List of known large volcanic eruptions

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This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume.

Overview[edit]

As of 2015

VEI Volcano name Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Historical Date Geological Date in Ma Tephra or eruption name
5 Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Andean Volcanic Belt 2011-06-04 AD 0.000004
5 Mount Hudson Andean Volcanic Belt 1991-08-08 AD 0.000024
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 1991-06-15 AD 0.000024
5 El Chichón . 1982-04-04 AD 0.000034
5 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1980-05-18 AD 0.000035
5 Mount Agung . 1963-03-17 AD 0.000053
5 Bezymianny Kamchatka Peninsula 1955 AD 0.000061
5 Kharimkotan Kuril Islands 1933 AD 0.000083
6 Quizapú Volcano Andean Volcanic Belt 1932-04-10 AD 0.000084
6 Novarupta Aleutian Range 1912-06-06 AD 0.000103
5 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula 1907-03-28 AD 0.000109
6 Santa María Central America Volcanic Arc 1902-10-24 AD 0.000113
5 Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1886-06-10 AD 0.000129
6 Krakatoa Sunda Arc 1883-08-26 AD 0.000132
5 Cosigüina Central America Volcanic Arc 1835-01-20 AD 0.000181
7 Mount Tambora Lesser Sunda Islands 1815-04-10 AD 0.000201
6? Source unknown Source unknown 1808/1809 AD 0.000207 Undocumented 1808/1809 eruption[1]
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 1783-85 AD 0.000231 Skaftáreldar at Laki
6 Long Island (Papua New Guinea)[citation needed] Bismarck Volcanic Arc 1660 AD 0.000356
6 Kolumbo, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 1650-09-27 0.000365
6 Huaynaputina Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1600-02-19 AD 0.000416
6 Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 1580 AD 0.000436
6 Bárðarbunga Iceland 1477 AD 0.000539
6 Kuwae Vanuatu 1452-53 AD 0.000563
6 Quilotoa Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 1280 AD 0.000736
7 Mt. Rinjani Lombok Island 1257 0.000759 1257 Samalas eruption; may have triggered the Little Ice Age [2]
7 Baekdu Mountain Balhae (China – North Korea border) ~946 AD 0.001047 Tianchi eruption
6 Katla Iceland 934-940 AD 0.001076 Eldgjá eruption
6 Ceboruco Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 930 AD 0.001086
6 Dakataua Bismarck Volcanic Arc 800 AD 0.001216
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 710 AD 0.001306 W-G tephra layer (Witori-Galilo)
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska, USA 700 AD 0.001316 Formed the Pumice Terrace
6 Rabaul caldera Bismarck Volcanic Arc 540 AD 0.001476
6 Lake Ilopango Central America Volcanic Arc 450 AD 0.001566
6 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula 240 AD 0.001776
7 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 230 AD 0.001786 Hatepe eruption
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 79 AD 0.001937 Pompeii eruption
6 Mount Churchill eastern Alaska, USA 60 AD 0.001956
6 Ambrym Vanuatu 50 AD 0.001966
6 Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc 50 BC 0.002065
6 Mount Okmok Aleutian Islands 100 BC 0.002115
6 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 250 BC 0.002265
5 Mount Meager massif Garibaldi Volcanic Belt 400 BC 0.002415 Bridge River Ash
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 550 BC 0.002565
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 1050 BC 0.003065
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 1350 BC 0.003365 tephra layer IIAV3
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 1370 BC 0.003385 W-K2 tephra (Witori-Kimbe)
6 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 1460 BC 0.003475
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 1500 BC 0.003515
7 Youngest Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 1610 BC 0.003625 Minoan eruption
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 1645 BC 0.003660
6 Mount Veniaminof Aleutian Range 1750 BC 0.003765
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1860 BC 0.003875
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 1890 BC 0.003925
6 Black Peak Aleutian Range 1900 BC 0.003915
6 Long Island (Papua New Guinea) Bismarck Volcanic Arc 2040 BC 0.004075
7 Cerro Blanco (Argentina) Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2300 BC 0.004315
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2420 BC 0.004435 Avellino eruption
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 3200 BC 0.005215 tephra layer IAv20; AV3
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 3550 BC 0.005565
6 Taal Volcano Luzon Volcanic Arc 3580 BC 0.005595
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 3580 BC 0.005595
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 4000 BC 0.006015
6 Masaya Volcano Central America Volcanic Arc 4050 BC 0.006065
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 4340 BC 0.006355 tephra layer IAv12; AV4
6 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands 4360 BC 0.006375
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 4750 BC 0.006765
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 5250 BC 0.007265
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 5284 BC 0.007299 Akahoya eruption
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 5550 BC 0.007565 Ma-f, g, h, i, j eruption
6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Kuril Islands 5550 BC 0.007565
5 Mayor Island/Tuhua Taupo Volcanic Zone 5560 BC 0.007575
7 Crater Lake
(as Mount Mazama)
Cascade Volcanic Arc 5677 BC 0.007692
6 Khangar Kamchatka Peninsula 5700 BC 0.007715
6 Crater Lake Cascade Volcanic Arc 5900 BC 0.007915
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 5980 BC 0.007995 tephra layer IAv1
6 Menengai East African Rift 6050 BC 0.008065
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 6060 BC 0.008075
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka Peninsula 6440 BC 0.008455 Ilinsky eruption
6 Karymsky (volcano) Kamchatka Peninsula 6600 BC 0.008615
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 6940 BC 0.008955 Mercato eruption
6 Fisher Caldera Aleutian Islands 7420 BC 0.009435
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 7460 BC 0.009475
6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 7480 BC 0.009495
5 Rotoma Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 7560 BC 0.009575
5 Ko'olau Range Honolulu Volcanic Series 8000 BC 0.010015
7 Semisopochnoi Island Aleutian Islands 8000 BC 0.010015
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 8130 BC 0.010145
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 8230 BC 0.010245
6 Nevado de Toluca Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 0.0105 Ma Upper Toluca Pumice
6 Ulleungdo South Korea 8750 BC 0.010765
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9450 BC 0.011465
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 9460 BC 0.011475
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9650 BC 0.011665
6 Sakurajima Kyūshū 0.0128 Ma Satsuma Tuff
6 Laacher See Eifel hotspot 0.0129 Ma
5 Phlegrean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.015 Ma Campanian Tuff
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 0.016 Ma Green Pumice
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.017 Ma
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 0.0183 Ma Basal Pumice
? Cape Riva Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.021 Ma
8 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.0245 Ma Oruanui eruption
? Laguna Caldera Luzon Volcanic Arc 0.027-29 Ma
? Menengai East African Rift 0.029 Ma
7? Mount Batur Sunda Arc 0.0293 Ma Ubud Ignimbrite
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.03 Ma Irito Ignimbrite
6 Morne Diablotins Lesser Antilles island arc 0.03 Ma Grand Savanne Ignimbrite
7 Gorely Kamchatka Peninsula 0.38 Ma
7 Phlegrean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 0.03928 Ma Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption
7 Lake Kussharo Hokkaidō 0.03931 Ma Kutcharo Shoro Ash
7 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka Peninsula 0.396 Ma
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.04 Ma
6 Irosin Caldera Luzon 0.041 Ma
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka Peninsula 0.0415 Ma Golygin eruption
7 Lake Shikotsu Hokkaidō, Japan 0.04396 Ma
7 Okataina Volcanic Complex Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.05 Ma Rotoiti Ignimbrite
7 Maninjau Caldera Sunda Arc 0.052 Ma
? Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.07 Ma
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.073 Ma Youngest Toba Tuff
7? Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 0.081 Ma Inararo Tuff
7 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc 0.084 Ma Los Chocoyos eruption
7 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.09 Ma Aso-4 Ignimbrite
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 0.095 Ma Tozurahara eruption
6 Sierra La Primavera Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 0.095 Ma Tala Tuff
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū 0.105 Ma Ata eruption
7 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 0.11 Ma Stena-Soboliny Ignimbrite
7 Lake Tōya Hokkaidō 0.1135 Ma
7 Lake Kussharo Hokkaidō 0.1175 Ma Kutcharo Haboro Ash
7 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.13 Ma Aso-3 Ignimbrite
? Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.070-150 Ma magmatic
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.141 Ma Aso-2 Ignimbrite
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.15 Ma Loma Seca Tuff-Unit S
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.15 Ma
7 Kos-Nisyros Caldera South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.161 Ma Kos Plateau Tuff
7 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.17 Ma Bluff Point Tuff
7 Lake Akan Hokkaidō 0.175 Ma
7 Southern Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.18 Ma
7 Rotorua Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ma Mamaku Ignimbrite
7 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ma Ohakuri Ignimbrite
7 Reporoa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ma Kaingaroa Ignimbrite
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.233 Ma
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū 0.24 Ma Torihama eruption
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.24 Ma Ohakui Ignimbrite
7 O'a Caldera Ethiopia 0.24 Ma Qi3 Pumice
8 Whakamaru Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.254 Ma Whakamaru Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 0.266 Ma Aso-1 Ignimbrite
7 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Ma Matahina Ignimbrite
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Ma Pakai Ignimbrite
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc 0.28 Ma
6 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka Peninsula 0.28 Ma
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.3 Ma Loma Seca Tuff-Unit V
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.3 Ma Chimpanzee Ignimbrite
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 0.325 Ma Kakutō Ignimbrite
7 Lake Bracciano Lazio, Italy 0.37 Ma Mophi Tephra
7? Suiendani Honshū 0.37 Ma
6 Roccamonfina Caldera Campania, Italy 0.385 Ma
7 Medvezhia Kuril Islands 0.41 Ma Medvezhia Ignimbrite
7 Pauzhetka Caldera Kamchatka Peninsula 0.44 Ma Golygin Ignimbrite
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.45 Ma Oda Ignimbrite
7 Diamante Caldera Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.45 Ma
7 Los Humeros México 0.46 Ma Xaltipan Ignimbrite
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 0.5 Ma Yoshino Ignimbrite
? Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.501 Ma Middle Toba Tuff
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 0.52 Ma Kobayashi Ignimbrite
6 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.56Ma
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū 0.58 Ma Hiwaki Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.6 Ma Yufugawa Ignimbrite
8 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.64 Ma Lava Creek Tuff
7 Acatlán Volcanic Field México 0.65 Ma Acatlán Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū 0.65 Ma Seiganji-Toga Tephra
7 Kamitakara Honshū 0.65 Ma
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.68 Ma Matahana A
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.71 Ma Waiotapu Ignimbrite
7 Long Valley Caldera eastern California, USA 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.83 Ma Matahana B
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.84 Ma Loma Seca Tuff-Unit L
7 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.84 Ma Oldest Toba Tuff
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 0.87 Ma Imaichi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.95 Ma Marshall Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.97 Ma Unit E
7 North Vate Vanuatu 1 Ma Efaté Pumice Formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1 Ma Rocky Hill Ignimbrite
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 1 Ma Yabakei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 1 Ma
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1 Ma Saigō Ignimbrite
7 Tokachi-Mitsumata Caldera Hokkaidō 1 Ma
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.01 Ma Kidnappers Ignimbrite
7 Kulshan Cascade Volcanic Arc 1.12 Ma Lake Tapps Tephra
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.18 Ma Ahuroa Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.2 Ma Unit D
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū 1.2 Ma Shikido Ignimbrite
6 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 1.2 Ma Haranggoal Dacite Tuff
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.2 Ma Ashino Ignimbrite
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.21 Ma Ongatiti Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA
(Raton hotspot)
1.22 Ma Upper Bandelier eruption
7 Henry's Fork Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 1.3 Ma Mesa Falls Tuff
7 Puricó Complex Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1.3 Ma Puricó Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.4 Ma Unit C
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū 1.4 Ma Kumado Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.4 Ma Tokachi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.53 Ma Unit B
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.55 Ma Unit A
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.6 Ma Ōmine Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 1.61 Ma Lower Bandelier eruption
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.65 Ma
6 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1.7 Ma Puripica Chico ignimbrite
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 1.75 Ma Ebisutōge-Fukuda tephras
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 1.76 Ma Nyūkawa Ignimbrite
7 Karymshina Kamchatka 1.78 Ma
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 1.78 Ma San Diego Canyon Ignimbrite
7 Lake Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc 1.8 Ma
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 1.88 Ma Kitazawa Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō 1.9 Ma Biei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū 2 Ma
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū 2 Ma Sonehara Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ma Nyūnomi Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ma Ichiuda Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ma Reishōji Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2 Ma Ht-3 Ignimbrite
8 Island Park Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 2.1 Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū 2.18 Ma Taniguchi Ignimbrite
8 Cerro Galán Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2.2 Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite
7 Hiwada Caldera Honshū 2.8 Ma Hotokezawa Ignimbrite
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2.9 Ma Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite
7 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 3.5 Ma Tara Ignimbrite
7 Yunosawa Caldera Honshū 3.5 Ma Obirakiyama Tuff
8 Pacana Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 4 Ma Atana Ignimbrite
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 4.45 Ma Kilgore Tuff
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 5.51 Ma Conant Creek Tuff
8 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 5.7 Ma Guacha ignimbrite
7 Cerro Panizos Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 6.1 Ma Panizos Ignimbrite
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.27 Ma Walcott Tuff
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.62 Ma Blacktail Tuff
7 Black Mountain Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 7 Ma Thirsty Canyon Tuff
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera or Vilama Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 8.3 Ma Sifon Ignimbrite
? Twin Falls volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 8.6 to 10 Ma
? Picabo volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10.09 and 10.21 Ma Arbon Valley Tuffs
8 Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera Yellowstone hotspot 10.0 to 12.5 Ma Ashfall Fossil Beds eruption
7 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.45 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks member
8 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.6 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainer Mesa member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.7 Ma Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.8 Ma Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon member
7 Mount Sobo Kyūshū 12.8 Ma
7 Mount Katamuki Kyūshū 13 Ma
7 Silent Canyon caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13 Ma Belted Range Tuff
7 Crater Flat Group Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13.25 Ma Crater Flat Tuff, Bullfrog member
? Owyhee-Humboldt volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 12.8 to 13.9 Ma
8 Ōdai Caldera Honshū 13.7 Ma Murō Ignimbrite
8 Mount Ōkue Kyūshū 13.7 Ma Okueyama volcano-plutonic complex
7 Mount Ishizuchi Shikoku 14 Ma
7 Shitara Caldera Honshū 13.1 to 15.1 Ma
8 Kumano Caldera Honshū 14.4 Ma Kumano Acidic rock
6 Campi Flegrei Campanian volcanic arc 14.9 Ma Neapolitan Yellow Tuff
8 Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 15 Ma Huaylillas Ignimbrite
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15 Ma Whitehorse Creek Tuff
8 Mount Osuzu Kyūshū 15.1 Ma Osuzuyama volcano-plutonic complex
? Lake Owyhee volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15 to 15.5 Ma
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Ma Longridge Tuff member 2-3
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Ma Longridge Tuff member 5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.7 Ma Double H Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15.8 Ma Trout Creek Mountains Tuff
? McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16 Ma Hoppin Peaks Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16.548 Ma Oregon Canyon Tuff
? Northwest Nevada volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15.5 to 16.5 Ma
? Columbia River Basalt Group Yellowstone hotspot 17 Ma
? Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 19 Ma Oxaya Ignimbrites
7 Mount Belknap Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 19 Ma Joe Lott member
7 Monroe Peak Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 23 Ma Osiris Tuff
8 La Garita Caldera San Juan volcanic field 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff
7 Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex Skukum Group 50 Ma

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Undocumented volcano contributed to extremely cold decade from 1810-1819". Sciencedaily.com. 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  2. ^ Space (2013-09-30). "Samalas in Indonesia Identified as Source of the 1257 A.D. 'Missing' Eruption". WIRED. Retrieved 2015-12-16.