List of large volcanic eruptions

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Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai

This is a sortable list of large eruptions that occurred between 11.7 Ka and 450+ Ma. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. The inclusion criteria here only covers entries with a Volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 5 or greater. The given values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references, and are given as VEI-equivalent, as an estimate of the erupted tephra volume.

<11.7KA (Holocene)[edit]

11.7 to 99KA[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Age in Ka[1] Tephra or eruption name
6 Lolobau Island Bismarck Volcanic Arc 50 50 12 caldera formation
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 24.9 < 25 12.3 Ruplax Tuff
6 Nevado de Toluca Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 20 20 12.5 Upper Toluca Pumice
6 Sakurajima Kyūshū 11 11 12.8 Sakurajima-Satsuma Tuff
6 Laacher See Eifel hotspot 20 20 12.9
6 Nigorigawa Hokkaidō 10.9 10.9 14.6
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 79 79 14.9 Neapolitan Yellow Tuff
6 Maly Semyachik Kamchatka 17.5 17.5 15
6 Towada Honshū 56 56 15.6 eruption episode L
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc Un­known 15.7
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.3 1.3 19.3 Green Pumice
7 Long Island, PNG Bismarck Volcanic Arc 100 100 19.3 Kiau Ignimbrite
7 Zavaritzki Caldera Simushir, Kuril Islands 200 200 20
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10.1 >10 21 Kulau Ignimbrite
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 26.1 21 Caldera formation 2
6 Cape Riva Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 20.1 >20 21.8 Cape Riva
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 1.9 1.9 22 Basal Pumice
6 Mount Katmai SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 10.1 ⩾10 22.8 Late Pleistocene rhyodacite pumice fall and ignimbrite
8 Taupō Volcano Taupō Volcanic Zone 1170 1170 26.5 Oruanui eruption[a]
6 Morne Diablotins Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 14 14 26.6 Grand Savanne Ignimbrite
? Laguna Caldera Luzon Volcanic Arc Un­known 27-29
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2.2 2.2 28.6 Codola Pumice
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 10.1 ≥10 29.1 Y3
6 Emmons Lake caldera SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 50 50 29.3 Dawson Tephra
6 Nemrut yanardağı Turkey 65.4 65.4 29.7
7-8 Aira Caldera Kyūshū 940 940 - 1,040[2] 30[3] Ito Ignimbrite
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 10 10 30.8 Nemo III
6 Shiveluch Kamchatka 30.1 >30 32.2 caldera formation
6 Volcán Los Azufres Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 11 11 32.8 Cieneguillas Ignimbrite
6 Morne Trois Pitons Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc 58 58 33.3 Roseau Tuff/Ignimbrite
7 Lake Ranau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 150 150 33.6 Ranau Tuff
6 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 31.3 31.3 34 Nemo II
6 Mount Batur Sunda Arc, Bali 84 84 34.6 Ubud Ignimbrite
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 25 25 35 Caldera II
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 10 35.3[4] Nu-p
6 Menengai Great Rift Valley, Kenya 26.1 26.1 35.6 Menengai Tuff
6 Towada Honshū 46 46 36 eruption episode N
6 Lake Mashū Hokkaidō 10 10 38.3[4] Nu-r
7 Gorely Kamchatka 120 120 39 Southern sea cliffs
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 170 170 39.3 Kp-1, Kutcharo Shoro Ash
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 430 430 - 680 39.9 Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone Un­known 40
6 Ksudach Kamchatka 40 40 40 Caldera I
6 Ugashik-Peulik SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 30 30 40 Caldera formation
6? Ulleung South Korea 10 10? 40[3] Ulleungdo-Yamato tephra
6 Irosin Caldera Bicol-Leyte Volcanic Arc 70 70 41 Irosin Ignimbrites
6 Qualibou Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc 11 11 42.3 Choiseul Tuff
6 Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 10.3 10.3 42.5 C (Cs, Cy, Cm, Cw, Ct) (Ape Canyon)
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 14.4 14.4 DRE[4] 43[6] Kt-1
7 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 150 150 43.6 Uzon ignimbrite - northern field
6 Golovnin Kunashir, Kuril Islands 15 15 43.7 Kn III-5 Tephra
6 Mount Akagi Honshū 25.9 25.9 44 Akagi-Kanuma pumice
6 Mendeleev Kunashir, Kuril Islands 60 60 44.5 caldera formation
7 Opala Kamchatka 225 225 44.5 caldera formation
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 5 - 10[4] 45 Yanagisawa Tuff
7 Nemo Peak Onekotan, Kuril Islands 115.1 >115 45 Nemo I
6 Smith Island Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc 49 49 45
7 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 350 350 - 390[7] 46 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.2 DRE 50 Kt-2
7 Ōkataina Volcanic Complex Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 50 Rotoiti Ignimbrite
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 13.1 51 Santa Lucia Tephra
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 235 52 Maninjau paroxysmal welded and unwelded tuffs
6 Mount Kujū Kyūshū 12[8] 53.5 Kuju-Handa pyroclastic flow (Kj-Hd), Kuju-1 Pumice (Kj-P1)
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 13.75 54 Upper Scoriae 2
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 20.1 DRE 50 - 60 Kt-3
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 56 X2
6 Ischia Campanian volcanic arc 40 56 Monte Epomeo Green Tuff
6 Daisen Honshū 40 59.6[3] Daisen-Kurayoshi Pumice
6 Shikotsu Hokkaidō 50 60 Shadai eruption
6 Towada Honshū 10 61 eruption episode Q
6 Newberry Volcano Cascade Volcanic Arc > 12.5 62.5 Olema tephra, Paulina tephra
6 Hakone Honshū 20 66 Hakone-Tokyo Pumice
6 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 12.5 69.4 Odnoboky O2 tuffs
6 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 37 69 Zaragoza Tuff
6 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 24 70 Faby Tuff
6 Pico do Fogo Cape Verde 73
5-6 Naruko Honshū 5 - 10 73 Nisaka Tuff
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 2800 (DRE) - 13,200[9] 74 Youngest Toba Tuff[b]
6 Barrier Volcano Great Rift Valley, Kenya 10 74 caldera formation
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō > 11 DRE 75 Kt-4
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc 12.35 80 CA-1a Tephra
6 Bolshoy Semyachik Kamchatka 42 80 Bol'shoi Semiachik Caldera II
6 Hakone Honshū 10 80 Hakone-Obaradai Pumice
7? Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 25 81 Inararo Tuff
6 Etna Campanian volcanic arc 10 82.8 X4; I-7
7-8 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala 300 84 Los Chocoyos eruption
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 16.8 DRE 84 Kt-6
6 Kussharo Hokkaidō 25 85 Kp-2/3
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 10.8 DRE 84 - 87 Kt-7
7-8 Mount Aso Kyūshū 930 - 1,860[2] 87 Aso-4 Ignimbrite
6 Kuttara Hokkaidō 9.9 DRE 87 - 106 Kt-8

100 to 999KA[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Age in Ka[11] Tephra or eruption name
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands Un­known 100 Tozurahara eruption
6 Sierra la Primavera Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 90 100 Tala Tuff
6 Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 14 100 Middle Pumice
6 Ontake Honshū 50 100 Ontake-1 Pumice
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 100 Boroi Ignimbrites
6 Rabaul Bismarck Volcanic Arc 10? 100 Malaguna Pyroclastics
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū 350 100[3] Ata pyroclastic deposits
6 Sanbe Honshū 20 105 Sanbe-Kisuki pumice
6 Tangkuban Perahu Sunda Arc, Java ≥ 10 105 Sunda Caldera
7 Lake Tōya Hokkaidō 230 – 310[2] 106
6 Santo Antão Cape Verde 10.33 106 Cão Grande I
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 106.2 X5
6 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc ≥ 10 108.9 X6
7 Kussharo Hokkaidō 175 117.5 Kp-4, Kutcharo Haboro Ash
7 Emmons Lake caldera SW Alaska, Aleutian Arc 220 124 Old Craw Tephra
7 Mount Aso Kyūshū > 150 130 Aso-3 Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū 50 141 Aso-2 Ignimbrite
6 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 23? 143 Cold Mountain Creek Tuff
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone Un­known 150 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit S
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone Un­known 150
7 Kos-Nisyros Caldera South Aegean Volcanic Arc 110 161 Kos Plateau Tuff
7 Los Humeros Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 290 DRE[12] 164 Xáltipan Ignimbrite
7 Lake Akan Hokkaidō 56.8 (DRE) 175 AK-2
6 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 50 176 Bluff Point Tuff
7 Southern Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc Un­known 180
7 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 103.5 182.3
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc Un­known 205
7 Rotorua Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 230 Mamaku Ignimbrite
7 Maroa Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 230 Ohakuri Ignimbrite
7 Reporoa Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 230 Kaingaroa Ignimbrite
7 Ata Caldera Kyūshū > 150 240 Torihama eruption
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 240 Ohakui Ignimbrite
7 O'a Caldera Ethiopia 276 240 Qi3 Pumice
8 Maroa Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 254 Whakamaru Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Kyūshū Un­known 266 Aso-1 Ignimbrite
6 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka 46 278 Uzon ignimbrite - southern field
7 Haroharo Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 280 Matahina Ignimbrite
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 280 Pakai Ignimbrite
7 Lake Maninjau Sunda Arc, Sumatra 175 280
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone Un­known 300 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit V
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 300 Chimpanzee Ignimbrite
7 Vulsini Campanian volcanic arc 460 300 Bolsena Caldera
7 Phlegraean Fields Campanian volcanic arc Un­known 320
7 Kakutō Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 321 Kakuto Ignimbrite
7? Suiendani Honshū Un­known 370 Okuhida Pyroclastics
7 Lake Bracciano Lazio, Italy > 200 370 Mophi Tephra
6 Roccamonfina Caldera Campanian volcanic arc Un­known 390
6-7 Medvezhia Iturup, Kuril Islands 90 410 Medvezhia Ignimbrite
7 Toussidé Tibesti Mountains 150 430 Yirrigué Ignimbrite
7 Pauzhetka Caldera Kamchatka 375 440 Golygin Ignimbrite
7 Tumalo Oregon Un­known 440 Tumalo tuff
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 450 Oda Ignimbrite
7 Diamante Caldera Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone Un­known 450
7 Aira Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 500 Yoshino Ignimbrite
7 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 138 500 Middle Toba Tuff
7 Kobayashi Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 520 Kobayashi Ignimbrite
6 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone Un­known 560
7 Mount Kirishima Kyūshū Un­known 580 Hiwaki Ignimbrite
6? Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū Un­known 600 Yufugawa Ignimbrite
6 Mount Lassen Cascade Volcanic Arc > 75 610 Rockland Caldera formation
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot ⩾ 1,000 631 Lava Creek Tuff
7 Acatlán Volcanic Field Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 150 650 Acatlán Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū Un­known 650 Seiganji-Toga Tephra
7 Kamitakara Honshū Un­known 650
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 680 Matahana A
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 710 Waiotapu Ignimbrite
7 Long Valley Caldera Eastern California 790 760 Bishop Tuff
7 Kapenga Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 830 Matahana B
7 Calabozos Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone Un­known 840 Loma Seca Tuff-Unit L
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra 5,290[9] 840 Toba Tuff
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 870 Imaichi Ignimbrite
7 Tondano Caldera North Sulawesi, Sulawesi 600 - 950 870
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 950 Marshall Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 970 Unit E

1 to 9.9MA[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Age in Ma[13] Tephra or eruption name
7 North Vate Vanuatu Un­known 1 Efaté Pumice Formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1 Rocky Hill Ignimbrite
7 Shishimuta Caldera Kyūshū Un­known 1 Yabakei Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū Un­known 1
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū Un­known 1 Saigō Ignimbrite
7 Tokachi-Mitsumata Caldera Hokkaidō > 130 1
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.01 Kidnappers Ignimbrite
8 Awasa Caldera Main Ethiopian Rift 1,000 1.09
8 Gakkel Ridge Caldera Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean 3000 1.1
7 Akademia Nauk Kamchatka 100 1.13 Stena-Soboliny Ignimbrite
7 Kulshan Caldera Cascade Volcanic Arc > 117.5 1.149 Lake Tapps Tephra, Swift Creek Ignimbrite, Kulshan caldera formation
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.18 Ahuroa Ignimbrite
7 Hōhi Volcanic Zone Kyūshū Un­known 1.2 Shikido Ignimbrite
6 Toba Caldera Sunda Arc, Sumatra Un­known 1.2 Haranggoal Dacite Tuff
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū Un­known 1.2 Ashino Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.2 Unit D
8 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.21 Ongatiti Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA
(Raton hotspot)
690 1.223 Upper Bandelier Tuff
7 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot > 280 (DRE) 1.27 Mesa Falls Tuff
7 Puricó Complex Andes, Central Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.3 Puricó Ignimbrite
7 Tōnohetsuri Calderas Honshū Un­known 1.4 Kumado Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō Un­known 1.4 Tokachi Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.4 Unit C
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.53 Unit B
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupō Volcanic Zone Un­known 1.55 Unit A
7 Mount Jiigatake[14] Honshū Un­known 1.6 Ōmine Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 690 1.61 Lower Bandelier Tuff
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 1.65
6 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex Un­known 1.7 Puripica Ch0ico ignimbrite
7 Young Island Valleny Islands 100 1.7 Eltanin
7 Bolshe-Bannaya Kamchatka 800 1.705
7 Mount Hotakadake[14] Honshū Un­known 1.75 Ebisutōge-Fukuda tephras
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū Un­known 1.76 Nyūkawa Ignimbrite
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA ⩾ 100 1.78 San Diego Canyon Ignimbrite
7 Karymshina Kamchatka Un­known 1.78
7 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc, Guatemala Un­known 1.8
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 1.88 Kitazawa Ignimbrite
7 Mount Tokachi Hokkaidō Un­known 1.9 Biei Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 2 Reishōji Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 2 Ht-3 Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 2 Nyūnomi Ignimbrite
7 Mount Jiigatake Honshū Un­known 2 Ichiuda Ignimbrite
7 Mount Hotakadake Honshū Un­known 2 Sonehara Ignimbrite
7 Tamagawa Caldera Honshū Un­known 2
8 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 2,160 2.0794 Huckleberry Ridge Tuff A & B
7 Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field Yellowstone hotspot 290 2.113 Huckleberry Ridge Tuff C
7 Mount Jiigatake[14] Honshū Un­known 2.18 Taniguchi Ignimbrite
8 Cerro Galán Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1030 2.2 Cerro Galán Ignimbrite
7? Mount Erciyes Turkey Un­known 2.52 Valibabatepe Ignimbrite
^^^^Quaternary^^^^
7 Hiwada Caldera Honshū Un­known 2.8 Hotokezawa Ignimbrite
8 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1500 2.9 Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite
7 Teragi Cauldron Honshū Un­known 3.03 Teragi Group[15]
7 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex Un­known 3.5 Tara Ignimbrite
7 Yunosawa Caldera Honshū Un­known 3.5 Obirakiyama Tuff
8 Pacana Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2800 4 Atana Ignimbrite
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 4.45 Kilgore Tuff
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 5.51 Conant Creek Tuff
8 Cerro Guacha Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex 1300 5.7 Guacha ignimbrite
7 Cerro Panizos Andes, Central Volcanic Zone Un­known 6.1 Panizos Ignimbrite
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 6.27 Walcott Tuff
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 6.62 Blacktail Tuff
7 Black Mountain Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 7 Thirsty Canyon Tuff
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera or Vilama Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone Un­known 8.3 Sifon Ignimbrite
? Twin Falls volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 10-8.6
8 Grey's Landing Supereruption Yellowstone hotspot >2,800[16] 8.72 Grey's Landing Ignimbrite
8 McMullen Supereruption Yellowstone hotspot >1,700[16] 8.99 McMullen Ignimbrite

10MA and older[edit]

VEI Volcano/complex Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Material volume (km³) Age in Ma[17] Tephra or eruption name
? Picabo volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 010 10 – 10.2 Arbon Valley Tuffs
7-8 Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera Yellowstone hotspot
950
011 10 – 12.5 Ashfall Fossil Beds eruption
7 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 011.5 11.45 Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks member
8 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 011.6 11.6 Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainer Mesa member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 012.7 12.7 Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 012.8 12.8 Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon member
7 Mount Sobo Kyūshū Un­known 012.8 12.8
? Owyhee-Humboldt volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 012.8 13.9-12.8
7 Mount Katamuki Kyūshū Un­known 013 13
7 Silent Canyon caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 013 13 Belted Range Tuff
7 Crater Flat Group Southwest Nevada volcanic field Un­known 013.3 13.25 Crater Flat Tuff, Bullfrog member
7 Shitara Caldera Honshū Un­known 013.1 15.1-13.1
8 Ōdai Caldera Honshū Un­known 013.7 13.7 Murō Ignimbrite
8 Mount Ōkue Kyūshū Un­known 013.7 13.7 Okueyama volcano-plutonic complex
7 Mount Ishizuchi Shikoku Un­known 014 14
8 Kumano Caldera Honshū Un­known 014.4 14.4 Kumano Acidic rocks
8 Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone
1100
015 15 Huaylillas Ignimbrite
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 015 15 Whitehorse Creek Tuff
? Lake Owyhee volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? Un­known 015 15.5-15
8 Mount Osuzu Kyūshū Un­known 015.1 15.1 Osuzuyama volcano-plutonic complex
? Northwest Nevada volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? Un­known 015.5 16.5-15.5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 015.6 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 2-3
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 015.6 15.6 Longridge Tuff member 5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 015.7 15.7 Double H Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 015.8 15.8 Trout Creek Mountains Tuff
? McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 016 16 Hoppin Peaks Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot Un­known 016.5 16.5 Oregon Canyon Tuff
8 Oxaya Formation Andes, Central Volcanic Zone
3000
019 19 Oxaya Ignimbrite
7 Mount Belknap Caldera Marysvale volcanic field Un­known 019 19 Joe Lott member
^^^^Neogene^^^^
7 Monroe Peak Caldera Marysvale volcanic field Un­known 023 23 Osiris Tuff
8 La Garita Caldera San Juan volcanic field
5000
027.8 27.8 Fish Canyon Tuff[c]
8? Bachelor San Juan volcanic field
1000
028 28 Carpenter Ridge Tuff
8 San Juan San Juan volcanic field Un­known 028 28 Sapinero Mesa Tuff
8? Uncompahgre San Juan volcanic field
1000
028.1 28.1 Dillon & Sapinero Mesa Tuffs
8? Platoro San Juan volcanic field
1000
028.2 28.2 Chiquito Peak Tuff
8 Bursum Southern New Mexico Un­known 028.5 28.5 Apache Springs Tuff
8 White Rock Caldera Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex Un­known 029.2 29.2 Lund Tuff
8 Sana'a Ignimbrite Afro-Arabian Un­known 029.5 29.5 Tephra 2W63
8 Iftar Alkalb Afro-Arabian Un­known 029.5 29.5 Tephra 4 W
8 Sam Ignimbrite Yemen Un­known 029.5 29.5 Green Tuff
8 Jabal Kura'a Ignimbrite Yemen Un­known 029.6 29.6
8 Wah Wah Springs Caldera Indian Peak-Caliente Caldera Complex
5900
030 30.06 Wah Wah Springs Tuff[d]
8 Windows Butte Tuff Central Nevada Un­known 033 33 Windows Butte Tuff
8 Emory Caldera Southwestern New Mexico Un­known 034.9 34.9 Kneeling Nun Tuff, City of Rocks State Park
8 Mount Princeton Thirtynine Mile volcanic area, Colorado Un­known 035.3 35.3 Wall Mountain Tuff
7 Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex Skukum Group Un­known 050 50
^^^^Paleogene^^^^
8 Deccan Traps West-central India Un­known 066 66 This volcanic episode occurred about 300,000 years after the Chicxulub meteor impact, and may have been another contributing factor towards the extinction of the dinosaurs
8 Source unknown Honshū Un­known 070 70 Noi Rhyolite
8 Ontong-Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi Plateau Southwestern Pacific Ocean, north of the Solomon Islands Un­known 121 121 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Guarapuava-Tamarana-Sarusas Paraná and Etendeka traps Un­known 132 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Santa Maria Fria Paraná and Etendeka traps Un­known 132 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 Guarapuava-Ventura Paraná and Etendeka traps Un­known 132 132 Existence as a single volcano is controversial. Possibly a volcanic chain.
8 High Island Caldera Hong Kong Un­known 140 140
^^^^Cretaceous^^^^
8 Ora Caldera Southern Alps, Italy Un­known 274 277–274 Ora Formation
7 Altenberg–Teplice Caldera[18] The Altenberg-Teplice Volcanic Complex Un­known 317 325-317[18] Teplice Rhyolite intra-caldera deposits
8 Cerberean Caldera Rubicon Valley Un­known 374 374[19] Cerberean Caldera now forms the northern part of the Marysville Igneous Complex in central Victoria at Lake Eildon National Park.[19][20]
8 Glen Coe Scotland Un­known 420 420[21]
8 Scafells Lake District Un­known 450 450+[22]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ First documented Supervolcanic eruption, and last known volcanic eruption with a VEI of 8.
  2. ^ The eruption of Lake Toba was the biggest volcanic eruption in the Quaternary period.[10]
  3. ^ Second biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years
  4. ^ The biggest explosive eruption in the last 100 million years

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ start from 1950 CE
  2. ^ a b c Shinji Takarada; Hideo Hoshizumi (2020). "Distribution and Eruptive Volume of Aso-4 Pyroclastic Density Current and Tephra Fall Deposits, Japan: A M8 Super-Eruption". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8: 170. Bibcode:2020FrEaS...8..170T. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00170.
  3. ^ a b c d Victoria C. Smith; et al. (2013-05-01). "Identification and correlation of visible tephras in the Lake Suigetsu SG06 sedimentary archive, Japan: chronostratigraphic markers for synchronising of east Asian/west Pacific palaeoclimatic records across the last 150 ka". Quaternary Science Reviews. 67: 121–137. Bibcode:2013QSRv...67..121S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.026.
  4. ^ a b c d Yamamoto, Takahiro (2014). "Cumulative volume step-diagrams for eruptive magmas from major Quaternary volcanoes in Japan". gsj.jp (in Japanese). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Retrieved 2021-01-04.
  5. ^ Mitsuhiro Nakagawa; Mizuho Amma-Miyasaka; Daisuke Miura; Shimpei Uesawa (2018). "Tephrostratigraphy in Ishikari Lowland, Southwestern Hokkaido". The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan (in Japanese). 124 (7): 473–489. doi:10.5575/geosoc.2018.0038.
  6. ^ The up is covered with Shikotsu caldera formation deposits.[5]
  7. ^ "Volcanic activities and eruption sequence of the large-scale eruption at Shikotsu, Toya, Nigorikawa and Daisen Volcanoes" (PDF) (in Japanese). Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. 2020. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
  8. ^ Yoshihisa Kawanabe; Hideo Hoshizumi; Jun'ichi Itoh; Seiko Yamasaki (2015). "Kuju : Geological Maps of Japan". Geological Survey of Japan, AIST.
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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]