List of volcanic eruptions 1500–1999

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This is a list of notable volcanic eruptions in the 16th to 20th centuries with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4 or higher, and smaller eruptions that resulted in significant damage or fatalities. Note that there may be uncertainties to dates with historical eruptions, and there are likely to be many large eruptions that have not been identified.

VEI Volcano Country Year Fatalities Notes
3 Soufrière Hills[1] Montserrat 1997 19 A major eruption on 25 June 1997 caused pyroclastic flows to move at 60–100 mph, which killed 19 people and destroyed towns.[2]
2 Kanlaon[3] Philippines 1996 3 24 mountain climbers hiked the volcano when it erupted without warning on August 10, 1996, resulting in 3 fatalities.[4]
1 Yakedake[5] Japan 1995 4 Four people at a highway construction site were killed by a hydrothermal explosion on February 11, 1995.[6]
2 Mount Merapi[7] Indonesia 1994 64 A pyroclastic flow on November 22, 1994 killed 64 people.[8]
3 Rinjani[9] Indonesia 1994 30 A cold lahar from the summit of Rinjani on November 3, 1994 travelled down the Kokok Jenggak River, killing 30 people.[10]
4 Mount Tavurvur[11] Papua New Guinea 1994 5 Tavurvur, and nearby Vulcan, erupted and devastated Rabaul; however, due to planning for such a catastrophe, the townsfolk were prepared and only five people were killed. One of the deaths was caused by lightning, a feature of volcanic ash clouds.[12]
4 Láscar[13] Chile 1993
2 Mayon[14] Philippines 1993 79 Pyroclastic flows killed 79 people.[15]
2 Galeras[16] Colombia 1993 9 Galeras tragedy
4 Mount Spurr[17] Alaska, United States 1992
2 Karangetang[18] Indonesia 1992 6 Six people were killed by a pyroclastic flow from an eruption on May 18, 1992.[19]
5 Mount Hudson[20] Chile 1991
6 Mount Pinatubo[21] Philippines 1991 847 Second largest eruption of the 20th century, and largest stratospheric disturbance since the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. Many deaths were caused by complication of the arrival of Typhoon Yunya.
1 Mount Unzen[22] Japan 1991 43 A destructive and fatal eruption on June 3, 1991 at 4:08 pm caused the first large-scale pyroclastic flow, unprecedented at the time, which killed 43 people in the evacuation zone. Among these were French volcanologists Katia and Maurice Krafft, as well as American geologist Harry Glicken. The other 40 fatalities consisted largely of those involved in the mass media, as well as firefighters, police officers, farmers and taxi drivers.[23]
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1990 32 A strong and explosive eruption in early February 1990 produced a 12 km high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. 32 people were killed, over 500 homes and 50 schools were destroyed and many others were damaged.[25]
3 Mount Redoubt[26] Alaska, United States 1989-1990 Second costliest volcanic eruption in United States history. Caused engine failure of all four engines on KLM Flight 867 after it flew through the ash cloud.
4 Klyuchevskaya Sopka[27] Russia 1987
4 Chikurachki[28] Russia 1986
4 Augustine[29] Alaska, United States 1986
3 Nevado del Ruiz[30] Colombia 1985 23,000 Armero tragedy
4 Mount Colo[31] Indonesia 1983
4 Galunggung[32] Indonesia 1982 18 Notable for bringing attention to the dangers of volcanic ash on aircraft after two Boeing 747 jets suffered engine failure from its ash cloud.[33]
5 El Chichón[34] Mexico 1982 1,900 9 villages were destroyed, killing at least 1,900 people.[35] Ejected 7 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere.[36]
4 North Pagan[37] Mariana Islands, United States 1981-1985
4 Vulkan Alaid[38] Russia 1981
5 Mount St. Helens[39] Washington, United States 1980 57 Most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States. Ash from the eruption reached all the way to Montana. Few casualties owing to evacuation of the surrounding forest, with exception of loggers who did not depart in time; incinerated in large forest fire that was a result of one of seventeen pyroclastic flows.[40] Sound of eruption could be heard 700 miles (1127 km) away; entire flank of mountain collapsed. Noted for extremely large lahar that flooded the banks of the Toutle River and destroyed several bridges.[41]
3 Mount Etna[42] Italy 1979 9 A sudden phreatic explosion killed 9 tourists[43]
2 Mount Marapi[44] Indonesia 1979 80 A landslide on April 30, 1979 killed 80 people, damaged five villages and destroyed farmland.[45]
1 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1979 149 149 people died of gas poisoning in Pekisaran Village on February 20, 1979.[47]
1 Mount Nyiragongo[48] Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977 70 Lava flows killed 70 people and left 800 people homeless. About 1,200 hectares of agricultural land was destroyed.[49]
4 Augustine[29] Alaska, United States 1976
4 Tolbachik[50] Russia 1975
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1974
4 Tyatya[52] Russia 1973
3 Eldfell[53] Iceland 1973 1[54][55][56]
2 Villarrica[57] Chile 1971 15-30[58]
3 Mount Hudson[20] Chile 1971 5 Lahars killed 5 people and many more were evacuated.[59]
2 Didicas[60] Philippines 1969 3 Triggered a Volcanic tsunami that killed 3 fishermen.[61]
3 Volcán Arenal[62] Costa Rica 1968 87 On Monday, July 29, 1968, at 7:30 am, the Arenal Volcano suddenly and violently erupted. The eruptions continued unabated for several days, burying over 15 square kilometers (5.8 sq mi) under rocks, lava and ash. The eruptions killed 87 people and buried 3 small villages – Tabacón, Pueblo Nuevo and San Luís – and affected more than 232 square kilometers (90 sq mi) of land. Crops were spoiled, property was ruined, and large numbers of livestock were killed.[63]
4 Fernandina[64] Ecuador 1968
4 Mount Awu[65] Indonesia 1966
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1966
4 Taal[66] Philippines 1965
1 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1964 114[67]
4 Shiveluch[68] Russia 1964
2 Villarrica[57] Chile 1964 25[69]
3 Surtsey[53] Iceland 1963-1967
5 Mount Agung[70] Indonesia 1963 1,584
5 Bezymianny[71] Russia 1955–1957
4 Carran-Los Venados[72] Chile 1955
4 Mount Spurr[17] Alaska, United States 1953
2 Bayonnaise Rocks[73] Japan 1952 31 An eruption on 18 September 1952 killed 31 researchers and crewmen aboard the Maritime Safety Agency survey ship No.5 Kaiyo-Maru.[74]
4 Bagana[75] Papua New Guinea 1952
3 Hibok-Hibok[76] Philippines 1951 500-2,000+ This eruption was a turning point for the Philippine government to establish a dedicated agency to focus on volcanoes and its activities. It led to the creation of COMVOL (Commission on Volcanology) which would later be PHILVOLCS.[77][78]
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1951
4 Mount Lamington[79] Papua New Guinea 1951 2,942 The only recorded eruption of Mount Lamington devastated Oro Province. Pyroclastic flows caused extreme destruction north of the volcano. Its effects were extensively studied by volcanologist Tony Taylor and his report was published in 1958.[80]
4 Ambrym[81] Vanuatu 1950
3 Villarrica[57] Chile 1948 23 Mudflows buried 1000 hectares of arable land and forest and destroyed numerous buildings. 23 people were killed and 31 others were missing.[82]
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1947
4 Sarychev Peak[84] Russia 1946
4 Avachinsky[85] Russia 1945
2 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1944 117[67]
3 Mount Vesuvius[86] Italy 1944 20 Most recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Eruption took place during liberation of Italy by American and British soldiers.[87] Destroyed original village of San Sebastiano al Vesuvo. Extreme damage to the city of Naples in form of ash and building collapses.
4 Parícutin[88] Mexico 1943–1952 3 1943-1952 eruption of Parícutin
1 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1939 10[67]
4 Rabaul[11] Papua New Guinea 1937 507[89]
4 Kuchinoerabu-jima[90] Japan 1933-1934 8 8 people were killed and 26 others were injured. Nanakama Village was burned by fire from glowing blocks.[91]
4 Suoh[92] Indonesia 1933 Occurred two weeks after the 1933 Sumatra earthquake, which produced a surface rupture on the volcano.[93]
5 Kharimkotan[94] Russia 1933
5 Cerro Azul[95] Chile 1932 It is the largest recorded eruption in the history of Chile, the eruption threw ash between the cities of Rancagua and Chillán, leaving them in the dark in broad daylight. The explosions were noticeable in Santiago, 245 km away. The ashes arrived in Buenos Aires (capital of Argentina), Montevideo (capital of Uruguay), the south of Brazil and South Africa.[96]
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1932
4 Mount Aniakchak[97] Alaska, United States 1931
4 Klyuchevskaya Sopka[27] Russia 1931
3 Mount Merapi[7] Indonesia 1930-1931 1,369[98]
4 Hokkaidō Koma-ga-take[99] Japan 1929
3 Paluweh[100] Indonesia 1928 160+ A volcanic landslide triggered a tsunami 5–10 m high, killing more than 160 people.[101]
2 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1928 40[67]
1 Mount Etna[42] Italy 1928 Effusive eruption resulting in the complete destruction of the municipality of Mascali.[102]
4 Avachinsky[85] Russia 1926
5 Submarine Volcano NNE of Iriomote Island[103] Japan 1924 Submarine Volcano
4 Raikoke[104] Russia 1924
4 Manam[105] Papua New Guinea 1919
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1919 5,160 Lahars killed over 5,000 people.[106]
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1918
4 Tungurahua[108] Ecuador 1916
3 Lassen Peak[109] California, United States 1915 First volcano in the Cascades Volcanic Arc heading northwards, possibly the first volcanic eruption recorded using motion picture camera. Pyroclastic flows caused massive fires and evidence of the eruption still present in form of unusual growth patterns of trees as of 2020, 105 years later and charred trees. Area now forbidden to settle in as it is now Lassen Volcanic National Park.
4 Sakurajima[110] Japan 1914 58 Most powerful eruption in Japan in the twentieth century. The volcano had been dormant for over a century until 1914.[111] Almost all residents had left the island in the previous days; several large earthquakes had warned them that an eruption was imminent. Initially, the eruption was very explosive, generating eruption columns and pyroclastic flows, but after a very large earthquake on January 13, 1914, which killed 58 people, it became effusive, generating a large lava flow.[111]
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1913
6 Novarupta[113] Alaska, United States 1912 Largest eruption of the 20th century
4 Lolobau[114] Papua New Guinea 1911
3 Taal[66] Philippines 1911 1,335 Base surge and tsunami inside the Taal lake caldera killed thousands of people living near the Taal Volcano island. The ash reached as far as Manila.[115]
5 Ksudach[116] Russia 1907
4 Mount Vesuvius[86] Italy 1875-1906 216
4 Lolobau[114] Papua New Guinea 1904
4 Þórðarhyrna[117] Iceland 1903
6 Santa María[118] Guatemala 1902 6,000 1902 eruption of Santa María
3 Tori-shima[119] Japan 1902 150[120]
4 Mount Pelée[121] France 1902 33,000 Deadliest eruption of the 20th century and the deadliest natural disaster in the history of France. Destroyed Saint-Pierre, Martinique. Only 2 people survived this eruption with 1 being held as a prisoner and was locked underground avoiding the pyroclastic flows.
4 La Soufrière[122] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1902 1,700 1,700 people were killed and a further 600 people were injured or burned. At least 4,000 people were left homeless.[123]
4 Doña Juana[124] Colombia 1899
4 Mount Mayon[14] Philippines 1897 350-400[125]
4 Calbuco[126] Chile 1893-1894
3 Mount Awu[65] Indonesia 1892 1,532[127]
4 Suwanosejima[128] Japan 1889
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1889
4 Mount Bandai[129] Japan 1888 477+ 1888 eruption of Mount Bandai
2 Ritter Island[130] Papua New Guinea 1888 500–3000 1888 Ritter Island eruption and tsunami
4 Niuafo'ou[131] Tonga 1886
5 Mount Tarawera[132] New Zealand 1886 108+ Largest historical eruption in New Zealand
4 Tungurahua[108] Ecuador 1886 2
4 Augustine[29] Alaska, United States 1883-1884 Augustine has had six significant eruptions: 1812, 1883–1884, 1935, 1963–1964, 1976, and 1986. Only the 1883 eruption produced a tsunami.[133]
6 Krakatoa[134] Indonesia 1883 36,417 The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa was one of the loudest explosions ever recorded, and was heard at least 3,000 miles (4,800 km) away. Caused a 5-year volcanic winter. The island had three volcanoes. Perboewatan (410 ft) and Danan (1,480 ft) were destroyed during the eruption, and Rakata (2,667 ft) was half destroyed and the surviving half remains above sea level. In 1928, a new volcano called Anak Krakatoa (1,063 ft) grew above sea level, forming a new island by Rakata's island.
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1880
4 Cotopaxi[135] Ecuador 1877 340[136]
4 Suwanosejima[128] Japan 1877
5 Askja[137] Iceland 1875
4 Grímsvötn[117] Iceland 1873
4 Mount Merapi[7] Indonesia 1872 200
4 Sinarka[138] Russia 1872
2 Ruang[139] Indonesia 1871 416 1871 Ruang eruption and tsunami
4 Makian[140] Indonesia 1861 309–326
3 Dubbi[141] Eritrea 1861 106[127]
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1860
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1857
4 Hokkaidō Koma-ga-take[99] Japan 1856 20
3 Mount Awu[65] Indonesia 1856 2,806[127]
5 Shiveluch[68] Russia 1854
4 Mount Usu[142] Japan 1853
4 Fonualei[143] Tonga 1846
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1845
3 Nevado del Ruiz[30] Colombia 1845 1,000[144]
2 Mount Etna[42] Italy 1843 56[127]
5 Mount Agung[70] Indonesia 1843
5 Cosigüina[145] Nicaragua 1835
4 Babuyan Claro[146] Philippines 1831
4 Klyuchevskaya Sopka[27] Russia 1829
4 Avachinsky[85] Russia 1827
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1826
5 Galunggung[32] Indonesia 1822 4,011 Lahars killed more than 4,000 people.[33]
4 Mount Usu[142] Japan 1822 50[147]
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1818
4 Mount Raung[148] Indonesia 1817
7 Mount Tambora[149] Indonesia 1815 71,000–250,100+ Largest and deadliest volcanic eruption in recorded history. Caused the "Year Without a Summer" in 1816.
4 Mount Mayon[14] Philippines 1814 1,200 The town of Cagsawa was buried and approximately 1,200 people were killed.[150]
4 Suwanosejima[128] Japan 1813
4 Mount Awu[65] Indonesia 1812
4 La Soufrière[122] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1812 56[151]
6 Unknown source Unknown 1808 Greenland and Antarctic ice samples suggest an undocumented eruption roughly half the magnitude of Mount Tambora occurred, contributing to the 1810s being the coldest decade in at least 500 years.[152] Recent searches of documents suggest that it may have taken place in South Western Pacific Ocean around Dec 4, 1808 and observed in Colombia from December 11, 1808.[153] It is also known that the Chilean Putana volcano had a major eruption around this time with an approximate date of 1810 (with a 10-year margin of error), but is located 22 degrees south.[154]
4 Tutupaca[155] Peru 1802
5 Mount St. Helens[39] Washington, United States 1800
4 Witori[156] Papua New Guinea 1800
4 Mount Westdahl[157] Alaska, United States 1795
4 San Martin Tuxtla[158] Mexico 1793
2 Mount Unzen[22] Japan 1792 15,000 1792 Unzen earthquake and tsunami
4 Kilauea[159] Hawaii, United States 1790 400+ Keanakakoi eruption
4 Mount Etna[42] Italy 1787
2 Dieng Volcanic Complex[46] Indonesia 1786 38 Ground fissuring destroyed the village of Jamping, killing 38 people.[67]
4 Laki[117] Iceland 1783–1784 10,000+ 1783-1784 eruption of Laki
4 Mount Asama[160] Japan 1783 1,500–1,624 Tenmei eruption
4 Raikoke[104] Russia 1778 15[161]
3 Gamalama[162] Indonesia 1775 1,300[163]
3 Mount Papandayan[164] Indonesia 1772 3,000 An eruption in 1772 caused the northeast flank to collapse producing a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3,000 people.[165]
4 Mount Usu[142] Japan 1769
4 Cotopaxi[135] Ecuador 1768
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1766–1768
4 Miyake-jima[166] Japan 1763
4 Mount Pavlof[167] Alaska, United States 1762
4 Makian[140] Indonesia 1760–1761
4 El Jorullo[88] Mexico 1759-1774
5 Katla[107] Iceland 1755
4 Taal[66] Philippines 1754
4 Taal[66] Philippines 1749
4 Cotopaxi[135] Ecuador 1744
4 Oshima–Ōshima[168] Japan 1741–1742 1,467–2,033 1741 eruption of Oshima–Ōshima and the Kampo tsunami
5 Mount Tarumae[169] Japan 1739
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1737
4 Öræfajökull[170] Iceland 1727-1728
5 Katla[107] Iceland 1721
4 Cerro Bravo[171] Colombia 1720
4 Raoul Island[172] Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 1720
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1717
4 Taal[66] Philippines 1716
5 Mount Fuji[173] Japan 1707 Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji
? Tseax Cone Canada 1700 2,000[174][175]
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1693
5 Tangkoko[176] Indonesia 1680
5 Mount Gamkonora[177] Indonesia 1673
3 Mount Etna[42] Italy 1669 1669 eruption of Mount Etna
5 Mount Tarumae[169] Japan 1667
5 Mount Usu[142] Japan 1663
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1660–1661
4 Guagua Pichincha[178] Ecuador 1660
6 Long Island[179] Papua New Guinea 1660
5 Shiveluch[68] Russia 1652
4 Kolumbo[180] Santorini, Greece 1650 70[181]
4 Makian[140] Indonesia 1646
4 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1641
5 Mount Melibengoy[182] Philippines 1640–1641
5 Hokkaido Komagatake[99] Japan 1640 700 A partial summit collapse caused a tsunami that killed 700 people.[183]
4 Raung[148] Indonesia 1638
5 Mount Vesuvius[86] Italy 1631 4,000+ 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius
5 Furnas[184] Azores, Portugal 1630
4 Raoul Island[172] Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 1630
5 Katla[107] Iceland 1625
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1622
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1612
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1606
4 Suwanosejima[128] Japan 1600
6 Huaynaputina[185] Peru 1600 1,500 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Russian famine of 1601–1603
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1597
4 Nevado del Ruiz[30] Colombia 1595 636 This eruption caused lahars, which traveled down the valleys of the nearby Gualí and Lagunillas rivers, clogging up the water, killing fish and destroying vegetation. More than 600 people died as a result of the lahar.[144]
5 Raung[148] Indonesia 1593
5 Kelud[24] Indonesia 1586 10,000+[106]
4 Volcán de Colima[112] Mexico 1585
4 Volcán de Fuego[51] Guatemala 1581
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1580
6 Billy Mitchell[186] Papua New Guinea 1580
5 Água de Pau[187] Azores, Portugal 1563
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1550
3 Monte Nuovo (Phlegraean Fields)[188] Italy 1538 24[189]
4 Cotopaxi[135] Ecuador 1534
4 Cotopaxi[135] Ecuador 1532
4 Hekla[83] Iceland 1510
4 Katla[107] Iceland 1500

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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