List of largest domes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Comparison of some famous domes

A dome is a self-supporting structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. This list excludes dome-shaped structures that are not self-supporting such as The O2 in London which is 365 m (1,198 ft) in diameter and supported by masts.

Every dome in the world which was the largest dome of its time is listed below. The defining criterion is in each case the inner diameter of the largest circular cross-section of the dome.


Worldwide[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in the world.

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs.
m ft
1250 BC–
1st century BC
14.5 47.6 Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome [1]
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 70.5 Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome [2][3]
19 BC–start of 2nd century 25.0 82.0 Baths of Agrippa,
"Arco della Ciambella"
Rome, Italy Roman Empire First Thermae in Rome with a domed central building[4] [4]
Start of 2nd century–128 30.0 98.4 Baths of Trajan Rome, Italy Roman Empire Half dome [5]
128–1436 43.4 142.4 Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present. Archetype of Western dome construction to this day. [2][6][7]
1436–1871 42.05 138.0 Santa Maria del Fiore Florence, Italy Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence Largest brick and mortar dome in the world till present. Octagonal dome. Architect Filippo Brunelleschi. (45.52 m (149.3 ft) diagonal)
1871–1913 66.85 × 56.49 219+13 × 185+13 Royal Albert Hall London, England Lucas Brothers Wrought iron and glazed eliptical dome. Architects Captain Francis Fowke and Major-General Henry Y. D. Scott [8][9]
1902–1913 61.0 200.1 West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana, USA Lee Wiley Sinclair Architect Harrison Albright [22]
1913–1930 65.0 213.3 Centennial Hall Wrocław, Poland German Empire Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Berg [10]
1930–1955 65.8 215.9 Wholesale Market Leipzig [de; ru] Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Franz Dischinger [11]
1955–1957 101.5 333.0 Bojangles' Coliseum Charlotte, North Carolina, USA Thompson and Street Structural Steel dome. Architect Odell and Associates [12]
1957–1963 109 357.6 Belgrade Fair – Hall 1 Belgrade, Serbia Belgrade Fair World's largest prestressed concrete dome [13]
1963–1965 121.9 399.9 Assembly Hall Champaign, Illinois, USA University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Abramovitz [14]
1965–1975 195.5 641.4 Astrodome Houston, Texas, USA H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15] [16][15]
1975–1992 207.0 679.1 Caesars Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana, USA Blount International[17] Structural steel frame.[18] Architect Nathaniel Curtis [15]
1984-1985 236.5 775.9 Istra dome Istra, Moscow region, Russia [19][circular reference] Structural steel frame. VNIIEM [19]
1992–2001 256.0 839.9 Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia, USA Brasfield & Gorrie Tensegrity structure [20]
2001–2009 274.0 899.0 Ōita Stadium Ōita, Japan Kisho Kurokawa Retractable roof [21]
2009–2013 275.0 902.2 Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas, USA HKS, Inc. Retractable roof
2013–present 310.0 1,017.1 Singapore National Stadium Tanjong Rhu, Kallang, Singapore Dragages Retractable roof; Architect – Arup Associates + DPA

By continent[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome on their continent.

Europe[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
1250 BC–1st century BC 14.5 47.57 Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome [1]
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 70.54 Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome [2][3]
19 BC–109 AD 25.0 82.02 Baths of Agrippa,
'Arco della Ciambella'
Rome, Italy Roman Empire First Thermae in Rome with a domed central building [4]
109–
128
30.0 98.43 Baths of Trajan Rome, Italy Roman Empire Half dome [5]
128–1436 43.4 142.39 Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present. Archetype of Western dome construction to this day [2][6][7]
1436–1871 45.52 149.34 Santa Maria del Fiore Florence, Italy Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence Architect Filippo Brunelleschi; first double-dome structure of the Renaissance, set the standards for all renaissance and baroque domes; to this day the largest brick and mortar dome ever built.
1871–1913 66.85 × 56.49 219+13 × 185+13 Royal Albert Hall London, England Lucas Brothers Wrought iron and glazed eliptical dome. Architects Captain Francis Fowke and Major-General Henry Y. D. Scott [22][23]
1913–1930 65.0 213.25 Centennial Hall Wrocław, Poland German Empire Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Berg [10]
1930–1957 65.8 215.88 Leipzig Market Hall Leipzig, Germany German Empire Two reinforced concrete domes. Architect Franz Dischinger [11]
1957–present 109.0 357.61 Belgrade Fair – Hall 1 Belgrade, Serbia Belgrade Fair World's largest prestressed concrete dome [13]

In the first half of the 1980s a dome with a diameter of 234 metres (768 ft) was built near Istra, Russia. It collapsed on January 25, 1986. [1]

In 1990, the 129-metre (423 ft) diameter building named "Kupolen" (the Dome) was completed in Borlänge, Sweden. Originally an exposition hall with a few stores at ground level, today a mall in three levels.[2]

North America[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location (all USA) Builder Notes Refs
m ft
1864–1867 29.0 95.14 United States Capitol Washington, D.C. United States Architect Thomas U. Walter [24]
1867–1902 46 150.92 Mormon Tabernacle Salt Lake City, Utah Architect Henry Grow. Largely built without nails. [25]
1902–1955 61.0 200.13 West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana Lee Wiley Sinclair Architect Harrison Albright [26]
1955–1963 101.5 333.01 Charlotte Coliseum[a] Charlotte, North Carolina Thompson and Street Structural Steel dome. Architect Odell and Associates [27]
1963–1965 121.9 399.93 Assembly Hall[b] Champaign, Illinois University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Abramovitz [14]
1965–1975 195.5 641.40 Astrodome Houston, Texas H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15] [16][15]
1975–1992 207 679.13 Caesars Superdome[c] New Orleans, Louisiana Blount International[17] Structural steel frame.[18] Architect Nathaniel Curtis Largest completely enclosed dome structure from 1975-1992 and again since 2017 [15]
1992–2009 256.0 839.90 Georgia Dome[d] Atlanta, Georgia Georgia World Congress Center Authority Tensegrity structure, was largest completely enclosed dome structure from 1992-2017. [20]
2009–present 275.0 902.23 AT&T Stadium[e] Arlington, Texas HKS, Inc. Retractable roof
  1. ^ Now known as Bojangles' Coliseum. Not to be confused with the second Charlotte Coliseum, a non-domed indoor arena that no longer exists.
  2. ^ Now known as State Farm Center.
  3. ^ Has since been renamed from the Mercedes-Benz Superdome to the Caesars Superdome.
  4. ^ Demolished in 2017.
  5. ^ Originally known as Cowboys Stadium.

South America[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
1902–1913 Palace of the Argentine National Congress Buenos Aires, Argentina Government of Argentina Bronze-plated dome. Architect Vittorio Meano
1960 38 124.6 Palace of the Brazilian National Congress Brasília, Brazil Government of Brazil Architect Oscar Niemeyer [28]

Asia[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
2nd century–150 11.5 37.73 Red Hall Pergamon, Turkey Brick [29]
150–1312 23.85 78.25 Zeus Asklepios Temple Pergamon, Turkey Earliest monumental brick dome[30] [31]
1312–1659 25.6 83.99 Dome of Soltaniyeh Soltaniyeh, Zanjan, Iran Persian architects, Ilkhanate era Persian architects were building double-shell domes at the start of the 5th century, but the Dome of Soltaniyeh is the earliest such architecture extant, dating to 1312; over 100 years before Brunelleschi used the same technique to build the Dome of Florence. Brunelleschi also used the same octagonal supporting walls design of Soltaniyeh for his dome. Soltaniyeh is the 3rd largest brick dome in the world after Florence Duomo and Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia is older than Soltaniyeh, but it is a single layer brick dome.
1659–1934 44.0 144.36 Gol Gumbaz Bijapur, India Sultanate of Bijapur Mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah II (1627–57) of the Sultanate of Bijapur [32]
1934–1960 60.0 196.85 Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre Novosibirsk, Soviet Union Reinforced concrete
1937–1960 45 147.64 Phsar Thom Thmei Phnom Penh, Cambodia Jean Desbois and Wladimir Kandaouroff Reinforced concrete. Known as the "Central Market" in English. [33]
1960–2001 108 354.33 Araneta Coliseum Quezon City, Philippines J. Amado Araneta Also known as the Big Dome, it opened as the world's biggest indoor venue in 1960.
2001–2013 274 898.95 Ōita Stadium Ōita, Japan Kisho Kurokawa Known as the Big Eye.
2013–present 310.0 1,017.06 Singapore National Stadium Singapore Sports Hub, Singapore Dragages Retractable roof; Architect: Arup Associates and DPA

Africa[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
1988–1997 90 295.28 Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Modeled after the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; world's tallest dome [34][circular reference][35][circular reference]
1997–2018 140.0 459.32 Coca-Cola Dome Johannesburg, South Africa Sports arena [36]
2018-present 247 810.37 Dunamis Glory Dome Abuja, Nigeria Dunamis Church Said to be the biggest church auditorium in the world. Size of three football pitches[37] [37]

Australia[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
1913–1959 34.75 114.01 State Library of Victoria Melbourne, Victoria. Designed by Norman G. Peebles
1959-1988 47.4 155.51 The Shine Dome Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. Designed by Sir Roy Grounds
1988–present 133.0 436.35 Burswood Superdome Perth, Western Australia

By structure[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in terms of their structure.

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
Stone
1250 BC–150/175 AD 14.5 48 Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome [1]
150/175 –2006 15.0 49.2 Western Thermae Gerasa, Jordan Roman Empire One of the earliest voussoir domes with square ground plan[38] [38]
2006-present 85.15 279.4 Global Vipassana Pagoda Mumbai, India. Global Vipassana Foundation The stone dome was completed in October 2006. The monument was officially inaugurated on February 8, 2009. Architect/Structural Engineer/ Sompura/ Proof Consultant: Parvez Dumasia/ Nandadeep Building Center/ Late. Chandubhai Trivedi/ Prof. Jangid (IIT Bombay) [39]
Concrete
1st century BC–
1st century BC
6.52 21.4 Stabiae Thermae,
Laconicum
Pompeii, Italy Roman Empire Cone vault (early form of a dome). Oldest known concrete dome[3] [3]
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 71 Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome[3] [2]
128–present 43.4 142 Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present.[6] Archetype of Western dome construction to this day[2][7] [2]
Masonry
2nd century–150 11.5 38 Red Hall Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Brick [29]
150–beginning of the 4th century 23.85 78.2 Zeus Asklepios Temple Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Earliest monumental brick dome[30] [31]
Beginning of 4th century–563 24.15 79.2 Rotunda of St. George Thessaloniki, Greece Roman Empire Radially laid bricks[30] [30]
1312 -present 24.5 80 Dome of Soltaniyeh Soltaniyeh, Iran Ilkhanate Dome of Soltaniyeh, with a diameter of 24.5 metres (80 ft) is the earliest existing double-shell dome and the 3rd largest brick dome in the world after the domes of Florence Cathedral and Hagia Sophia
563–1436 31.5 103 Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey Byzantine Empire First pendentive dome in history. First completed in 537, rebuilt in 563 after earthquake. Architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus
1436–present 45.0 147.6 The Duomo Florence, Italy City state of Florence First double-dome structure of the Renaissance. [40]
Clay hollowware
Beginning of 3rd century–216 12.0 39.4 Thermae of Aquae Flavianae El Hammam, Algeria Roman Empire Earthenware pipes put together [37]
216–present 35.08 115.1 Baths of Caracalla,
Caldarium
Rome, Italy Roman Empire Amphorae put together [41]
Wood
691–1781 20.40 66.9 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Umayyad Empire [24]
1781–1957 36.0 118.1 St. Blaise's Abbey St. Blaise, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Pierre Michel d'Ixnard Third-widest dome in Europe at the time of its construction[42] [42][43]
1957–1977 91.4 300 Brick Breeden Fieldhouse Bozeman, Montana, United States Montana State University – Bozeman Second-largest dome in United States at the time of its construction[44] [44]
1977–1983 153.0 502.0 Walkup Skydome Flagstaff, Arizona, United States Northern Arizona University Geodesic dome
1983–1991 161.5 530 Tacoma Dome Tacoma, Washington, United States City of Tacoma, WA Geodesic dome
1991–present 163.4 536 Superior Dome Marquette, Michigan, United States State of Michigan/Northern Michigan University Geodesic dome
Cast iron
1811–1881 39.0 128.0 Bourse de commerce (ex Halle aux blés) Paris, France First French Empire Architect François-Joseph Bélanger; Engineer François Brunet [45]
1881–present 46.9 154 Devonshire Royal Hospital Buxton, England, United Kingdom Cotton Famine Relief Fund Converted from a horse stables to a hospital. Slate-covered iron frame. Architect Robert Rippon Duke [46]
Wrought iron
1871– 66.85 × 56.49 219+13 × 185+13 Royal Albert Hall London, England, United Kingdom Lucas Brothers Wrought iron and glazed elliptical dome. Architects Captain Francis Fowke and Major-General Henry Y. D. Scott [47][48]
Steel
1902–1965 59.45 195.0 West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana, United States Lee Wiley Sinclair Steel and glass dome. Architect Harrison Albright [26]
1965–1975 195.5 641 Astrodome Houston, Texas, United States H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15] [16][15]
1975–2013 207.0 679.1 Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana, United States Blount International[17] Structural steel frame.[18] Architect Nathaniel Curtis [15]
2013–present 310.0 1,017.1 Singapore National Stadium Singapore Sports Hub, Singapore Dragages Retractable roof. Architect: Arup Associates & DPA
Reinforced concrete
1913–1930 65.0 213.3 Centennial Hall Wrocław, Poland Architect Max Berg [10]
1930–1957 65.8 216 Leipzig Market Hall Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Architect Franz Dischinger [11]
1957–1963 100.6 330 Palazzetto dello sport Rome, Italy 1960 Summer Olympics Consulting Engineer Pier Luigi Nervi [14]
1963–1971 121.9 400 Assembly Hall Champaign, Illinois, United States University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Architect Max Abramovitz [14]
1971–1976, 2000–present 134.1 440 Norfolk Scope Norfolk, Virginia, United States City of Norfolk Consulting Engineer Pier Luigi Nervi [14]
1976–2000 201.17 660 Kingdome Seattle, Washington, United States King County Reinforced concrete dome. Architects Naramore, Skilling & Praeger [49]

Famous large domes[edit]

Below is a list of large domes which are considered particularly important for various reasons but have never held the title of the largest dome in the world.

Completion
date
Diameter Name Location Builder Notes Refs
m ft
c. 64 13.48 44.2 Domus Aurea Rome, Italy Roman Empire First dome with a polygonal ground plan (octagon). First in palace architecture[3] [3]
563 31.87 104.6 Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire First pendentive dome in history. First completed in 537, rebuilt in 563 after earthquake. Architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus [50]
1227 21.0 × 16.9 68.9 × 55.4 St. Gereon's Basilica Cologne, Germany Bishop or city? Oval shape. Largest occidental dome built between Hagia Sophia and the Duomo. [51]
1405 18.2 60 Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi Türkistan, Kazakhstan Tamerlane Double dome
1557 27.2 89 Süleymaniye Mosque Istanbul, Turkey Ottoman Empire Architect Mimar Sinan
1575 31.25 102.5 Selimiye Mosque Edirne, Turkey Ottoman Empire Architect Mimar Sinan [52]
1626 42.3 139 St Peter's Basilica Rome, Italy Holy See Architect Michelangelo Buonarroti; Worlds tallest dome until 1990 and tallest dome interior (including lantern) at present; Two layer dome [3]
1641 31.9 105 Taj Mahal Agra, India Mughal Empire Double dome; inner dome has diameter of 17.7 m (58 ft).[53] [54]
1710 30.8 101 St. Paul's Cathedral London, England Christopher Wren Double dome. The two domes are separated by a cone over the top of the inner which helps support the outer. [55]
1732 37.15 × 24.80 121.9 × 81.4 Sanctuary of Vicoforte Vicoforte, Piemonte, Italy House of Savoy Largest elliptic dome in the world. Architects Ascanio Vitozzi and Francesco Gallo.
1781 36.0 118.1 St. Blaise's Abbey St. Blaise, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Pierre Michel d'Ixnard Third-widest dome in Europe at the time of its construction[42] [42][43]
1871 36.6 120 Mosta Dome Mosta, Malta Giorgio Grognet de Vassé Third-largest unsupported dome in the world [56][57][58]
1894 31.0 101.7 Marble Church Copenhagen, Denmark Frederick V Built from 1749 to 1894 by three different architects, with no construction done from 1770 to 1877 [59]
1904 15.24 50.0 Rhode Island State House Providence, Rhode Island, USA Fourth-largest unsupported marble dome in the world. [60][61]
1904-1912 18.0 59.1 Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Sofia, Bulgaria Bulgarian people Groundbreaking - 3 March 1882, completed 1904-1912, consecrated 1924; The cathedral has gold-plated domes. It is believed to be among the 10 largest Eastern Orthodox church buildings and the largest completed Orthodox Cathedral located in Southeast Europe. [62] [63][64]
1944 61.0 200.1 V-2 Bunker La Coupole Wizernes, France Nazi Germany Reinforced concrete dome, 5m thick [65][66]
1952 27 89 Rotunda of Xewkija Xewkija, Gozo, Malta Architect: Joseph D'Amato. The dome is 75 m (246 ft) high. Calculated weight: 45,000 t (44,000 long tons; 50,000 short tons). Circumference: 85 m (279 ft).
1960 108.0 354.3 Araneta Coliseum Quezon City, Philippines J. Amado Araneta Also known as the Big Dome, it opened as the world's biggest indoor venue in 1960.
1988 51.8 170 Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Biggest mosque in Malaysia, second biggest in South East Asia. Also known as Blue Mosque. Can accommodate up to 16,000 worshippers.
2005 21.3 70 Long Island Green Dome Baiting Hollow, New York, USA Kevin Michael Shea Largest residential wood geodesic dome in North America. It is a home and attraction site advocating sustainable living.
2009 78 256 Medgidia clinker storage facility Medgidia, Romania [67]
2014 227 × 179 745 × 587 Philippine Arena Bocaue, Philippines Iglesia ni Cristo Oval shape. Dome of the largest indoor arena by capacity in the world. [68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Treasury of Atreus at Structurae
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Robert Mark, Paul Hutchinson: "On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon", Art Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1 (1986), p.24
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rasch 1985, p. 118
  4. ^ a b c Werner Heinz: "Römische Thermen. Badewesen und Badeluxus im römischen Reich", München 1983, ISBN 3-7774-3540-6, p.60-64
  5. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 119
  6. ^ a b c "Romanconcrete.com". Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  7. ^ a b c Werner Müller: "dtv – Atlas Baukunst I. Allgemeiner Teil: Baugeschichte von Mesopotamien bis Byzanz", 14. Aufl., 2005, ISBN 3-423-03020-8, p.253
  8. ^ The British Foreign Mechanic and Scientific Instructor. J. Sydal. 23 July 1870. p. 30. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  9. ^ "Roof". royalalberthall.com. Royal Albert Hall. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  10. ^ a b c UNESCO World Heritage: Centennial Hall in Breslau Archived 2007-02-13 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b c Leipzig Market Hall at Structurae
  12. ^ "Survey and Research Report on the Charlotte Coliseum". Archived from the original on 2016-01-18.
  13. ^ a b "Belgrade Fair (Beogradski Sajam), Hall 1". Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Reinforced Concrete Thin Shell Sports Facilities". monolithic.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Encyclopædia Britannica: Astrodome
  16. ^ a b c Encarta: Kuppel. Archived 2009-10-31.
  17. ^ a b c "Air University: Eagle Biography: Winton M. "Red" Blount". Archived from the original on 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  18. ^ a b c Archrecord.construction.com: Now infamous, Superdome once stood as a great New Orleans landmark Archived 2008-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ a b """". Archived from the original on 2021-06-20. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  20. ^ a b Building Big Databank: Georgia Dome Archived 2017-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, PBS Online/WGBH
  21. ^ ""Big Bigger Biggest – Series 2: Episode 9 – Dome", Windfall Films Ltd". Archived from the original on 2014-04-08. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  22. ^ The British Foreign Mechanic and Scientific Instructor. J. Sydal. 23 July 1870. p. 30. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  23. ^ "Roof". royalalberthall.com. Royal Albert Hall. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  24. ^ a b H. Hagedann & Ch. Plato. "Kuppeln historisch" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2007.
  25. ^ "The Great Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake". Scientific American. 8 June 1867
  26. ^ a b Wayne Curtis: "Back home in Indiana" Archived 2018-11-21 at the Wayback Machine, Preservation, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2007), pp.40-47
  27. ^ "Survey and Research Report on the Charlotte Coliseum". Archived from the original on 2016-01-18.
  28. ^ Macedo, Danilo Matoso; da Silva, Élcio Gomes (April 2011). "Ordens tectônicas no Palácio do Congresso Nacional". Vitruvius. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  29. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 137
  30. ^ a b c d Rasch 1985, p. 125
  31. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 129
  32. ^ Manfred Görgens: "Kleine Geschichte der indischen Kunst", DuMont, Köln 1986, ISBN 3-7701-1543-0, p.226
  33. ^ Phnom Penh Central Market at Structurae
  34. ^ List of largest church buildings in the world
  35. ^ fr:Basilique Notre-Dame de la Paix de Yamoussoukro
  36. ^ Coca-Cola Dome: Dimensions of Coca-Cola Dome Archived 2008-06-09 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ a b c Rasch 1985, p. 124
  38. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 126
  39. ^ "Salient Features – Global Pagoda website". Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
  40. ^ Figures vary. archINFORM Archived 2021-06-20 at the Wayback Machine gives a 45 m (148 ft) wide tambour, while Santa Maria del Fiore at Structurae gives a 43 m (141 ft) diameter of the cupola, others as little as 42 m (138 ft).
  41. ^ Erwin Heinle, Jörg Schlaich: "Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen", Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-421-03062-6, p.27
  42. ^ a b c d "Website of the Dom St. Blasien". Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  43. ^ a b Schnell Kunstführer: "St. Blasien/Schwarzwald", No. 555, Regensburg 2001, ISBN 3-7954-4017-3, p.7
  44. ^ a b Setterberg, Diana (Spring 2007). "Brick Breeden Fieldhouse: 50 years and going strong". montana.edu. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  45. ^ "Bourse de Commerce". structurae.net (in French). Structurae. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  46. ^ E. P. Copp: "The Devonshire Royal Hospital Buxton", Rheumatology, Vol. 43 (2004), p.385
  47. ^ The British Foreign Mechanic and Scientific Instructor. J. Sydal. 23 July 1870. p. 30. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  48. ^ "Roof". royalalberthall.com. Royal Albert Hall. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  49. ^ "Kingdome". emporis.com. EMPORIS GMBH. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  50. ^ "Hagia Sofia Museum". istanbul.gov.tr. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  51. ^ Werner Schäfke: "Kölns romanische Kirchen. Architektur, Ausstattung, Geschichte", Köln, 1985, 5. ed., ISBN 3-7701-1360-8, p.100&118
  52. ^ Selimiye Mosque at Structurae
  53. ^ https://www.tajmahal.gov.in/outlying-building.aspx
  54. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299356450_On_the_Symmetry_of_the_Central_Dome_of_the_Taj_Mahal
  55. ^ Robert Mark, Paul Hutchinson: "On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon", Art Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1 (1986) p.34
  56. ^ Cauchi, Raymond (1988). The Mosta Rotunda: short history & guide. Cauchi's Emporium. p. 79. Archived from the original on 2018-04-29. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
  57. ^ Malta – The Mythical Island – Travelling Wizards 2010, ISBN 1460921011
  58. ^ In the Image of His God: The Curse of the Shroud Archived 2017-02-17 at the Wayback Machine – Outskirts Press Inc. Denver, Colorado, 2008, ISBN 9781432728786
  59. ^ Marmorkirken.dk: Marble Church Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ "Facts and Figures". rilin.state.ri.us. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  61. ^ "The Providence Heritage Trail". visitrhodeisland.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Archived item". Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  63. ^ "Sofia, Bulgaria", Mihail Dyuzev, Hitotoki.org, 2010, web: Hito-4 Archived 30 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  64. ^ СОФИЯ-ОБИКОЛКА НА ГРАДА (1968)
  65. ^ Inventaire général des monuments et des richesses artistiques de la France: Schotterwerk Nord West (SNW) : Base V2 (the number of 71.0 m given here refers to the outer diameter)
  66. ^ "Dimensioned cross section of the central part of the bunker complex in Wizernes, France". Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  67. ^ Scope of Work, "Lafarge Cement Plant – Clinker Bulk Storage – Romania - Dome Technology". www.dometechnology.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  68. ^ Kim, Jong-soo; Cho, Duck-won; Choi, Eun-gyu; Cho, Hyun-wook (2015). "Structural health monitoring during construction in Philippine Arena". Proceedings of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS) Symposium 2015. Archived from the original on 2021-06-20. Retrieved 2020-11-06.

Sources[edit]

  • Rasch, Jürgen (1985). "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion". Architectura. Vol. 15. pp. 117–139.