.2 Lund Tuff
8 Sana'a Ignimbrite Afro-Arabian 29.5 Tephra 2W63
8 Iftar Alkalb Afro-Arabian 29.5 Tephra 4 W
8 Sam Ignimbrite Yemen 29.5 Green Tuff
8 Jabal Kura'a Ignimbrite Yemen 29.6
8 Wah Wah Springs Caldera Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex 5900 30.06 Wah Wah Springs Tuff The biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years
8 Windows Butte Tuff Central Nevada 33 Windows Butte Tuff
8 Emory Caldera Southwestern New Mexico 34.9 Kneeling Nun Tuff City of Rocks State Park
8 Mount Princeton Thirtynine Mile volcanic area, Colorado 35.3 Wall Mountain Tuff
7 Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex Skukum Group 50
8 Deccan Traps West-central India 65 This volcanic episode occurred about 300,000 years after the Chicxulub meteor impact, and may have been another contributing factor towards the extinction of the dinosaurs
8 Source unknown Honshū 70 Noi Rhyolite
8 Guarapuava-Tamarana-Sarusas Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Santa Maria Fria Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Guarapuava-Ventura Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 High Island Caldera Hong Kong 140
8 Ora Caldera Southern Alps, Italy 277–274 Ora Formation
7 Altenberg–Teplice Caldera[23] The Altenberg-Teplice Volcanic Complex 325-317 Teplice Rhyolite intra-caldera deposits
8 Cerberean Caldera Rubicon Valley 365
8 Glen Coe Scotland 420
8 Scafells Lake District 488-443

References[edit]

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  13. ^ a b c Shinji Takarada; Hideo Hoshizumi (2020). "Distribution and Eruptive Volume of Aso-4 Pyroclastic Density Current and Tephra Fall Deposits, Japan: A M8 Super-Eruption". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8: 170. Bibcode:2020FrEaS...8..170T. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00170.
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  22. ^ a b Knott, Thomas; Branney, M.; Reichow, Marc; Finn, David; Tapster, Simon; Coe, Robert (June 2020). "Discovery of two new super-eruptions from the Yellowstone hotspot track (USA): Is the Yellowstone hotspot waning?". Geology. 48. doi:10.1130/G47384.1. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  23. ^ Casas-García, Raymundo; Rapprich, Vladislav; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Svojtka, Martin; Lapp, Manuel; Stanek, Klaus; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf (2019-11-15). "Lithofacies architecture, composition, and age of the Carboniferous Teplice Rhyolite (German–Czech border): Insights into the evolution of the Altenberg-Teplice Caldera". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 386: 106662. Bibcode:2019JVGR..38606662C. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106662. ISSN 0377-0273. S2CID 202913004.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]