List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century

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This is a list of volcanic eruptions of the 20th century measuring a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of at least 4, as well as notable smaller eruptions. Note that there may be many other eruptions that have not been identified, and estimates for the size of eruptions can be subject to considerable uncertainties.

VEI Volcano (eruption) Year Casualties Notes
4? La Soufrière[1] 1902 1,680
4 Mount Pelée[2] 1902 33,000 Deadliest eruption of the 20th century and the deadliest natural disaster in the history of France.
6 Santa María[3] 1902 6,000
4 Grímsvötn[4] 1903
4 Mount Lolobau[5] 1904
5 Ksudach[6] 1907
4 Mount Lolobau[7] 1911
6 Novarupta[8] 1912 Largest eruption of the 20th century.
5 Colima[9] 1913
4 Sakurajima[10] 1914
4 Tungurahua[11] 1916
4 Agrihan[12] 1917
4+ Katla[13] 1918
4 Kelud[14] 1919 5,000
4 Manam[15] 1919
4 Raikoke[16] 1924
4? Iriomote-jima[17] 1924 Underwater volcano.
4 Avachinsky[18] 1926
4 Komagatake[19] 1929
4 Kliuchevskoi[20] 1931
4 Mount Aniakchak[21] 1931
4 Volcan De Fuego[22] 1932
5+ Cerro Azul[23] 1932 0 It is the largest recorded eruption in the history of Chile, the eruption threw ash between the cities of Rancagua and Chillán, leaving them in the dark in broad daylight, the explosions were noticeable as far away in the Chilean capital, Santiago, at 245 km from distance, the ashes arrived in Buenos Aires (capital of Argentina), Montevideo (capital of Uruguay), the south of Brazil and South Africa.[24]
5 Kharimkotan[25] 1933
4 Suoh[26] 1933
4? Kuchinoerabujima[27] 1933
4? Rabaul caldera[28] 1937 507
4 Parícutin[29] 1943–1952 The youngest volcano in the world.[citation needed] This volcano grew out of a corn field in Mexico and it was in a Mexican film named Paricutin. Scientists believe that this volcano is extinct even though it erupted once.
3 Mount Vesuvius 1944 20 Most recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius
4 Avachinsky[30] 1945
4 Sarychev Peak[31] 1946
4 Hekla[32] 1947
4+ Ambrym[33] 1950
4 Mount Lamington[34] 1951 2,942
4 Kelud[35] 1951
4 Bagana[36] 1952
4 Mount Spurr[37] 1953
4 Carran-Los Venados[38] 1955
5 Bezymianny[39] 1955-1957
5 Mount Agung[40] 1963 1,584
4+ Shiveluch[41] 1964
4 Taal[42] 1965
4 Kelud[43] 1966
4 Mount Awu[44] 1966
4 Fernandina Island[45] 1968
4 Tiatia[46] 1973
4 Volcan De Fuego[47] 1974
4 Tolbachik[48] 1975
4 Mount Augustine[49] 1976
5 Mount St. Helens[50] 1980 57 Most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States. The eruption reached all the way to Montana but killed a small number of people and the blast of the volcano was heard 700 miles away.
4 Alaid[51] 1981
4 Pagan[52] 1981
5 El Chichón[53] 1982 3,500 Ejected 7 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere.[54]
4 Galunggung[55] 1982 Notable for bringing attention to the dangers of volcanic ash on aircraft after two Boeing 747 jets suffered engine failure from its ash cloud.
4 Colo[56] 1983
3 Nevado del Ruiz 1985 23,000 Armero tragedy
4 Mount Augustine[57] 1986
4 Chikurachki[58] 1986
4 Kliuchevskoi[59] 1987
3 Mount Redoubt 1989-1990 Second costliest volcanic eruption in United States history. Caused engine failure of all four engines on KLM Flight 867 after it flew through the ash cloud.
4 Kelud[60] 1990
6 Mount Pinatubo[61] 1991 847 Largest stratospheric disturbance since Krakatoa eruption in 1883, dropping global temperatures and increasing ozone depletion.
5+ Mount Hudson[62] 1991
4 Mount Spurr[63] 1992
4 Lascar[64] 1993
4? Rabaul caldera[65] 1994
4 Soufriere Hills Volcano 1997 19 The major volcano eruption caused pyroclastic flows to move at 60-100 MPH and destroyed towns.

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References[edit]

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  24. ^ Columna de sismología: El Quizapu, la erupción más grande del Chile republicano (in Spanish)
  25. ^ [24]
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  29. ^ [28]
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  54. ^ Robock, Alan (2002), "Volcanic eruption, El Chichon" (PDF), The Earth system: physical and chemical dimensions of global environment change, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester, 1: 736
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