This is a list of the largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1896. Compare to the list of largest daily changes in the S&P 500 Index.
Largest percentage changes
The first four tables show only the largest one-day changes between a given day's close and the close of the previous trading day, not the largest changes during the trading day (i.e. intraday changes).
Some sources (including the file Highlights/Lowlights of The Dow on the Dow Jones website) show a loss of −24.39% (from 71.42 to 54.00) on December 12, 1914, placing that day atop the list of largest percentage losses. The New York Stock Exchange reopened that day following a nearly four-and-a-half-month closure since July 30, 1914, and the Dow in fact rose 4.4% that day (from 71.42 to 74.56). However, the apparent decline was due to a later 1916 revision of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which retroactively adjusted the values following the closure but not those before, and it represents the only discontinuity in the index's history rather than an actual loss.
|Largest daily percentage gains
|Largest daily percentage losses
Largest point changes
The Dow Jones Industrial Average was first published in 1896, but since the firms listed at that time were in existence before then, the index can be calculated going back to May 2, 1881. A loss of just over 24 percent on May 5, 1893, from 39.90 to 30.02 signaled the apex of the stock effects of the Panic of 1893; the 2008–09 crash was a 61.8 percent retracement thereof that began on October 11, 2007, and lasted until the closing low on March 9, 2009.
The largest point drop in history occurred on March 16, 2020, when concerns over the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic engulfed the market, dropping the Dow Jones Industrial Average 2,997 points. The largest point gain (+2,113) occurred on March 24, 2020. As of August 4, 2020, all of the top seven and eight of the top ten largest point drops and point gains have been amid the 2020 stock market crash, which has been marked by extreme point swings.
|Largest daily point gains
|Largest daily point losses
Largest intraday point swings
A point swing is the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. (The intraday high may not be the same as the opening price; for instance, in the 2010 Flash Crash, the market reached an intraday high, higher than the opening price.)
This is distinguished from an intraday point drop or gain, which is the difference between the opening price and the intraday low or high.
This table shows the largest intraday point swings since 1987. As the "Net Change" column shows, 11 of these 20 largest intraday swings occurred during days on which the Dow declined, and 9 occurred during days on which it advanced. None of the top 20 occurred before the year 2018.
During the 2020 stock market crash, fourteen of the top seventeen positions occurred in the month of March 2020.
|Rank||Date||Close||Day high||Day low||Point swing||Net change|
Largest intraday point changes
|Largest intraday point gains
An intraday point gain is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday low) and the intraday high. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned negative are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point gain. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
|Largest intraday point drops
An intraday point drop is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday high) and the intraday low. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned positive are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point drop. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
Largest intraday point changes with turnovers
|Largest intraday point gains that turned negative
These are the largest intraday point gains that closed in negative territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point gain, the intraday high must be above the previous day closing price, while the opening price is used to calculate intraday highs.
|Largest intraday point losses that turned positive
These are the largest intraday point losses that closed in positive territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point loss, the intraday low must be below the previous day closing price, while the opening price is used to calculate intraday lows.
- Dow Jones Industrial Average
- Closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
- List of largest daily changes in the S&P 500
- List of largest daily changes in the Nasdaq Composite
- List of stock market crashes and bear markets, including:
- Wall Street Crash of 1929 (October 24–29, 1929)
- Black Monday (1987) (October 19, 1987)
- Friday the 13th mini-crash (October 13, 1989)
- October 27, 1997, mini-crash
- Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks
- Financial crisis of 2007–08
- 2010 Flash Crash (May 6, 2010)
- August 2011 stock markets fall
- 2020 stock market crash
- "Historical Index Data All-Time Largest One Day Gains and Losses". wsj.com. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Highlights/Lowlights of The Dow Archived September 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (Excel spreadsheet)
- "Setting the Record Straight on the Dow Drop". The New York Times. October 26, 1987. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- Bialik, Carl (October 1, 2008). "The Day Stocks Rose but the Dow Plunged". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- "DJIA 125 - Bests & Worsts". www.spglobal.com. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- CSV data file from http://finance.yahoo.com Archived July 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
- DJIA_C.xls from same data
- Domm, Patty (March 13, 2020). "Stocks are expected to see more wild swings, even if Fed makes big policy move". CNBC.
- Imbert, Yun Li,Jesse Pound,Fred (March 24, 2020). "Stock market live updates: Dow soars 2,100 points, biggest jump in 80 years, stimulus close". CNBC. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- Watts, William; Wiltermuth, Joy (March 13, 2020). "U.S. stocks score biggest one-day gain since 2008 after Trump declares state of emergency over coronavirus". MarketWatch. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- McCormick, Emily (April 6, 2020). "Stock market news live updates: Stocks rally to start the week, Dow jumps 1,627 points or 7.7% in best day in 9 sessions". Yahoo. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Imbert, Fred; Stevens, Pippa; Huang, Eustance (March 26, 2020). "Dow rallies more than 1,300 points, capping its biggest 3-day surge since 1931". CNBC. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
- Imbert, Fred; Huang, Eustance (March 2, 2020). "Dow roars back from coronavirus sell-off with biggest gain since 2009, surges 5.1%". CNBC. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- Harring, Sarah Min,Alex. "Dow pops 1,200 points, S&P 500 jumps 5% in biggest rally in two years after light inflation report". CNBC. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
- Wiltermuth, Joy; Oh, Sunny (March 4, 2020). "Dow soars 1,100 points to session high as Wall Street warms to surprise Fed rate cuts, Biden campaign momentum". marketwatch.com. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- "Dow rebounds 1,167 points after worst day since the financial crisis". USA Today. March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Watts, William; Kollmeyer, Barbara (December 26, 2018). "Dow soars over 1,000 points as stocks bounce back from Christmas Eve meltdown". marketwatch.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Imbert, Fred (March 17, 2020). "Dow rebounds more than 1,000 points as Trump seeks $1 trillion in stimulus for coronavirus fight". CNBC. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "Dow Logs Biggest One-Day Point Gain Ever". CNBC. October 13, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Subin, Jesse Pound,Samantha (May 3, 2022). "Dow rallies 900 points as investors bet the Fed can slow inflation without causing a recession". CNBC. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- DeCambre, Mark; Wiltermuth, Joy (May 18, 2020). "Dow rises more than 900 points, books its biggest daily advance in 6 weeks on coronavirus vaccine hope". MarketWatch. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- "Stocks Jump 11% Amid Bargain-Hunting Spree". CNBC. October 28, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Miao, Hannah; Li, Yun (February 25, 2022). "Dow climbs 800 points in its best day since late 2020 as investors weigh latest on Russia-Ukraine". CNBC. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
- Thorbecke, Catherina (November 9, 2020). "Dow Jones soars more than 800 points on vaccine hopes". ABC News. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- DeCambre, Mark; Watts, William (June 5, 2020). "Dow closes 800 points higher after jobs report shows surprise jump in payrolls, fall in unemployment rate". MarketWatch. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "How major US stock indexes fared Friday 10/28/2022". washingtonpost.com. October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
- Valetkevitch, Caroline (October 13, 2022). "Wall Street ends up 2% after sharp reversal; technicals help". reuters.com. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
- "Dow rallies more than 1,500 points in two days, S&P 500 posts best 2-day gain since 2020". cnbc. October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
- Imbert, Fred (March 16, 2020). "Dow drops nearly 3,000 points, as coronavirus collapse continues; worst day since '87". CNBC. Archived from the original on March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Korosec, Kirsten; Shieber, Jonathan; Wilhelm, Alex (March 12, 2020). "Stocks dive on Dow's worst day since 1987, tech crashes and Bitcoin is no haven". techcrunch.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2020.
- "Dow sinks more than 2,000 points amid coronavirus uncertainty and plunging oil prices". ABC News. March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- "Stocks suffer their worst day since March, with the Dow plunging more than 1,800 points". CNBC. June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- "Dow drops 1,400 points and tumbles into a bear market, down 20% from last month's record close". CNBC. March 11, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- Li, Fred Imbert,Yun (March 17, 2020). "Dow drops 1,300 points, S&P 500 loses 5% as coronavirus market sell-off reaches new low". CNBC. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- "Stock market news today: Dow and S&P 500 updates". CNN. September 13, 2022.
- "Dow Jones drops nearly 1,200 points, biggest point decline ever". krcrtv.com. February 27, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- Wang, Lu; Wittenstein, Jeran (February 5, 2018). "Bad Day Turns Terrifying With the Dow's Dramatic Drop". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Pound, Sarah Min,Jesse. "Dow drops 1,100 points for its biggest decline since 2020 as the sell-off this year on Wall Street intensifies". CNBC. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
- Pound, Jesse; Macheel, Tanaya (May 4, 2022). "Dow tumbles 1,000 points for the worst day since 2020, Nasdaq drops 5%". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- "Dow plunges 1,000 points as market swoons again". CBC News. February 9, 2018. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- Imbert, Fred; Huang, Eustance (February 23, 2020). "Dow plunges 1,000 points on coronavirus fears, 3.5% drop is worst in two years". cnbc.com.
- Macheel, Sarah Min,Tanaya (August 26, 2022). "Powell comments fuel 1,000-point market rout Friday as stocks slide for a second week". CNBC.
- "Wall Street posted steep losses as investors brace for rate increases". Proactiveinvestors NA. April 22, 2022. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
- "The Dow and S&P 500 just logged the worst start to a quarter in history as investors brace for 'very, very painful' weeks of coronavirus". Marketwatch. April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Dow tanks more than 950 points as Wall Street's roller-coaster week continues". cnbc.com. March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Imbert, Fred (October 28, 2020). "Dow sinks more than 900 points for its worst drop since June amid rising virus cases globally". cnbc.com.
- Macheel, Hannah Miao,Tanaya (April 28, 2022). "Dow tumbles more than 900 points and the Nasdaq drops 4% on Friday to close out a brutal month". CNBC. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
- Stevens, Pippa; Pound, Jesse; Li, Yun (March 27, 2020). "Stock market live Friday: Stocks snap 3-day win streak, Dow drops 915, stimulus bill passes". cnbc.com.
- Lauricella, Tom; McKay, Peter A. (May 7, 2010). "Dow Takes a Harrowing 1,010.14-Point Trip". wsj.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
- "Historical Index Data Largest Intraday Point Swings, Since 1987". wsj.com. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Dow Jones Indexes | Averages
- Dow Jones Indexes | Averages | Statistics
- Dow Jones Indexes | DJIA Historical Stock Prices