List of large volcanic eruptions

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This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume. This is not a comprehensive list.

List[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Historical date Age in Ma[1] Tephra or eruption name Comments
5 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Andean Volcanic Belt 1 2011-06-04 -0.000061
5 Mount Hudson Andean Volcanic Belt 7.6 1991-08-08 -0.000041
6 Mount Pinatubo[2] Luzon Volcanic Arc 13 1991-06-15 -0.000041 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
5 El Chichón[2] Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc 2 1982-04-04 -0.000032 tephra unit A
5 Mount St. Helens[2] Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.3 1980-05-18 -0.00003 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens landslide volume 0.7 mi3 (2.9km3)
5 Mount Awu Sangihe Volcanic Arc 3 1966-08-12 -0.000016 More than 8,000 dead
5 Mount Agung Sunda Arc, Bali 1 1963-03-17 -0.000013
5 Bezymianny Kamchatka 0.45 1955 -0.000005
5 Kharimkotan Kuril Islands 1 1933 0.000017
6 Novarupta[2] Aleutian Range 31.2 1912-06-06 0.000038
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 1.75 1907-03-28 0.000043
6 Santa María[2] Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 20 1902-10-24 0.000048
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 2 1886-06-15 0.000064 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera
6 Krakatoa[2] Sunda Arc 26 1883-08-26 0.000067 1883 eruption of Krakatoa The eruption of Krakatoa caused the loudest sound in recorded history
5 Askja Iceland 1.83 1875-03-28 0.000473
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 2 1854-02-18 0.000096
5 Cosigüina Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 4.25 1835-01-20 0.000115
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 2 1822-10-08 0.000128 killed over 4,000 people
7 Mount Tambora[2] Sunda Arc, Sumbawa 160-213 1815-04-10 0.000135 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora Caused the year without a summer, which caused crops to fail and killed over 100,000-200,000 people
6? Source unknown Source unknown 1808/1809 0.000141 Undocumented 1808 eruption[3]
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1800 0.00015
5 Katla Iceland 1 1755-10-17 0.000195
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 4 1739-08-18 0.000211 Ta-a
5 Katla Iceland 1 1721-05-11 0.000229
5 Mount Fuji Honshū 1.7 1707-12-16 / 1708-2-24 0.000243 Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji
5 Tangkoko Sangihe Volcanic Arc 1 1680 0.00027
5 Mount Gamkonora Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1 1673-05-20 0.000277
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 2.8 1667-09-24 0.000283 Ta-b
5 Mount Usu Hokkaidō 2.78 1663-08-16 0.000287
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 30 1660 AD 0.00029 Tibito tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1650 AD ±10 0.0003 SH1
6 Mount Melibengoy,[4] Philippines Mindanao 1641 AD 0.000309
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 2.9 1640-07-31 0.00031 Ko-d landslide volume 1.72 - 2 km3
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 2.1 1630-09-03 0.00032
5 Katla Iceland 1 1625-09-02 0.000325
6 Huaynaputina Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1600-02-19 0.00035
5 Raung Sunda Arc, Java 1 1593 AD 0.000357
5 Kelud Sunda Arc, Java 1 1586 AD 0.000364
6 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 13.5 1580 AD 0.00037 BM2
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 1.3 1563-06-28 / 1563-07-26 0.000387
6 Bárðarbunga Iceland 1477 AD 0.000473 Veidivatnahraun
7 Kuwae[2] Vanuatu 108 1452 - 1453 0.000498
5 Öraefajökull Iceland 2.3 1362-06-05 0.000588
6 Quilotoa Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 1280 AD 0.00067
5 Katla Iceland 1 1262 AD 0.000688
7 Mount Samalas Lombok Island >200 1257 AD 0.000693 1257 Samalas eruption; May have triggered the Little Ice Age[5]
5 Mount Asama Honshū 1.3 1108-08-29 / 1108-10-11 0.000842 Asama-B, Tennin eruption
5 Hekla Iceland 1.2 1104-10-15 0.000846 H1 tephra
5 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 4.6 1080 ±100 0.00087 Ma-b
5 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 7 1030 AD 0.00092 BM1
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 1030 AD ±100 0.00092 SH2
7 Baekdu Mountain[2] Balhae (China – North Korea border) 120 ~946 AD 0.001004 Tianchi eruption
5 Katla Iceland 4.5 934-940 AD 0.001016 Eldgjá eruption over 18 km3 of basalt erupted from a fissure vents
6 Ceboruco Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 930 AD 0.00102
5 Towada[6] Honshū 6.54 915-08-17 0.001035 eruption episode A
5 Tolbachik Kamchatka 1 900 AD 0.00105 Peschanie Gorky
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 710 AD ±75 0.00124 Witori-Galilo tephra
6 Mount Churchill Eastern Alaska 700 AD 0.00125 Formed the Pumice Terrace
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 690 AD ±90 0.00126 Witori-Kimbe 4 tephra
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 24 683 AD 0.001267 Rabaul Pyroclastics
6 Dakataua Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 653 AD 0.001297 Dk
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 650 AD ±40 0.0013 SH3
5 Opala Kamchatka 3.7 610 AD ±50 0.00134 Baranii Amphitheatre crater
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 600 AD 0.00135
5 Mount Haruna Honshū 1.6 537 AD ±13 0.001413 Futatsudake-Ikaho eruption
6-7 Lake Ilopango Central America Volcanic Arc, El Salvador 84-104 430 AD 0.001415

Tierra Blanca Joven eruption

5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.2 472-11-05 0.001478 Pollena
6 Krakatoa Sunda Arc 416 AD 0.001534 According to the Javanese book of Kings, a huge explosion was heard at Krakatoa splitting the main island of Indonesia, into the two largest islands, Java and Sumatra.
5 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 6 310 AD ±100 0.00164 Witori-Kimbe 3 tephra
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 18.5 240 AD ±100 0.00171 KS1
7 Taupo Volcano[2] Taupo Volcanic Zone 110 232 ± 5 AD 0.00172 Hatepe eruption
5 Furnas São Miguel Island, Azores 1.54 165 AD ±157 0.001785 Tephra layer C
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 3.25 79-10-24? 0.001871 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska, USA 60 AD 0.00189
6 Ambrym Vanuatu 70 50 AD 0.0019 Ambrym Pyroclastic Series
6 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 50 BC 0.002
6 Mount Okmok Aleutian Islands 100 BC 0.00205
6 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 28.8 250 BC 0.0022 Fleetwood
5 Mount Meager massif Garibaldi Volcanic Belt 400 BC 0.00235 Bridge River eruption
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 3.3 500 BC 0.00245 Ta-c
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 550 BC 0.0025
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1 780 BC 0.00273 SH5
5 Khodutka Kamchatka 1.25 930 BC ±100 0.00288 KHD tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 950 BC 0.0029
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 1050 BC 0.003 Maraunot eruptive period
5 Hekla Iceland 7.5 1100 BC ±50 0.00305 H3 tephra
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.75 1350 BC 0.0033 Tephra layer IIAV3
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 30 1370 BC ±160 0.00332 Witori-Kimbe 2 tephra
6 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 1460 BC 0.003410
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 3.6 1500 BC 0.00345 Tephra layer AV1
5 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 1 1500 BC ±50 0.00345
7 Youngest Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 123 1610 BC 0.00356 Minoan eruption The eruption of the Thera volcano is said to be linked to the fabled Atlantis
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 1645 BC 0.003595
6 Mount Veniaminof Aleutian Range 1750 BC 0.0037
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 15.3 1860 BC 0.00381
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 1890 BC 0.00384
6 Black Peak Aleutian Range 1900 BC 0.00385
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.0 2420 BC ±40 0.00437 Avellino eruption
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2000 BC 0.00395 SHsp
6 Deception Island[7] South Shetland Islands 2030 BC 0.00398
6 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 10 2040 BC 0.00399 biliau beds
5 Rungwe Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 2.2 2050 BC 0.004 Rungwe pumice
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 2050 BC 0.004 Mitsune-7 scoria
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2100 BC 0.00405 SHsp
5 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 1.8 2150 BC ±4000 0.0041 Agnano Monte Spina
7 Paektu Mountain Balhae (China – North Korea border) 2264 BC? 0.004214 - 0.051[8] Tianwenfeng eruption
7 Cerro Blanco (Argentina) Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2300 BC 0.00425
5 Hekla Iceland 5.6 2310 BC ±20 0.00426 H4 tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 1 2620 BC 0.00457 SHdv
5 Mount Galunggung Sunda Arc, Java 1 2695 BC ±203 0.004645
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 5.4 2995 BC 0.004945 Fogo A
5 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 2? 3081 BC ±182 0.005031 Talili Pyroclastics
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 1.5 3200 BC ±150 0.00515 Tephra layer IAv20; AV3
5 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 3.1 3269 BC ±688 0.005219 Mi-ike pyroclastic fall
5 Tolmachev Dol Kamchatka 1 3366 BC 0.005316 Optr
5 Lake Numazawa[6] Honshū 4.71 3400 BC 0.00535
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3500 BC 0.00545
5 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 1 3510 BC 0.00546 Pisão Formation
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 12.5 3550 BC 0.0055 Crow Valley eruptive period
6 Taal Volcano Luzon Volcanic Arc 50 3580 BC 0.00553 Taal scoria pyroclastic flow
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 3580 BC 0.00553
5 Ilyinsky Kamchatka 1.3 3594 BC ±718 0.005544 ZLT-tephra; IL-tephra
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 3650 BC 0.0056
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10 4000 BC ±210 0.00595 Witori-Kimbe 1 tephra
6 Masaya Volcano Central America Volcanic Arc, Nicaragua 4050 BC 0.006
5 Hekla Iceland 1 4110 BC ±100 0.00606 Hekla Ö tephra
5 Towada Honshū 9.18 4150 BC 0.0061 eruption episode C
5 Vestmannaeyjar Iceland 1.3 4270 BC ±180 0.00622 Saefell
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka ≥ 4 4340 BC 0.00629 Tephra layer IAv12; AV4
6-7 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands ⩽ 100 4360 BC 0.00631
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 4400 BC 0.00635
5 Lake Ikeda Kyūshū 2.3 4450 BC 0.0064 Ikeda pumice
5 Nishiyama, Hachijō-jima Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 1.2 4650 BC 0.0066 Mitsune-5 scoria
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 4750 BC 0.0067
5 Komagatake Hokkaidō 2 - 4 4850 BC 0.0068 Ko-g
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 7.5 4900 BC 0.00685 KS2
5 Tavui Bismarck Volcanic Arc 5.75 4946 BC ±40 0.0069 Raluan Pyroclastics
5 Hekla Iceland 1.7 5150 BC 0.0071 H5 tephra
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 3 5200 BC 0.00715 KS3
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 5250 BC 0.0072
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands > 170 5284 BC ±69 0.007234[9] Akahoya eruption
5 Ichinsky Kamchatka 2.5 5400 BC 0.00735
5 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 1.2 5400 BC ±250 0.00735 Ushinosune ash
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1.2 5500 BC 0.00745
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 18.6 5550 BC 0.0075 Ma-f/g/h/i/j
5 Mayor Island/Tuhua Taupo Volcanic Zone 5560 BC 0.00751
7 Crater Lake
(as Mount Mazama)
Cascade Volcanic Arc 5677 BC 0.007627
6 Khangar Kamchatka 5700 BC 0.00765
? Puy de Dôme Chaîne des Puys 5760 BC 0.00771
6 Crater Lake Cascade Volcanic Arc 5900 BC 0.00785
6 Khangar Kamchatka 15 5922 BC ±50 0.007872 KHG tephra
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka 9 5980 BC 0.00793 Tephra layer IAv2
6 Menengai East African Rift 6050 BC 0.008
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 6060 BC 0.00801
5 Lake Ngozi Great Rift Valley, Tanzania 7 6300 BC 0.00825 Kitulo pumice
6 Karkar Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 20 6318 BC 0.008268 Wadau deposit
6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Onekotan, Kuril Islands 55 6348 BC ±90 0.008298
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4.9 6400 BC ±50 0.00835 KZII
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka 155 6439 BC ±23 0.008387 Ilinsky eruption
6 Karymsky Kamchatka 14.5 6600 BC 0.00855 Tephra layer KRM
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka 1? 6800 BC 0.00875
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 5.1 6940 BC ±100 0.00889 Mercato eruption
5 Mount Tarumae Hokkaidō 1.9 7000 BC 0.00895 Ta-d
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7150 BC 0.0091
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 1 7300 BC 0.00925
5 Shiveluch Kamchatka ≥ 2 7400 BC 0.00935
5 Towada Honshū 2.51 7250 BC 0.0092 eruption episode E
6 Fisher Caldera Aleutian Islands 7420 BC 0.00937
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc ⩾10 7460 BC 0.00941 Tayawan caldera, Pasbul eruptive period
5 Lake Rotoma Taupo Volcanic Zone 7560 BC 0.00951
6 Água de Pau São Miguel Island, Azores 11.5 8000 BC 0.00995 Inner Caldera Formation
5 Ko'olau Range Honolulu Volcanic Series 8000 BC 0.00995
7 Semisopochnoi Island Aleutian Islands 120 8000 BC 0.00995
5 Tolbachik Kamchatka 1.8 8050 BC 0.001
5 Kizimen Kamchatka 4 8050 BC 0.01 KZI
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 8130 BC 0.01008
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 15 8230 BC 0.01018 Saksunarvatn tephra
5 Towada Honshū 1.3 8250 BC 0.0102 eruption episode F
6 Ulleung South Korea 28.5 8266 BC ±39[9] 0.010216 Ulleungdo-Oki tephra
? Puy de Dôme[10] Chaîne des Puys 8680 BC 0.01063
6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 75 8685 BC ±71 0.010635
5 Askja Iceland 3.45 8880 BC ±57 0.001083 Dyngjufjöll Tephra
6 Longonot Great Rift Valley, Kenya 50 8910 BC 0.01086
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9450 BC 0.0114
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 9460 BC 0.01141
5 Hijiori Honshū 2.3 9550 BC 0.0115
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9650 BC 0.0116
5 Ksudach Kamchatka 1.75 0.011706 KS4
6 Lolobau Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 50 0.0012 caldera formation
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 79 0.0149 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya < 25 0.012345 Ruplax Tuff
6 Nevado de Toluca Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 20 0.01245 Upper Toluca Pumice
6 Sakurajima Kyūshū 11 0.0128 Satsuma Tuff
6 Laacher See Eifel hotspot 20 0.0129
6 Nigorigawa Hokkaidō 10.9 0.0146
6 Maly Semyachik Kamchatka 17.5 0.015
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.0157
6 Towada Honshū 56 0.0155 eruption episode L
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.017
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.3 0.019265 Green Pumice
7 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc 100 0.019278 Kiau Ignimbrite
7 Zavaritzki Caldera Simushir, Kuril Islands 200 0.02
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc > 10 0.020982 Kulau Ignimbrite
6 Cape Riva Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc > 20 0.0218 Cape Riva
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 0.021 Caldera formation 2
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.9 0.02203 Basal Pumice
6 Mount Batur Sunda Arc, Bali 24 0.02438 Gunungkawi / Batur Ignimbrite
? Puy de Sancy 0.025
8 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.0265 Oruanui eruption First documented Supervolcanic eruption
? Laguna Caldera Luzon Volcanic Arc 0.027-29
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.2 0.028555 Codola Pumice
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.02905 Y3
6 Nemrut yanardağı Turkey 65.4 0.0297
7-8 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 940 - 1,040[11] 0.03[9] Ito Ignimbrite
6 Morne Diablotins Lesser Antilles island arc 0.03 Grand Savanne Ignimbrite
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 10 0.03083 Nemo III
6 Shiveluch Kamchatka > 30 0.032161 caldera formation
7 Lake Ranau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 150 0.03364 Ranau Tuff
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 31.25 0.034 Nemo II
6 Mount Batur Sunda Arc, Bali 84 0.034565 Ubud Ignimbrite
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 25 0.035 Caldera II
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 0.03525[6] Nu-p
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 0.03562 Menengai Tuff
6 Towada Honshū 46 0.036 eruption episode N
7 Gorely Kamchatka 120 0.038981 Southern sea cliffs
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 0.03829[6] Nu-r
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 320 0.03985 Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 170 0.03931 Kp-1, Kutcharo Shoro Ash
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.04
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 40 0.04 Caldera I
6? Ulleung South Korea 10? 0.04[9] Ulleungdo-Yamato tephra
6 Irosin Caldera Bicol-Leyte Volcanic Arc 70 0.041 Irosin Ignimbrites
7 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 150 0.43603 Uzon ignimbrite - northern field
6 Golovnin Kunashir, Kuril Islands 15 0.043683 Kn III-5 Tephra
6 Mount Akagi Honshū 25.9 0.044 Akagi-Kanuma pumice
6 Mendeleev Kunashir, Kuril Islands 60 0.044114 caldera formation
7 Opala Kamchatka 225 0.044484 caldera formation
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 - 10[6] 0.045 Yanagisawa Tuff
7 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands > 115 0.045 Nemo I
6 Smith Island Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 49 0.045
7 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 350 - 390[12] 0.046 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 14.4 DRE[6] > 0.043[14] Kt-1
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.2 DRE 0.05 Kt-2
7 Okataina Volcanic Complex Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.05 Rotoiti Ignimbrite
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 13.1 0.05095 Santa Lucia Tephra
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 235 0.052 Maninjau paroxysmal welded and unwelded tuffs
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 13.75 0.054 Upper Scoriae 2
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 20.1 DRE 0.05 - 0.06 Kt-3
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.056 X2
6 Daisen Honshū 40 0.05957[9] Daisen-Kurayoshi Pumice
6 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 50 0.06 Shadai eruption
6 Towada Honshū 10 0.061 eruption episode Q
6 Hakone Honshū 20 0.066 Hakone-Tokyo Pumice
6 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 12.5 0.0694 Odnoboky O2 tuffs
6 Los Humeros Central America Volcanic Arc, México 37 0.069 Zaragoza Tuff
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc 40 0.056 Monte Epomeo Green Tuff
6 Los Humeros Central America Volcanic Arc, México 24 0.07 Faby Tuff
6 Pico do Fogo Cape Verde 0.073
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 - 10 0.073 Nisaka Tuff
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 2800 (DRE) - 13,200[15] 73000 BC 0.074 Youngest Toba Tuff The eruption of Lake Toba was the biggest volcanic eruption in the Quaternary period, and plunged the world into a 12 year volcanic winter followed by a 1000 year Ice Age, which may have bought the human race very close to extinction.[16]
6 Barrier Volcano Great Rift Valley, Kenya 10 0.074 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō > 11 DRE 0.075 Kt-4
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 12.35 0.08 CA-1a Tephra
6 Bolshoy Semyachik Kamchatka 42 0.08 Bol'shoi Semiachik Caldera II
6 Hakone Honshū 10 0.08 Hakone-Obaradai Pumice
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 25 0.081 Inararo Tuff
6 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 10 0.00828 X4; I-7
7-8 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 300 0.084 Los Chocoyos eruption This eruption gave way for the Lake Atitlan
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 16.8 DRE 0.084 Kt-6
6 Kussharo Hokkaidō 25 0.085 Kp-2/3
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.8 DRE 0.084 - 0.087 Kt-7
7-8 Mount Aso Kyūshū 930 - 1,860[11] 0.087 Aso-4 Ignimbrite
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 9.9 DRE 0.087 - 0.106 Kt-8
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 0.095 Tozurahara eruption
6 Sierra la Primavera Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 0.095 Tala Tuff
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 14 0.1 Middle Pumice
6 Ontake Honshū 50 0.0957 Ontake-1 Pumice
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 0.01 Boroi Ignimbrites
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 0.01 Malaguna Pyroclastics
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū 350 0.1[9] Ata pyroclastic deposits
6 Sanbe Honshū 20 0.105 Sanbe-Kisuki pumice
6 Tangkuban Perahu Sunda Arc, Java ≥ 10 0.105 Sunda Caldera
7 Lake Tōya Hokkaidō 230 – 310[11] 0.106
6 Santo Antão Cape Verde 10.33 0.106 Cão Grande I
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.1062 X5
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 0.1089 X6
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 175 0.1175 Kp-4, Kutcharo Haboro Ash
7 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.13 Aso-3 Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.141 Aso-2 Ignimbrite
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.15 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit S
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.15
7 Kos-Nisyros Caldera South Aegean Volcanic Arc 110 0.1613 Kos Plateau Tuff
7 Los Humeros Central America Volcanic Arc, México 290 DRE[17] 0.164 Xáltipan Ignimbrite
7 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.17 Bluff Point Tuff
7 Lake Akan Hokkaidō 0.175
7 Southern Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.18
7 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 103.5 0.18229
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.205
7 Rotorua Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Mamaku Ignimbrite
7 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ohakuri Ignimbrite
7 Reporoa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Kaingaroa Ignimbrite
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.233
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū > 150 0.24 Torihama eruption
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.24 Ohakui Ignimbrite
7 O'a Caldera Ethiopia 276 0.24 Qi3 Pumice
? Puy de Sancy Chaîne des Puys 0.025
8 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.254 Whakamaru Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.266 Aso-1 Ignimbrite
6 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 46 0.278 Uzon ignimbrite - southern field
7 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Matahina Ignimbrite
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Pakai Ignimbrite
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 175 0.28
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.3 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit V
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.3 Chimpanzee Ignimbrite
7 Vulsini Campanian volcanic arc 460 0.3 Bolsena Caldera
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.315
7 Kakutō Caldera Kyūshū 0.325 Kakuto Ignimbrite
7? Suiendani Honshū 0.37 Okuhida Pyroclastics
7 Lake Bracciano Lazio, Italy > 200 0.374 Mophi Tephra
6 Roccamonfina Caldera Campanian volcanic arc 0.385
6-7 Medvezhia Iturup, Kuril Islands 90 0.41 Medvezhia Ignimbrite
7 Toussidé Tibesti Mountains 150 0.43 Yirrigué Ignimbrite
7 Pauzhetka Caldera Kamchatka 375 0.443 Golygin Ignimbrite
7 Tumalo Oregon 0.44 Tumalo tuff
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.45 Oda Ignimbrite
7 Diamante Caldera Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.45
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.5 Yoshino Ignimbrite
7 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 138 0.501 Middle Toba Tuff
7 Kobayashi Caldera Kyūshū 0.52 Kobayashi Ignimbrite
6 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.56
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 0.58 Hiwaki Ignimbrite
6 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.6 Yufugawa Ignimbrite
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 1,000 0.64 Lava Creek Tuff
7 Acatlán Volcanic Field Central America Volcanic Arc, México 0.65 Acatlán Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.65 Seiganji-Toga Tephra
7 Kamitakara Honshū 0.65
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.68 Matahana A
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.71 Waiotapu Ignimbrite
7 Long Valley Caldera eastern California, USA 0.76 Bishop Tuff
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.83 Matahana B
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.84 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit L
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 5,290[15] 0.84 Oldest Toba Tuff
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 0.87 Imaichi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.95 Marshall Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.97 Unit E
7 North Vate Vanuatu 1 Efaté Pumice Formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 Rocky Hill Ignimbrite
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 1 Yabakei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 1
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1 Saigō Ignimbrite
7 Tokachi-Mitsumata Caldera Hokkaidō > 130 1
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.01 Kidnappers Ignimbrite
8 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 1,000 1.09
7 Kulshan Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.12 Lake Tapps Tephra
7 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 100 1.13 Stena-Soboliny Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.18 Ahuroa Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 Unit D
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 1.2 Shikido Ignimbrite
6 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 1.2 Haranggoal Dacite Tuff
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.2 Ashino Ignimbrite
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.21 Ongatiti Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA
(Raton hotspot)
1.22 Upper Bandelier eruption
7 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 1.3 Mesa Falls Tuff
7 Puricó Complex Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1.3 Puricó Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.4 Unit C
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.4 Kumado Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.4 Tokachi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.53 Unit B
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.55 Unit A
7 Mount Jiigatake[18] Honshū 1.6 Ōmine Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 1.61 Lower Bandelier eruption
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.65
6 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1.7 Puripica Ch0ico ignimbrite
7 Bolshe-Bannaya Kamchatka 800 1.705
7 Mount Hotakadake[18] Honshū 1.75 Ebisutōge-Fukuda tephras
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 1.76 Nyūkawa Ignimbrite
7 Karymshina Kamchatka 1.78
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 1.78 San Diego Canyon Ignimbrite
7 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 1.8
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.88 Kitazawa Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.9 Biei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 2
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 2 Sonehara Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Nyūnomi Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ichiuda Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Reishōji Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ht-3 Ignimbrite
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 2,500 2.1 Huckleberry Ridge Tuff
7 Mount Jiigatake[18] Honshū 2.18 Taniguchi Ignimbrite
8 Cerro Galán Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1030 2.2 Cerro Galán Ignimbrite
7? Mount Erciyes Turkey 2.52 Valibabatepe Ignimbrite
7 Hiwada Caldera Honshū 2.8 Hotokezawa Ignimbrite
8 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1500 2.9 Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite
7 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 3.5 Tara Ignimbrite
7 Yunosawa Caldera Honshū 3.5 Obirakiyama Tuff
8 Pacana Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2800 4 Atana Ignimbrite
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 4.45 Kilgore Tuff
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 5.51 Conant Creek Tuff
8 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1300 5.7 Guacha ignimbrite
7 Cerro Panizos Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 6.1 Panizos Ignimbrite
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.27 Walcott Tuff
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.62 Blacktail Tuff
7 Black Mountain Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 7 Thirsty Canyon Tuff
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera or Vilama Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 8.3 Sifon Ignimbrite
? Twin Falls volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10-8.6
? Picabo volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10.09 & 10.21 Arbon Valley Tuff7s
7-8 Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera Yellowstone hotspot 950 10.0 to 12.5 Ashfall Fossil Beds eruption
7 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.45 Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks member
8 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.6 Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainer Mesa member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.7 Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.8 Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon member
7 Mount Sobo Kyūshū 12.8
7 Mount Katamuki Kyūshū 13
7 Silent Canyon caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13 Belted Range Tuff
7 Crater Flat Group Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13.25 Crater Flat Tuff, Bullfrog member
? Owyhee-Humboldt volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 13.9-12.8
8 Ōdai Caldera Honshū 13.7 Murō Ignimbrite
8 Mount Ōkue Kyūshū 13.7 Okueyama volcano-plutonic complex
7 Mount Ishizuchi Shikoku 14
7 Shitara Caldera Honshū 15.1-13.1
8 Kumano Caldera Honshū 14.4 Kumano Acidic rocks
8 Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1100 15 Huaylillas Ignimbrite
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15 Whitehorse Creek Tuff
8 Mount Osuzu Kyūshū 15.1 Osuzuyama volcano-plutonic complex
? Lake Owyhee volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15.5-15
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 2-3
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.7 Double H Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15.8 Trout Creek Mountains Tuff
? McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16 Hoppin Peaks Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16.548 Oregon Canyon Tuff
? Northwest Nevada volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 16.5-15.5
8 Oxaya Formation Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 3000 19 Oxaya Ignimbrites
7 Mount Belknap Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 19 Joe Lott member
7 Monroe Peak Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 23 Osiris Tuff
8 La Garita Caldera San Juan volcanic field 5000 27.8 Fish Canyon Tuff Second biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years
8? Bachelor San Juan volcanic field 1000 28 Carpenter Ridge Tuff
8 San Juan San Juan volcanic field 28 Sapinero Mesa Tuff
8? Uncompahgre San Juan volcanic field 1000 28.1 Dillon & Sapinero Mesa Tuffs
8? Platoro San Juan volcanic field 1000 28.2 Chiquito Peak Tuff
8 Bursum Southern New Mexico 28.5 Apache Springs Tuff
8 White Rock Caldera Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex 29.2 Lund Tuff
8 Sana'a Ignimbrite Afro-Arabian 29.5 Tephra 2W63
8 Iftar Alkalb Afro-Arabian 29.5 Tephra 4 W
8 Sam Ignimbrite Yemen 29.5 Green Tuff
8 Jabal Kura'a Ignimbrite Yemen 29.6
8 Wah Wah Springs Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex 5900 30.06 Wah Wah Springs Tuff The biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years
8 Windows Butte Tuff Central Nevada 33 Windows Butte Tuff
8 Emory Caldera Southwestern New Mexico 34.9 Kneeling Nun Tuff City of Rocks State Park
8 Mount Princeton Thirtynine Mile volcanic area, Colorado 35.3 Wall Mountain Tuff
7 Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex Skukum Group 50
8 Deccan Traps West-central India 65 This volcanic episode occurred about 300,000 years after the meteor impact, and may have been another contributing factor towards the extinction of the dinosaurs
8 Source unknown Honshū 70 Noi Rhyolite
8 Guarapuava-Tamarana-Sarusas Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Santa Maria Fria Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Guarapuava-Ventura Paraná and Etendeka traps 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 High Island Caldera Hong Kong 140
7 Altenberg–Teplice Caldera[19] The Altenberg-Teplice Volcanic Complex 325-317 Teplice Rhyolite intra-caldera deposits
8 Cerberean Caldera Rubicon Valley 365
8 Glen Coe Scotland 420
8 Flat Landing Brook Formation Telagouche Group 466-465
8 Scafells Lake District 488-443
8 Misema Caldera Canada 2704

References[edit]

  1. ^ start from 1950 CE
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  3. ^ South Dakota State University (December 7, 2009). "Undocumented volcano contributed to extremely cold decade from 1810-1819". ScienceDaily.
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  10. ^ Miallier, Didier; Boivin, Pierre; Deniel, Catherine; Gourgaud, Alain; Lanos, Philippe; Sforna, Marie; Pilleyre, Thierry (November 2010). "The ultimate summit eruption of Puy de Dôme volcano (Chaîne des Puys, French Massif Central) about 10,700 years ago". Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 342 (11): 847–854. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2010.09.004.
  11. ^ a b c Shinji Takarada; Hideo Hoshizumi (2020). "Distribution and Eruptive Volume of Aso-4 Pyroclastic Density Current and Tephra Fall Deposits, Japan: A M8 Super-Eruption". Frontiers in Earth Science. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00170.
  12. ^ "Volcanic activities and eruption sequence of the large-scale eruption at Shikotsu, Toya, Nigorikawa and Daisen Volcanoes" (PDF) (in Japanese). Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. 2020. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
  13. ^ Mitsuhiro Nakagawa; Mizuho Amma-Miyasaka; Daisuke Miura; Shimpei Uesawa (2018). "Tephrostratigraphy in Ishikari Lowland, Southwestern Hokkaido". The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan (in Japanese). 124 (7): 473–489. doi:10.5575/geosoc.2018.0038.
  14. ^ The up is covered with Shikotsu caldera formation deposits.[13]
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  17. ^ Jaime Alberto Cavazos-Álvarez; Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez (2020). "Anatomy of the Xáltipan ignimbrite at Los Humeros Volcanic Complex; the largest eruption of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 392. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106755.
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  19. ^ Casas-García, Raymundo; Rapprich, Vladislav; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Svojtka, Martin; Lapp, Manuel; Stanek, Klaus; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf (2019-11-15). "Lithofacies architecture, composition, and age of the Carboniferous Teplice Rhyolite (German–Czech border): Insights into the evolution of the Altenberg-Teplice Caldera". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 386: 106662. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106662. ISSN 0377-0273.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]