List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century

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This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 21st century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as notable smaller eruptions. Note that the size of eruptions can be subject to considerable uncertainty.

VEI Volcano (eruption) Country Year Casualties Notes
4 Ulawun[1]  Papua New Guinea 2000
4 Shiveluch[2]  Russia 2001
1 Nyiragongo[3] Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo 2002 147 At least 15% of Goma comprising 4,500 buildings was destroyed, leaving about 120,000 people homeless.
4 Ruang[4]  Indonesia 2002
4 Reventador[5]  Ecuador 2002
4 Manam[6]  Papua New Guinea 2004
4 Rabaul[7]  Papua New Guinea 2006
4 Mount Okmok[8]  United States 2008
4 Chaiten[9]  Chile 2008 1[10]
4 Kasatochi[11]  United States 2008
4 Sarychev Peak[12]  Russia 2009
4 Eyjafjallajökull[13]  Iceland 2010 Caused the worst flight disruption over Europe since the Second World War.
4 Mount Merapi[14]  Indonesia 2010 353[15] Over 350,000 people were evacuated from the affected area. Ash plumes caused major disruption to aviation across Java.
4 Grímsvötn  Iceland 2011
5 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle[16]  Chile 2011 Major flight disruptions across the southern hemisphere, including South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Ejecting 0.7 cu km, this event was the biggest volcanic eruption of the 21st century to date.
4 Nabro  Eritrea 2011 31
3 Etna[17]  Italy 2013- An eruption on 16 March 2017 injured 10 people, including a BBC News television crew, after magma exploded upon contact with snow.[18][19]
2 Mount Sinabung  Indonesia 2014 15 Mount Sinabung's eruptions caused many pyroclastic flows, one resulting in the loss of 15 lives.
4 Kelud  Indonesia 2014 2[20]
3 Mount Ontake  Japan 2014 63 A phreatic eruption and pyroclastic flow occurred without warning, killing 63 people. Deadliest eruption in Japan since 1902, first volcano-related deaths in Japan since 1991.
4 Calbuco  Chile 2015 0 First eruption at Calbuco since 1972. At least 4,000 people evacuated. No casualties reported.[21]
2 Mount Sinabung  Indonesia 2016 7 Mount Sinabung continued to erupt, with 7 fatalities over two different occasions [22]
3 Volcán de Fuego  Guatemala 2018 190[23] At least 190 people were killed after the volcano's most powerful eruption since 1974. Ash forced the closure of La Aurora International Airport in the capital Guatemala City.[24][25]
4? Anak Krakatoa  Indonesia 2018 437 A major eruption triggered a tsunami that killed at least 437 people, and injured 14,059 others.[26] The VEI is said to have possibly reached 4.[27] As a result of the landslide, the height of the volcano was reduced from 338 meters to 110 meters[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ulawun". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Sheveluch". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Nyiragongo". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Ruang". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Reventador". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  10. ^ "One dead as Chilean volcano spews ash for third day". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  13. ^ [1] Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ [2] Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  16. ^ "Global Volcanism Program - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle". Volcano.si.edu. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  17. ^ "Etna". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  18. ^ Balmer, Crispian (16 March 2017). "Volcanic explosion on Mount Etna injures 10 people". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  19. ^ "Mount Etna: BBC crew caught up in volcano blast". BBC News. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  20. ^ "Mass evacuation in Indonesia as Java volcano erupts". BBC News. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  21. ^ Pyle, David. "Volcán Calbuco: what do we know so far?". Blogs.egu.eu. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  22. ^ "Global Volcanism Program - Sinabung". Volcano.si.edu. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Thousands evacuated as Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts". Reuters. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  24. ^ Perez, Sonia. "Death toll rises to 25 in Guatemala volcano eruption". Stuff. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts killing 25 and injuring hundreds". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Number of injured in Indonesia tsunami surges to over 14,000". The Star Online. Asean Plus. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Krakatau volcano news & eruption updates:". www.volcanodiscovery.com. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  28. ^ "Krakatoa volcano (Sunda Strait, Indonesia): first estimates on the effect of the tsunami-triggering landslide". www.volcanodiscovery.com. Retrieved 2018-12-29.

External links[edit]