List of largest European cities in history

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Timeline – Neolithic – Bronze – Iron Age – ancient Greece and Roman Republic 7000 – 100-0 B.C.[edit]

City 7000 6500–6000 5000 4000 3800 3000–2500 2000 1600 1300 1000 700 600 500 – 400 300 200 100-0
Athens[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] 10,000 – 15,000 2,500 – 5,000 5,000 – 10,000 70,000 – 100,000 – 130,000 150,000 – 350,000 – 610,000 120,000-200,000-300,000-431,000 100,000-200,000
Argos[3][14][22][23][24][25] 600 – 1,200 5,000 – 10,000 30,000 – 60,000
Aegina[26] 20,000 – 40,000
Akrotiri (Santorini)[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][35] 8,000 – 15,000 – 30,000
Agrigento[36][37][38][39][40] 200,000 – 800,000
Avaricum 40,000[41]
Bibracte 30,000[42]
Cerveteri[43][44][45][46][47] 25,000 – 40,000
Capua[48][49][50][51][52][53] 100,000 300,000 100,000
Choirokoitia[54][55][56][57][58][59][60] 300 – 600 2,000
Corinth[61][62][63] 5,000[64] 50,000-90,000-100,000
Crotone[65] 50,000 – 80,000
Dobrovody[66][67] 10,000-16,000
Dimini[68] 300
Durrington Walls[69][70][71] 4,000
Fedorovka[67] 6,000
Gournia[72][73] 4,000
Heuneburg[74][75][76][77] 10,000
ischia[78][79][80] 5,000 – 10,000
Knossos[3][14][27]

[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90]

100 1,000 1,300-2,000 18,000 20,000 – 40,000 – 100,000 30,000 5,000 – 10,000
Mycenae[87][91] 20,000[92] 30,000 – 35,000
Manika (Greece)[90][93][94][95][96][97][98] 6000 – 15,000
Malia[27][88][90] 700-1,000 5,000 – 10,000 – 12.500
Maydanets[66][99][100] 10,000-29,000-46,000
Nea Nikomedeia[101] 500-700
Okoliste[99] 1000-3000
Palaikastro[27][88] 18,000
Populonia[45][46][102][103] 25,000 – 40,000
Lepenski Vir[104][105][106][107][108][109] 150 -1,000
Tarquinia[45][46][102][103] 20,000 – 25,000 – 40,000
Vinča-Belo Brdo[110][111] 2000–2500
Veii[45][46][102][103][112][113][114] 25,000 – 40,000 – 100,000
Volsinii[45][46][102][103] 13,000 – 25,000 – 40,000
Vulci[45][46][102][103] 15,000 – 25,000 – 40,000
Sesklo[115][116][117][118][119] 300 1000–5000
Sparta[2][120] 40,000-50,000
Syracuse, Sicily[40][121][122][122][123][124][125][126][127] 200,000-800,000-1,200,000 200,000-400,000
Sybaris[128][65][129][130][131][132] 100,000-300,000
Solnitsata[133][134] 350
Tiryns[90][135][136][61] 1,200-1,800 10,000 15,000
Nebelivka[67] 17,000
Taranto[53][137][138] 100,000-300,000
Talianki[67][139][140][141] 15,000-30,000
Thebes, Greece[90][142]

[143][144][145][146]

4,000-6,000 8,000 30,000 – 60,000
Los Millares[147][148][149] 1,000 – 2,300
Pavlopetri[150][151] 500 2,000
Rome[53][152][153][154][155]

[156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163]

3,145-7,400 24,240-60,600 80,000 130,000 250,000-300,000 350,000 500,000-1,000,000
Rhodes (city)[20][21][164] 100,000-200,000 100,000

Timeline From Roman Empire to Modern Age 0 – 1800 A.D.[edit]

City 0-100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
Athens[165][166] 30,000 110,000 25,000 35,000-50,000 40,000
Aquileia[167][168] 100,000 100,000
Augsburg[169][170][171][172][173][174][175] 25,000-50,000 25,000-50,000 12,000 50,000 30,000-50,000 45,000-50,000-100,000 26,000 28,000-32,000
Amalfi[176] 80,000
Antwerp[177][178][179][180][181] 5,000 20,000 100,000-200,000 46,000-90,000 75,000
Arles[182][183][184] 75,000-100,000
Autun[185][186][187] 40,000-100,000
Amsterdam[180][188][189][190] 30,000 65,000-100,000-175,000 175,000-200,000-210,000 195,000-201,000
Barcelona[190][191][192][193] 50,000 60,000-70,000 100,000
Bruges[194][195] 50,000 125,000-200,000
Bucharest[196] 60,000 50,000
Brussels[179][189][197] 30,000 100,000 100,000 70,000
Bordeaux[198][199][200] 30,000-40,000 50,000 100,000
Berlin[189][201] 6,000 12,000 20,000 172,000
Bologna[202][203][204] 35,000 50,000-70,000
Bolgary[196] 25,000-30,000 50,000
Carnuntum[205][206] 50,000 50,000 50,000
Cádiz[187][207] 100,000 87,000
Corinth[61][208][209][210][211] 100,000 – 200,00 – 700,000 45,000 + in 856 AD.[212]
Constantinople[213][214][215][216][217][218][219][220][221][222] 400,000 400,00- 800,000 100,000- 800,000 100,000- 800,000 100,000- 250,000 500,000- 1,000,000 500,000 300,000 400,000 70,000 400,000-660,000 700,000 300,000-700,000 400,000-570,000
Córdoba[187][203][223] 45,000 450,000 60,000
Cologne[204][224][225][226][227][228] 40,000 40,000 15,000-20,000 21,000 20,000 21,000-50,000 50,000.60,000 50,000-60,000 40,000 45,000 40,000 50,000
Danzig[169][229] 30,000 60,000-80,000
Dublin[230][231][232][233] 1,000-2,000 4,000-5,000 10,000 20,000 75,000 200,000
Edirne (Adrianople)[196] 10,000 28,000 125,000 160,000-183,000 93,000 100,000
Feodosia[196] 40,000 85,000-88,000 50,000 40,000 36,000-44,000
Florence[234][180][204][224][235][236] 15,000 50,000-60,000 80,000-120,000 70,000 70,000
Genoa[234][180][204][237][238][239] 80,000 50,000 100,000 100,000 60,000 70,000 90,000
Ghent[178][194][240][241][242][243][244][245][191] 5,000 10,000 60,000-80,000 70,000-80,000 80,000-150,000-175,000-200,000
Granada[246][247][198] 26,000 150,000 100,000 70,000
Hamburg[169][171][175][229][189][248] 8,000 15,000-20,000 40,000-60,000-100,000 63,000-75,000 117,000-130,000
Kiev[249][250] 45,000 100,000
Lisbon[207][251][252][253] 35,000 50,000-60,000 60,000-70,000-120,000 120,000-140,000 200,000 237,000
London[222][254][255][256][257][258][259][260][261] 30,000 45,000-50,000-60,000 10,000-12,000 20,000-25,000 10,000-20,000 20,000-25,000 50,000-100,000 50,000-100,000-120,000 225,000-410,000 550,00-700,000 861,000-1,000,000
Lugdunum (Lyon)[229][262][204][263][264][265][266][267] 50,000-100,000-200,000 50,000-100,000-200,000 12,000 20,000 40,000-70,000 40,000-70,000 100,000 150,000
Leuven[268] 45,000
Lublin[196] 40,000-70,000
Lübeck[196] 6000 24,000 30,000-37,000 32,000 24,000
Madrid[229][189][248] 60,000 105,000 182,000
Magdeburg[169][228] 30,000 40,000-45,000
Marseilles[229][189][190][248] 80,000-100,000 80,000 83,000-100,000
Mainz[269] 20,000 30,000 25,000 24,000 20,000 20,000-42,000
Messina[188][248][270] 100,000
Milan[50][234][271][187][189][238][248][272][273][274][275] 40,000 40,000 100,000 90,000 200,000 125,000 100,000 180,000 113,000 122,000-250,000
Metz[262][266][276] 40,000 25,000 40,000
Montpellier[262][277] 30,000-40,000 15,000 40,000
Moscow[278][279] 20,000-30,000 30,000-40,000 100,000 200,000 200,000 270,000
Narbonne[185][204] 30,000-50,000 31,000
Naples[234][189][204][280][281][282][283][284][285][286] 30,000 50,000 30,000 30,000 50,000-60,000 200,000 350,000 207,000 500,000
Nimes[262][287][288][289][290] 40,000-60,000 40,000
Nuremberg[171][173][175][248][291][292][293] 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000-52,000 40,000-50,000-100,000 27,000
Ostia Antica[294][295][296][297][298][299] 20,000-50,000-100,000 50,000-100,000
Ohrid[196] 40,000
Palermo[188][189][300][253] 350,000 150,000 150,000 50,000 100,000 124,000 135,000
Paris[204][222][301][302][303][262][304][305] 80,000 30,000 20,000-30,000 20,000-30,000 20,000 50,000 110,000-160,000 228,000-275,000-300,000 280,000 225,000 245,000-420,000 515,000 546,000-830,000
Padua[202][306] 25,000-40,000 25,000-40,000 25,000-40,000 40,000
Philippi 100,000[307]
Pliska[196] 34,000
Plovdiv[196] 20,000 20,000 30,000
Pozzuoli[50][308][172] 50,000-100,000
Pskov[196] 35,000 52,000-60,000
Preslav[309] 60,000 60,000
Prague[310][189][311] 10,000[312] 22,000 40,000-77,000 95,000-100,000 70,000 100,000 48,000 77,000-100,000
Regensburg[271][266] 25,000 40,000
Reims[185][262] 30,000-50,000 30,000
Rome[152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][180][213][313][314][315][316][313][317][318] 1,650,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,100,000 100,000 90,000 40,000 – 50,000 50,000 30,000 20,000 50,000-55,000 90,000-110,000 120,000-150,000 150,000
Ravenna[182] 50,000 50,000
Rouen[189][262][266][267][311][319][320] 10,000 30,000 40,000 70,000 40,000-70,000 40,000-70,000 63,000 80,000-90,000
Saint Petersburg[190][321] 100,000+ 220,000-425,000
Salerno[204][300] 50,000 50,000 30,000 4,000
Smolensk[322][323] 20,000-30,000-40,000 25,000 50,000 64,000 40,000
Sarai[324] 100,00-600,000
Speyer[196] 30,000+ 30,000 20,000
Seville[325][188][189][198] 90,000 150,000 25,000 100,000-300,000 80,000 96,000
Siena[326] 50,000 – 120,000[327] 25,000
Syracuse, Sicily[187] 80,000
Thessaloniki[249][328][329][330][331][332] 200,000 50,000 40,000 150,000 150,000 100,000- 150,000 100,000- 150,000
Trakai[196] 50,000
Trnovo[196] 48,000 35,000
Targoviste[196] 25,000-40,000 50,000-60,000 45,000-60,000
Trier[204][266][333][334][335][336] 70,000-80,000-100,000 70,000-80,000-100,000 15,000 20,000
Toulouse[268][262][337][338][339] 50,000 50,000 30,000 25,000 50,000 30,000
Venice[234][271][236][237][340] 60,000 80,000 110,000-180,000 110,00-150,000 100,000-170,000 200,000 140,000 140,000
Verona[341][342] 20,000-25,000 40,000
Veliky Novgorod[343][344][345][346] 10,000-15,000-18,000 20,000-30,000-40,000 50,000-60,000-400,000 50,000
Vienna[169][175][229][189][293][347][348][349] 15,000-20,000 15,000-20,000 12,000 20,000 24,000 45,000 30,000-50,000-60,000 100,000-113,000 250,000
Worms[196] 28,000-60,000 20,000
Ypres,[204][199][350][351][352][353][354][355] 40,000-80,000-200,000 40,000-80,000-200,000

Data from Hohenberg and Lees (1985)[edit]

*Warsaw data from 1792[356]

Data from Chandler (1987)[edit]

City Country 430 B.C. 200 B.C. A.D. 100 A.D. 361 A.D. 500 A.D. 622
Seville Spain 37–40,000 40,000
London United Kingdom 30,000
Syracuse Italy 125,000 100,000 51–60,000 45–50,000
Rome Italy 35,000 150,000 450,000 150,000 100,000 50,000
Milan Italy 30,000 40,000
Athens Greece 155,000 75,000 75,000 50–60,000
Corinth Greece 70,000 70,000 50,000
Byzantium/
Constantinople
Turkey 36,000 300,000 400,000 350,000
City Country 800 900 1000 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1575 1600 1650
London United Kingdom 15,000 25,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 60,000 50,000 74,000 112,000 187,000 410,000
Lisbon Portugal 15,000 15,000 15,000 35,000 45,000 55,000 60,000 55,000 62,000 85,000 100,000 170,000
Córdoba Spain 160,000 200,000 450,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 40,000 36,000 30,000 32,000
Seville Spain 35,000 40,000 90,000 125,000 125,000 150,000 75,000 90,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 46,000 70,000 100,000 126,000 60,000
Granada Spain 60,000 60,000 60,000 75,000 90,000 60,000 90,000 165,000 70,000 70,000 60,000 68,000
Madrid Spain 80,000 125,000
Paris France 25,000 20,000 30,000 50,000 110,000 160,000 228,000 215,000 280,000 150,000 185,000 210,000 220,000 245,000 455,000
Amsterdam Netherlands 48,000 165,000
Rome Italy 50,000 40,000 35,000 35,000 35,000 30,000 33,000 38,000 58,000 70,000 102,000 110,000
Naples Italy 30,000 25,000 30,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 75,000 114,000 209,000 215,000 224,000 265,000
Milan Italy 25,000 20,000 30,000 42,000 45,000 60,000 65,000 60,000 50,000 80,000 83,000 89,000 75,000 98,000 107,000 105,000
Palermo Italy 35,000 75,000 90,000 125,000 150,000 75,000 35,000 25,000 39,000 60,000 70,000 105,000 132,000
Venice Italy 35,000 45,000 55,000 60,000 70,000 90,000 110,000 85,000 110,000 100,000 115,000 171,000 157,000 151,000 134,000
Prague Czech Republic 15,000 22,000 40,000 50,000 95,000 70,000 70,000 70,000 70,000 110,000
Athens Greece 25,000 35,000 35,000 33,000
Constantinople/
Istanbul
Turkey 250,000 300,000 300,000 200,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 100,000 80,000 75,000 45,000 200,000 660,000 680,000 700,000 700,000
Sarai Russia 80,000 100,000 120,000
Moscow Russia 30,000 80,000 75,000 60,000 80,000 100,000
City Country 1675 1700 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1862 1875 1900 1914 1925 1936 1950 1975
London United Kingdom 485,000 550,000 676,000 710,000 861,000 1,335,000 2,320,000 2,803,000 4,241,000 6,480,000 7,419,000 7,742,000 9,710,000 8,860,000 10,500,000
Lisbon Portugal 178,000 188,000 213,000 219,000 237,000 258,000 262,000 280,000 243,000 363,000 455,000 567,000 875,000 1,600,000
Córdoba Spain 27,000 28,000 34,000 52,000
Seville Spain 80,000 68,000 96,000 83,000 117,000 148,000 212,000 383,000 685,000
Granada Spain 35,000 45,000 53,000 58,000 75,000
Madrid Spain 115,000 105,000 110,000 132,000 182,000 201,000 216,000 303,000 373,000 539,000 623,000 791,000 1,220,000 1,527,000 4,150,000
Paris France 540,000 530,000 556,000 600,000 547,000 855,000 1,314,000 1,800,000 2,250,000 3,330,000 4,000,000 4,800,000 5,950,000 5,900,000 9,400,000
Amsterdam Netherlands 195,000 210,000 219,000 209,000 195,000 196,000 225,000 268,000 289,000 510,000 601,000 718,000 859,000 1,800,000
Rome Italy 105,000 138,000 146,000 148,000 142,000 125,000 158,000 194,000 251,000 438,000 570,000 758,000 1,155,000 1,665,000 3,600,000
Naples Italy 170,000 207,000 310,000 355,000 430,000 350,000 413,000 447,000 450,000 563,000 691,000 852,000 1,210,000 1,900,000
Milan Italy 114,000 113,000 110,000 117,000 122,000 156,000 182,000 226,000 267,000 491,000 655,000 917,000 1,103,000 1,400,000 3,800,000
Palermo Italy 128,000 125,000 111,000 127,000 135,000 154,000 170,000 175,000 188,000 255,000 370,000 470,000 672,000
Venice Italy 138,000 143,000 158,000 151,000 146,000 99,000 141,000 171,000 226,000 354,000
Berlin Germany 26,000 113,000 136,000 172,000 222,000 446,000 582,000 1,045,000 2,707,000 3,500,000 4,013,000 4,226,000 3,707,000 2,000,000
Budapest Hungary - - - - - - - - 309,208 733,385 880,371 960,995 1,060,431 1,629,000 2,026,543
Prague Czech Republic 48,000 58,000 77,000 98,000 117,000 474,000 670,000 745,000 951,000 1,275,000
Athens Greece 30,000 181,000 571,000 1,140,000 3,300,000
Istanbul Turkey 750,000 700,000 625,000 600,000 570,000 675,000 785,000 820,000 873,000 900,000 1,125,000 817,000 1,035,000 3,200,000
Edirne Turkey 100,000 85,000 82,000 80,000 88,000 85,000
Moscow Russia 105,000 114,000 146,000 177,000 248,000 257,000 373,000 346,000 600,000 1,120,000 1,805,000 1,764,000 4,050,000 5,100,000 10,700,000
Saint Petersburg Russia 74,000 164,000 220,000 438,000 502,000 565,000 764,000 1,439,000 2,133,000 1,430,000 2,983,000 2,700,000 4,280,000

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

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  4. ^ Beer, J. (2004). Sophocles and the Tragedy of Athenian Democracy. Praeger. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-313-28946-0. 
  5. ^ Schwartz, G.M.; Nichols, J.J. (2010). After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies. University of Arizona Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8165-2936-0. 
  6. ^ "Urban History of Athens Presentation" (PDF). 9 December 2008. Retrieved 2014-09-24. 
  7. ^ Kellogg, D.L. (2013). Marathon Fighters and Men of Maple: Ancient Acharnai. OUP Oxford. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-166386-4. 
  8. ^ Hansen, M.H. (1988). Three Studies in Athenian Demography. Commissioner, Munksgaard. p. 7. ISBN 9788773041895. 
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  26. ^ Hornblower, S.; Spawforth, A.; Eidinow, E. (2012). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. OUP Oxford. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-19-954556-8. 
  27. ^ a b c d Castleden, R. (2002). Atlantis Destroyed. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-134-70879-6. 
  28. ^ Freeman, C. (2014). Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. OUP Oxford. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-19-150970-4. 
  29. ^ Thornton, I.; New, T. (2007). Island Colonization: The Origin and Development of Island Communities. Cambridge University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-139-46231-0. 
  30. ^ Kupp, R.W. (2005). A Nuclear Engineer in the Twentieth Century. Trafford Publishing. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-4120-5003-6. 
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  36. ^ Hooke, N. (1818). The Roman history, from the building of Rome to the ruin of the commonwealth... New ed. Printed for F.C. and J. Rivington. p. 17. 
  37. ^ Lemprière, J. (1842). A Classical Dictionary: Containing a Full Account of All the Proper Names Mentioned in Ancient Authors, with Tables of Coins, Weights, and Measures, in Use Among the Greeks and Romans. To which is Now Prefixed, a Chronological Table. T. Allman. p. 26. 
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