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List of largest empires

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An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups. The term "empire" in this context (not necessarily a state ruled by an emperor) does not have a precise definition, but is generally applied to political entities that are considered to be especially large by the standards of their time and that have acquired a significant part of their territory by conquest. For example, first the Portuguese Empire, then the Spanish Empire and later the British Empire were called "the empires on which the sun never sets", because of their vast territories and possessions around the globe. This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

There are various notions of size that can be used to rank empires. For each of these notions, only estimates can be given in the case of most historical empires. Furthermore, there is usually no clear consensus among historians regarding the best estimate – if only because there is often no unambiguous information about an empire's historical boundaries or population. Thus, the values given here should be interpreted as only indicative and not as determining an accurate ranking.


There are many large empires in world history. The calculation of the land area of a particular empire is controversial. In general, the list aims to include all land that was explored and explicitly claimed, even if the areas were populated very sparsely or not at all. For example, a large portion of Northern Siberia is included in the size of the Russian Empire but not the Mongol Empire. The Mongol Empire's northern border was somewhat ill-defined, but in most places it was simply the natural border between the steppe and the taiga. At the time the majority of the taiga and tundra were unexplored and uninhabited, and the Mongol Empire did not claim them as its own. This area was only very sparsely populated by the Russian Empire, but it had been explicitly claimed by the Russian Empire by the 17th century, and its extent had been entirely explored by the late 19th century. In northernmost Canada, however, the Sverdrup Islands west of Ellesmere Island were only discovered and explored between 1899 and 1902 by Norwegian explorer Otto Sverdrup, who claimed them for Norway. Norway ceded the islands to Canada in 1930, with a monetary settlement to the discoverer.

Due to the historical trend of increasing population and GDP, the most recent empires tend to score highest in these categories, so the list of largest empires by population or GDP is highly dependent on which recent political entities are defined as empires. The measures of population and GDP as a percentage of the world total can be used to compensate for this historical growth and ensure that each empire is judged by the standards of its own time. However, decent GDP data is only available for the last few centuries, and accurate data only for the last few decades.

Debates regarding definition of imperial domains[edit]

Compilations of history's largest empires (in both geographical size and population) often vary due to differing definitions of imperial borders throughout history and across distinct historical traditions. Imperial domains have been variously defined in terms of direct administrative rule from a common ruling authority, military presence, colonization and settlement, collection of tribute, economic dependence, or even incorporation into a common trading or ideological network. Many imperial domains have therefore enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy, self-rule, or even outright independence (though sometimes with a dependent or protectorate relationship to a stronger power). Some regions claimed by an imperial authority have been large, yet arid and very sparsely populated lands without much administrative control whatsoever. Therefore, empires can vary in size according to these designations, often quite significantly.

For example, in India, which experienced varying levels of European contact and imperial forays since Vasco da Gama's expeditions in 1497–1498, French, Dutch, Portuguese and especially British authorities claimed authority over increasing portions of the Indian Subcontinent. This process culminated in the period of the British Raj (and its smaller French and Portuguese counterparts) after 1857. Approximately half of Indian territory consisted of Princely States under de facto and de jure rule of local rajas and maharajas. The Indian princes acknowledged the suzerainty of the British monarchy during the British Raj, and had no control of their foreign policy until 1947. Furthermore, the Indian independence Act, which ended the British presence by 1947, did not apply to the Princely States, which required separate negotiations with the new Indian nation as independent states in themselves.

Another issue is that many of history's empires have ruled over vast and mostly uninhabited territorial expanses, sparsely populated by largely autonomous tribes, and with little in the way of direct administration or settlement by an imperial power. For example, various Mongol khanates from the 13th century established dominion over arid steppes in Central Asia and Siberia that were difficult to control from a central authority, as was the case with the expansionist Tsardom of Russia empires from the 17th century, which established control in the same regions. In both cases, administrative structures and settlements were gradually introduced into the regions—with Russian settlers, for example, initiating forts and frontier cities in the 19th century in particular—and so the size of each empire in any given decade would depend on how strict one's criteria are in regard to the presence of true settlement and administration. Likewise, in more recent history, almost half the land expanse that is often regarded as part of the British Empire consisted of essentially barren and uninhabitable terrain in Canada and the interior of Australia, which was often difficult to even map, let alone settle and administer. Even today, the population of those regions (particularly in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada) consists largely of sparse settlements of self-governing indigenous peoples, with little in the way of submission to a central ruling authority.

During the Muslim conquests of the 7th and early 8th centuries, Rashidun armies established the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires ever. The 7th century saw the introduction of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, where Muhammad established a new unified political polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. However, internal feuding among ruling figures in the empire led it to fragment into several states under separate administrations, such as the Umayyads (whose rule continued in Spain after it collapsed elsewhere), Abbasids, Ayyubids, Mamluks and many others. These were in addition to a variety of other Muslim states in Sudan, Indonesia and elsewhere that later arose outside of the main Islamic Empires, through trade and other contacts. Thus, the size of these empires vary depending on how "membership" in the empire is defined—as being under a single administration, accepting a particular ruler or following the dictates of the Caliph (which technically, Sunni Muslims in general were expected to do).

Similarly, the Mongol Empire lost its unity upon the death of the Great Khan Möngke during fighting in China in 1259, with the Golden Horde's Berke Khan and the Ilkhanate's Hulagu Khan even taking up arms against each other and supporting rival factions for selection of the Great Khan. However, upon the death of Berke—a Muslim—the religious impetus for conflict among the khanates subsided, with the Mongols again supposedly loyal to the new Great Khan Kublai before fragmenting yet again later. If the khanates are considered to have been a unified Mongol Empire under Kublai—stretching from Korea and China in the east through Siberia and Central Asia and into Persia and Eastern Europe in the west—it would easily be the world's largest in terms of both land area and population (as a percentage of the world total). A related question arises with the granting of dominion and commonwealth statuses among former imperial domains, in which the domains acquire a high degree of self-rule, equivalent to independence in some estimations. For example, the Australian colonies, which federated in 1901, attained dominion status in 1907, which may or may not have indicated a departure from the British Empire, depending on interpretation of that status.

Finally, many of history's empires have had unusual arrangements among multiple powers, such as joint rule by several authorities, layers of rule (with different powers assuming different levels of administrative authority), territorial division with blurred boundaries or other forms of empire without a single obvious central authority. For example, the Manchus, who established the Qing Dynasty in 17th-century China, also conquered nomadic lands to the north, including Mongolia. The Manchus increasingly merged with the Chinese population over the centuries, so that the administration took on both Manchu and Chinese features with no clear division among them. The Mongol chieftains of Outer Mongolia in particular, pledged loyalty to the Manchus but retained substantial autonomy, and when the Qing Dynasty collapsed in the early 20th century, the status of Outer Mongolia relative to the new Chinese state became unclear. Lastly, there is the opposite case of a nation being nominally independent but under de facto control of another power. Britain had a very complicated arrangement with Egypt and Sudan. Egyptian forces battled the British in the Alexandria Expedition in 1807, but in the wake of this, British officials exerted varying degrees of sway in Egypt especially by the late 19th century, with the French also assuming a role in the Suez Canal territory. Sudan, in turn, was technically a colony of the Egyptians, but the British exerted de facto sway on Sudan indirectly via Egypt. Thus, accounts vary on the imperial status (or lack thereof) of both Egypt and Sudan. In the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution, many nations took on a Communist character and attached themselves to the global Communist center of the Soviet Union. Mongolia, North Korea, and China following Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, all took guidance from the Soviet Union especially in the years just after their Communist transformations. The Soviet Union also exercised varying control over Eastern Europe via the Warsaw Pact even though the Pact countries were formally independent, while Communist nations in Africa and Latin America also sought Soviet guidance. Therefore, the lists of largest empires below represent merely a sample of possible rankings depending on the specific criteria used to define an empire.

European colonial empires[edit]

The first global empires were a product of the European Age of Exploration that began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century. The initial impulse behind these maritime empires and those that followed was trade, driven by the new ideas and the capitalism that grew out of the European Renaissance. Agreements were also reached to divide the world up between them in 1479, 1493, and 1494.

Portugal began establishing a global trade network and empire under the leadership of Henry the Navigator. It was the first global empire in history.[1][2] The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories across the globe (especially at one time in the 16th and 17th centuries) that are now parts of 60 different sovereign states. Portugal would eventually control Brazil, territories such as what is now Uruguay and some fishing ports in north, in the Americas; Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, and São Tomé and Príncipe (among other territories and bases) in the North and Sub-Saharan Africa; cities, forts or territories in all the Asian Subcontinents, as Muscat, Ormus and Bahrein (amongst other bases) in the Persian Gulf; Goa, Bombay and Daman and Diu (amongst other coastal cities) in India; Portuguese Ceylon; Malacca, bases in Southeast Asia and Oceania, as Makassar, Solor, Banda, Ambon and others in the Moluccas, Portuguese Timor; and the granted entrepôt-base of Macau and the entrepôt-enclave of Dejima (Nagasaki) in the Far East, amongst other smaller or short-lived possessions across the globe (see Evolution of the Portuguese Empire).

During its peak, the Spanish Empire had possession of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Italy, parts of Germany, parts of France, several viceroyalties in the Americas, territories and bases in Africa, Asia and Oceania. The empire reached a dimension globally distributed under Philip II, and particularly from 1580, on an unprecedented scale in history in geographical distribution, with union of the Castilian (then Spanish) and Portuguese overseas possessions.[3] Starting with the Greater Antilles and other bases, and especially after, with the conquest of inland Mexico, Peru (amongst other related territories in the Americas), and the Philippines in the 16th century, Spain (initially through the Crown of Castile) established overseas dominions on a scale that had never been approached by its predecessors (the Mongol Empire had been larger but was restricted to Eurasia). Possessions in Europe (through the Spanish Habsburg House), North Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, in the North, Central, and South America, in the Pacific Ocean, and the Far East, qualified the Spanish Empire as attaining a global presence in this sense.

In 1581, Philip II of Spain inherited the vacant Portuguese throne and became Philip I of Portugal. The Spanish Empire was at it greatest extent at that time, including most of the Americas, Italy, The Seventeen Provinces, and smaller regions of Europe, Asia and Africa. The Portuguese Empire, also significant, included Brazil and the Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia. Even though the empires continued to be administered separately, this so-called "union of crowns" resulted in one of the largest empires of all time, and the saying "The empire on which the sun never sets" was used for the first time.[4] The Iberian Union lasted until 1640 when Portugal restored a Portuguese king to the throne.

Subsequent global empires included the French, Dutch, and British empires. The latter, consolidated during the period of British maritime hegemony in the 19th century, became the largest of all empires by virtue of the improved transportation technologies of the time. At its height, the British Empire covered a quarter of the Earth's land area and comprised one fifth of its population. Germany and Italy were unified later than the other major European countries and so they joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas only during the "Scramble for Africa" in the 19th century. By the 1860s, the Russian Empire — continued as the Soviet Union — became the largest contiguous state in the world. Present-day Russia continues this distinction, despite having lost its Soviet periphery. Russia today includes slightly over half the world's longitudes.

Largest empires by land area[edit]

For context, note that the total land area of the Earth is 148,940,000 km2 (57,500,000 sq mi).[5]

All empires at their greatest extent[edit]

Empire Max. land area (million km2) Max. land area (million mi2)  % of world land area Era
British Empire 33.7[6] 13.01 22.63% 1922[6]
Mongol Empire 33.0[7][8][9] 12.74 22.16% 1270[10]
Russian Empire 22.8[10] 8.8 15.31% 1895[10]
Spanish Empire 19.4[11][unreliable source?] 7.49 13.03% 17831801[citation needed]
Umayyad Caliphate 15.0[12] 5.79 10.07% 661750[citation needed]
Qing dynasty 14.7[10] 5.68 9.87% 1790[10]
Yuan dynasty 14.0[citation needed] 5.41 9.4% 1310[13]
Second French colonial empire 13.0[citation needed] 5.02 8.73% 1938[14]
Abbasid Caliphate 11.1[10] 4.29 7.45% 750[10]
Portuguese Empire 10.4[citation needed] 4.02 6.98% 1815[14]
Xiongnu Empire 9.0[10][15] 3.47 6.04% 176 BC[10][15]
Rashidun Caliphate 8.4[citation needed] 3.24 5.64% 654[13][16]
Empire of Brazil 8.3[citation needed] 3.2 5.57% 1889[17]
Empire of Japan 7.4[citation needed] 2.86 4.97% 1942[14]
Ming dynasty 6.5[10] 2.51 4.36% 1450[10][13]
Han dynasty 6.0[10] or 6.5[15] 2.32 or 2.51 4.03% or 4.36% 50 BC[10] or 100[15]
Göktürk Khaganate 6.0[10][15] 2.32 4.03% 557[10][15]
Golden Horde Khanate 6.0[10] 2.32 4.03% 1310[10][13]
Achaemenid Empire 5.5[10][15] 2.12 3.69% 500 BC[10][15]
Tang dynasty 5.4[10] 2.08 3.63% 715[10]
Macedonian Empire 5.2[10][15] 2.01 3.49% 323 BC[10][15]
Ottoman Empire 5.2[10] 2.01 3.49% 1683[10][13]
Maurya Empire 5.0[10] 1.93 3.36% 250 BC[10]
Post-Imperial Mongolia 5.0[citation needed] 1.93 3.36% 1550[13]
Roman Empire 5.0[10][15] 1.93 3.36% 117[10][15]
Tibetan Empire 4.6[10] 1.78 3.09% 800[10][13]
Timurid Empire 4.4[10] 1.7 2.95% 1405[10][13]
Fatimid Caliphate 4.1[10] 1.58 2.75% 969[10][13]
Eastern Turks Khanate 4.0[15] 1.54 2.69% 624[15]
Hephthalite Empire 4.0[15] 1.54 2.69% 470[15]
Hunnic Empire 4.0[10][15] 1.54 2.69% 441[10][15]
Mughal Empire 4.0[10][13] 1.54 2.69% 1690[10][13]
Great Seljuq Empire 3.9[10] 1.51 2.62% 1080[10][13]
Seleucid Empire 3.9[10][15] 1.51 2.62% 301 BC[10][15]
Ilkhanate 3.75[10] 1.45 2.52% 1310[10][13]
Chola Empire 3.6[citation needed] 1.39 2.42% 1050[18][19]
Khwarazmian Empire 3.6[citation needed] 1.39 2.42% 1218[13]
Chagatai Khanate 3.5[10][13] 1.35 2.35% 1310[13] or 1350[10][13]
Gupta Empire 3.5[10] 1.35 2.35% 400[10]
Mutapa Empire 3.5 [20] 1.35 2.35% 1450[citation needed]
Sasanian Empire 3.5[10][15] 1.35 2.35% 550[10][15]
Shaybanid Uzbek Dynasty 3.5[citation needed] 1.35 2.35% 1510[13]
Western Turkic Khaganate 3.5[15] 1.54 2.69% 630[15]
Ghaznavid Empire 3.4[10] 1.31 2.28% 1029[10][13]
Phoenician Empire 3.4[citation needed] 1.31 2.28% 1200[13]
Almoravid dynasty, Morocco 3.3[citation needed] 1.27 2.22% 1147[13]
Delhi Sultanate 3.2[10] 1.24 2.15% 1312[10]
Ghurids Sultanate 3.2[citation needed] 1.24 2.15% 1200[13]
Tughlaq dynasty 3.2[citation needed] 1.24 2.15% 1320[13]
Song dynasty 3.1[10] 1.2 2.08% 980[10]
Uyghur Khaganate 3.1[10] 1.2 2.08% 800[10][13]
Western Jin dynasty 3.1[15] 1.2 2.08% 280[15]
Kara-Khanid Khanate 3.0[citation needed] 1.16 2.01% 1025[13]
Khazar Khanate 3.0[10] 1.16 2.01% 850[10]
Sui Dynasty 3.0[15] 1.16 2.01% 589[13]


Ancient empires[edit]

Medieval empires[edit]

Modern empires[edit]

Largest empires by population[edit]

Empire Max. population (million)  % of world population
British Empire 533.0 (in 1938)[23][contradictory] 20.00% (458 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)[23][contradictory]
Qing dynasty 432.2 (in 1851)[24] 36.60% (381.0 million out of 1.041 billion in 1820)[25]
Russian Empire 176.4 (in 1913)[citation needed] 9.80% (176.4 million out of 1.791 billion[25] in 1913)
Mughal Empire 150.0 (in 1700) 24.8% (150.0 million out of 610 million[26])[when?]
Empire of Japan 134.8 (in 1938) 5.90% (134.8 million out of 2.295 billion)[25] in 1938)
Northern Song Dynasty 123.0 (in 1103)[27][28] 22.00% (59.0 million out of 268 million in 1000)[25]
Mongol Empire 110.0 (in the 13th century)[29] 25.60% (110.0 million out of 429 million[30] in the 13th century)
Ming dynasty 110.0 (in 1600)[31][32] 19.57% (110.0 million out of 556.2 million in 1600)[25]
Tang dynasty 80 (in 755 AD)[33]
Southern Song dynasty 73.0 (in 1193).[27][34]
Roman Empire 70.0 (in the 2nd century AD)[15][35][36] 21.00% (70 million in 150 AD)[37]
Tughlaq dynasty 70 (in 1330)[25] 18.91% (70.0 million out of 370 million in 1330)[25]
Earlier Zhao dynasty 64 (in 156)[27][38]
Pala Empire 60.0 (in the 3rd Century) 24.00%[not in citation given] (60.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[25][dead link]
Yuan dynasty 59.8 (in 1291)[27][39] 17.10% (59.8 million out of 350 million in 1290)
Gupta Empire 58 (in 400 AD)[23] 26.36% (58.0 million out of 220 million in 400 AD)[23]
Han dynasty 58.0 (in 2 AD)[27][40] 19.3% (58 million out of 300 million[25] in 2 AD)
Sui Dynasty 53.0 (in 606)[27][41]
Achaemenid Empire 50.0 (in 480 BC)[42] 44.48% (50 million out of 112.4 million in 480 BC)[43]
Maurya Empire 50–60 (in the 2nd century BC) 33%–40% (50–60 million out of 150 million in the 2nd century BC.[44][45]
Macedonian Empire 50 (in the 4th century BC) 30.00% (50.0 million out of 165 million[25] in the 4th century BC)
Abbasid Caliphate 50.0 (in 850)[citation needed] 20.00% (50.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[25]
Timurid Empire 50.0 (in the 15th Century) 11.36% (50.0 million out of 440 million in 1400)[25]

Largest empires by economy[edit]

GDP estimates in the following list are mostly given for empires in modern times, from the 18th to 20th centuries. All dollar amounts are in 1990 USD.

GDP size[edit]

  1.  British Empire – $918.7 billion (in 1938)[23]
  2.  Nazi Germany – $375.6 billion (in 1938)[23]
  3.  Empire of Japan – $260.7 billion (in 1938)[23]
  4.  Russian Empire – $257.7 billion (in 1917)[25]
  5.  Qing Dynasty – $241.3 billion (GDP decline to 1912, immediately before its downfall)[25]
  6. France French Empire – $234.1 billion (in 1938)[23]
  7. Italy Italian Empire – $143.4 billion (in 1938)[23]
  8. Afsharid dynasty – $119.85 billion (in 1740)[25]
  9.  Austria-Hungary – $100.5 billion (in 1918)[17]
  10. Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg Mughal Empire – $90.8 billion (GDP decline in 1700)[25]
  11.  Dutch Empire – $60 billion (in 1900)
  12.  Ottoman Empire – $26.4 billion (in 1923)[46]
  13.  Empire of Brazil – $13.6 billion (in 1889)[17]
  14.  Portuguese Empire – $12.6 billion (in 1913)[17]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Author: Liam Matthew Brockey Title: Portuguese Colonial Cities in the Early Modern World publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Year: 2008 ISBN 978-0-7546-6313-3 [1]
  2. ^ Author: Roger Crowley Title: Conquerors: How Portugal Forged the First Global Empire Publisher: Random House; 1st edition (December 1, 2015) [2]
  3. ^ Hernández, Geoffrey Parker ; traducción del inglés de Victoria E. Gordo del Rey ; revisión técnica y científica de Santiago Martínez (2010). Felipe II: la biografía definitiva (1a. ed.). Barcelona: Planeta. ISBN 9788408094845. 
  4. ^ "Charles V and the empire 'on which the sun never set'". Die Welt der Habsburger. 
  5. ^ CIA – The World Factbook
  6. ^ a b Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2. 
  7. ^ Smil, Vaclav (29 January 2010). Why America Is Not a New Rome. MIT Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780262288293. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Turner, Tracey (3 October 2013). What's the Difference Between Snot and Bogeys?. Scholastic UK. ISBN 9781407138121. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Finlay. Pilgrim Art. p.151.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  11. ^ "To Rule the Earth...". Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  12. ^ Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994), The End of the Jihad State, the Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd-al Malik and the collapse of the Umayyads, State University of New York Press, p. 37, ISBN 0-7914-1827-8 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c Gordon (2005)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Taagepera, Rein (1 January 1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 115–138. doi:10.2307/1170959. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  16. ^ Rashidun Caliphate
  17. ^ a b c d Broadberry and Harrison (2005).
  18. ^ "History Chola Empire – History Of Ancient, Medieval And Modern India.". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
  20. ^ Africae nova descriptio
  21. ^ "NĀDER SHAH – Encyclopaedia Iranica". 
  22. ^ Soucek, Svat (2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 9780521657044. In 1740 Nadir Shah, the new ruler of Iran, crossed the Amu Darya and, accepting the submission of Muhammad Hakim Bi which was then formalized by the acquiescence of Abulfayz Khan himself, proceeded to attack Khiva. When rebellions broke out in 1743 upon the death of Muhammad Hakim, the shah dispatched the ataliq’s son Muhammad Rahim Bi, who had accompanied him to Iran, to quell them. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harrison (1998, pp. 3,7).
  24. ^ Recorded number of persons in 1851 is 432,164,047 according to Draft History of Qing.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Maddison, op cit. For alternate estimates, see the Economic History Services' USA/UK GDP search tool.
  26. ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 183, p. 342). New York.
  27. ^ a b c d e f (a) John D. Durand, 1960, "The Population Statistics of China, A.D. 2–1953", Population Studies Vol. 13 (No. 3), 209–256. (b) John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation", University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  28. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1103 are 45,981,845 and 20,524,065, respectively (Song Huiyao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 46,734,784 and 20,882,438 in 1109, respectively (Song Huiyao).
  29. ^ The combined population of China and Korea in the 13th century was 83 in Biraben (2003[page needed]). The combined population of Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq and Turkey was about 27 in Maddison (2006[page needed]).
  30. ^ Biraben, Jean-Noel (January 1979). "Essai sur l'evolution du nombre des hommes". Population (French Edition). Institut national d'études démographiques. 34 (1): 13–25. doi:10.2307/1531855. 
  31. ^ Jean-Noël Biraben, "The History of the Human Population From the First Beginnings to the Present" in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population (Eds: Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume J. Wunsch), Vol. III, Chapter 66, pp 5–18, Academic Press:San Diego (2005).
  32. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1393 are 60,545,812 and 10,652,870, respectively (Ming Hui Dian), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 66,598,337 and 11,415,829 in 1403, respectively (Book of Ming).
  33. ^ "唐朝 (中国历史朝代)". Baidu. Baidu, Inc. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  34. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1193 are 27,845,085 and 12,302,873, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 28,320,085 and 12,670.801 in 1223, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao).
  35. ^ Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  36. ^ There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60. Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55. Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54. Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48. Roman Empire Population estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120 ).
  37. ^ Scheidel, Walter; Friesen, Steven J. (Nov. 2009): "The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 99, pp. 61–91
  38. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 156 are 56,486,856 and 10,677,960 respectively (Book of the Later Han).
  39. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in 1290 are 58,834,711 and 13,196,206, respectively (History of Yuan), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 59,848,964 and 13,430,322 in 1291, respectively (History of Yuan).
  40. ^ Recorded number of persons and households in AD 2 are 58,594,978 and 12,233,062, respectively (Book of Han).
  41. ^ Recorded number of persons and households are 46,019,956 and 8,907,546, respectively, in 606 (Tongdian) or 609 (Book of Sui).
  42. ^ While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 40–50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 [3]. Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 2. McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 3. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 4. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 5. Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 6. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 7. Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 8. Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 9. Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 10. Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 11. Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 12. Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 13. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 15. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 16. Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 17. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 18. Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 19. Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 20. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 21. Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 22. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 23. West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 24. Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 25. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 26. Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 27.
  43. ^ Yarshater (1996, p. 47)
  44. ^ Boesche, Roger (2003-03-01). The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra. p. 11. ISBN 9780739106075. 
  45. ^ Demeny, Paul George; McNicoll, Geoffrey (May 2003). Encyclopedia of population. ISBN 9780028656793. 
  46. ^ Pamuk (2005[page needed]).


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