List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average
This is a list of the largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Largest point changes
The first four tables show only the largest one-day changes between a given day's close and the close of the previous trading day, not the largest changes during the trading day (i.e. intraday changes).
|Largest daily point gains
|Largest daily point losses
Largest percentage changes
|Largest daily percentage gains
|Largest daily percentage losses
Some sources (including the file Highlights/Lowlights of The Dow on the Dow Jones website) show a loss of −24.39% (from 71.42 to 54.00) on December 12, 1914, placing that day atop the list of largest percentage losses. The New York Stock Exchange reopened that day following a nearly four-and-a-half-month closure since July 30, 1914, and the Dow in fact rose several percent that day (from 71.42 to 74.56, or +4.4%). However, the apparent decline was due to a later 1916 revision of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which retroactively adjusted the values following the closure but not those before, and it represents the only discontinuity in the index’s history rather than an actual loss.
Largest intraday point swings
A point swing is the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. (The intraday high may not be the same as the opening price; for instance, in the 2010 Flash Crash, the market reached an intraday high higher than the opening price).
This is distinguished from an intraday point drop or gain, which is the difference between the opening price and the intraday low or high.
This table shows the largest intraday point swings since 1987. As the "Net Change" column shows, 15 of these 20 largest intraday swings occurred during days on which the Dow declined, while only 5 occurred during days on which it advanced. Eight of the ten largest intraday swings occurred amidst the global financial crisis of 2007-08, and none of the top 20 occurred before the year 2000. At the time during the height of the crisis, nine of the ten largest intraday swings ever (and 13 of the top 20) occurred over a single span of trading days between September 29, 2008, and December 1, 2008.
|Rank||Date||Close||Day high||Day low||Point swing||Net change|
Largest intraday point changes
|Largest intraday point gains
An intraday point gain is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday low) and the intraday high. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned negative are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point gain. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
|Largest intraday point drops
An intraday point drop is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday high) and the intraday low. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned positive are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point drop. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
Largest intraday point changes with turnovers
|Largest intraday point gains that turned negative
These are the largest intraday point gains that closed in negative territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point gain, the intraday high must be above the open price. The previous day close is not a factor.
|Largest intraday point losses that turned positive
These are the largest intraday point losses that closed in positive territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point loss the intraday low must be below the open price. The previous day close is not a factor.
- Dow Jones Industrial Average
- Closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
- Historical record closes of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
- List of largest daily changes in the S&P 500
- List of largest daily changes in the Nasdaq Composite
- List of stock market crashes, including:
- Wall Street Crash of 1929 (October 24–29, 1929)
- Black Monday (1987) (October 19, 1987)
- Friday the 13th mini-crash (October 13, 1989)
- October 27, 1997, mini-crash
- Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks
- Financial crisis of 2007–08
- 2010 Flash Crash (May 6, 2010)
- August 2011 stock markets fall
- "Historical Index Data All-Time Largest One Day Gains and Losses". wsj.com.
- Highlights/Lowlights of The Dow (Excel spreadsheet)
- "Setting the Record Straight on the Dow Drop". The New York Times. October 26, 1987.
- Bialik, Carl (October 1, 2008). "The Day Stocks Rose but the Dow Plunged". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Historical Index Data Largest Intraday Point Swings, Since 1987". wsj.com.