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List of largest empires

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Several empires in world history have been contenders for the largest of all time, depending on definition and mode of measurement. Possible ways of measuring size include area, population, economy, and power. Of these, area is the most commonly used because it has a fairly precise definition and can be feasibly measured with some degree of accuracy.[1] Estonian political scientist Rein Taagepera, who published a series of academic articles about the territorial extents of historical empires between 1978 and 1997,[2][3][4][5] defined an empire as "any relatively large sovereign political entity whose components are not sovereign" and its size as the area over which the empire has some undisputed military and taxation prerogatives;[6] these are the criteria from which these lists are formed. The list is not exhaustive owing to a lack of available data for several empires, and consequently no rankings are given.

Largest empires by land area

For context, the land area of the Earth, excluding the continent of Antarctica, is 134,740,000 km2 (52,023,000 sq mi).[7]

Empires at their greatest extent

Empire size in this list is defined as the dry land area it controls. Where estimates vary, entries are sorted by the lowest estimate. The British Empire was the largest empire by size, though its constituent parts were spread across oceans, whilst the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire, being one entity in Eurasia.

Empire Maximum land area
million km2 million mi2 % of world Year
British Empire 35.5[8] 13.71 26.35% 1920[8]
Mongol Empire 24.0[8][9] 9.27 17.81% 1270[9] or 1309[8]
Russian Empire 22.8[8][9] 8.80 16.92% 1895[8][9]
Qing dynasty 14.7[8][9] 5.68 10.91% 1790[8][9]
Spanish Empire 13.7[8] 5.29 10.17% 1810[8]
Second French colonial empire 11.5[8] 4.44 8.53% 1920[8]
Abbasid Caliphate 11.1[8][9] 4.29 8.24% 750[8][9]
Umayyad Caliphate 11.1[8] 4.29 8.24% 720[8]
Yuan dynasty 11.0[8] 4.25 8.16% 1310[8]
Xiongnu Empire 9.0[9][10] 3.47 6.68% 176 BC[9][10]
Empire of Brazil[a] 8.337[11] 3.22 6.19% 1889[11]
Empire of Japan 7.4[12]–8.51 2.86–3.285[13] 5.49%–6.32% 1942[12][13]
Iberian Union 7.1[8] 2.74 5.27% 1640[8]
Eastern Han dynasty 6.5[10] 2.51 4.82% 100[10]
Ming dynasty 6.5[8][9] 2.51 4.82% 1450[8][9]
Rashidun Caliphate 6.4[8] 2.47 4.75% 655[8]
Göktürk Khaganate 6.0[9][10] 2.32 4.45% 557[9][10]
Golden Horde Khanate 6.0[8][9] 2.32 4.45% 1310[8][9]
Western Han dynasty 6.0[9][10] 2.32 4.45% 50 BC[9][10]
Achaemenid Empire 5.5[9][10] 2.12 4.08% 500 BC[9][10]
Second Portuguese Empire[a] 5.5[8] 2.12 4.08% 1820[8]
Tang dynasty 5.4[8][9] 2.08 4.01% 715[8][9]
Macedonian Empire 5.2[9][10] 2.01 3.86% 323 BC[9][10]
Ottoman Empire 5.2[8][9] 2.01 3.86% 1683[8][9]
Northern Yuan dynasty 5.0[8] 1.93 3.71% 1368[8]
Roman Empire 5.0[9][10] 1.93 3.71% 117[9][10]
Xin dynasty 4.7[10] 1.81 3.49% 10[10]
Tibetan Empire 4.6[8][9] 1.78 3.41% 800[8][9]
First Mexican Empire 4.429[14] 1.71 3.29% 1821[14]
Timurid Empire 4.4[8][9] 1.70 3.27% 1405[8][9]
Fatimid Caliphate 4.1[8][9] 1.58 3.04% 969[8][9]
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 4.0[10] 1.54 2.97% 624[10]
Hephthalite Empire 4.0[10] 1.54 2.97% 470[10]
Hunnic Empire 4.0[9][10] 1.54 2.97% 441[9][10]
Mughal Empire 4.0[8][9] 1.54 2.97% 1690[8][9]
Great Seljuq Empire 3.9[8][9] 1.51 2.89% 1080[8][9]
Seleucid Empire 3.9[9][10] 1.51 2.89% 301 BC[9][10]
Italian Empire 3.825[15] 1.48 2.84% 1941[15]
Ilkhanate 3.75[8][9] 1.45 2.78% 1310[8][9]
Chagatai Khanate 3.5[8][9] 1.35 2.60% 1310[8] or 1350[8][9]
Sasanian Empire 3.5[9][10] 1.35 2.60% 550[9][10]
Western Turkic Khaganate 3.5[10] 1.35 2.60% 630[10]
Western Xiongnu 3.5[10] 1.35 2.60% 20[10]
First French colonial empire 3.4[8] 1.31 2.52% 1670[8]
Ghaznavid Empire 3.4[8][9] 1.31 2.52% 1029[8][9]
Maurya Empire 3.4[10]–5.0[9] 1.31–1.93 2.52%–3.71% 261 BC[10] or 250 BC[9]
Delhi Sultanate (Tughlaq dynasty) 3.2[8][9] 1.24 2.37% 1312[8][9]
German colonial empire 3.147 1.215[16] 2.34% 1911[16]
Song dynasty 3.1[8][9] 1.20 2.30% 980[8][9]
Uyghur Khaganate 3.1[8][9] 1.20 2.30% 800[8][9]
Western Jin dynasty 3.1[10] 1.20 2.30% 280[10]
Danish Empire 3.0[17] 1.16 2.23% 1700[17]
Sui dynasty 3.0[10] 1.16 2.23% 589[10]
Samanid Empire 2.85[8][9] 1.10 2.12% 928[8][9]
Eastern Jin dynasty 2.8[10] 1.08 2.08% 347[10]
Median Empire[b] 2.8[9][10] 1.08 2.08% 585 BC[9][10]
Parthian Empire 2.8[9][10] 1.08 2.08% 0[9][10]
Rouran Khaganate 2.8[9][10] 1.08 2.08% 405[9][10]
Byzantine Empire 2.7[9]–2.8[10] 1.04–1.08 2.00%–2.08% 555[9] or 450[10]
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 2.6[10] 1.00 1.93% 20[10]
Liao dynasty 2.6[8][9] 1.00 1.93% 947[8][9]
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 2.5[10] 0.97 1.86% 184 BC[10]
Later Zhao 2.5[10] 0.97 1.86% 329[10]
Maratha Empire 2.5[9] 0.97 1.86% 1760[9]
Belgian colonial empire 2.366[15] 0.91 1.76% 1941[15]
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) 2.3[8][9] 0.89 1.71% 1126[8][9]
Khwarazmian Empire 2.3[9]–3.6[8] 0.89–1.39 1.71%–2.67% 1210[9] or 1218[8]
Qin dynasty 2.3[10] 0.89 1.71% 220 BC[10]
First French Empire 2.1[8] 0.81 1.56% 1813[8]
Kievan Rus' 2.1[8][9] 0.81 1.56% 1000[8][9]
Mamluk Sultanate 2.1[8][9] 0.81 1.56% 1300[8] or 1400[9]
Third Portuguese Empire 2.1[8] 0.81 1.56% 1900[8]
Almohad Caliphate 2.0[9]–2.3[8] 0.77–0.89 1.48%–1.71% 1200[9] or 1150[8]
Cao Wei 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 263[10]
Former Qin 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 376[10]
Former Zhao 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 316[10]
Inca Empire 2.0[8][9] 0.77 1.48% 1527[8][9]
Kushan Empire 2.0[9]–2.5[10] 0.77–0.97 1.48%–1.86% 200[9][10]
Liu Song dynasty 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 450[10]
Northern Wei 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 450[10]
Western Roman Empire 2.0[10] 0.77 1.48% 395[10]
Dutch Empire 1.939[15] 0.75 1.44% 1941[15]
Ayyubid dynasty 1.7[8]–2.0[9] 0.66–0.77 1.26%–1.48% 1200[8] or 1190[9]
Gupta Empire 1.7[10]–3.5[9] 0.66–1.35 1.26%–2.60% 440[10] or 400[9]
Buyid dynasty 1.6[8][9] 0.62 1.19% 980[8][9]
Eastern Wu 1.5[10] 0.58 1.11% 221[10]
Northern Qi 1.5[10] 0.58 1.11% 557[10]
Northern Xiongnu 1.5[10] 0.58 1.11% 60[10]
Northern Zhou 1.5[10] 0.58 1.11% 577[10]
Assyria 1.4[9][19] 0.54 1.04% 670 BC[9][19]
Eastern Maurya Empire 1.3[10] 0.50 0.96% 210 BC[10]
Liang dynasty 1.3[9][10] 0.50 0.96% 502,[10] 549,[10] or 579[9]
Kingdom of Aksum 1.25[9] 0.48 0.93% 350[9]
Shang dynasty 1.25[9][19] 0.48 0.93% 1122 BC[9][19]
Francia 1.2[8][9] 0.46 0.89% 814[8][9]
Srivijaya 1.2[9] 0.46 0.89% 1200[9]
Indo-Greek Kingdom 1.1[10] 0.42 0.82% 150 BC[10]
Mali Empire 1.1[8][9] 0.42 0.82% 1380[8][9]
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1.1[8][9] 0.42 0.82% 1480[9] or 1650[8]
Almoravid dynasty 1.0[9] 0.39 0.74% 1120[9]
Empire of Harsha 1.0[8][9] 0.39 0.74% 625[8] or 648[8][9]
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty 1.0[8] 0.39 0.74% 860[8]
Holy Roman Empire 1.0[8] 0.39 0.74% 1050[8]
Khazar Khanate 1.0[8]–3.0[9] 0.39–1.16 0.74%–2.23% 900[8] or 850[9]
Khmer Empire 1.0[8][9] 0.39 0.74% 1290[8][9]
New Kingdom of Egypt 1.0[9][19] 0.39 0.74% 1450 BC[19] or 1300 BC[9]
Ptolemaic Kingdom 1.0[10] 0.39 0.74% 301 BC[10]
Qara Khitai 1.0[8]–1.5[9] 0.39–0.58 0.74%–1.11% 1130[8] or 1210[9]
Scythia 1.0[20] 0.39 0.74% 400 BC[20]
Shu Han 1.0[10] 0.39 0.74% 221[10]
Tahirid dynasty 1.0[8] 0.39 0.74% 800[8]
Western Xia 1.0[9] 0.39 0.74% 1100[9]
Swedish Empire 0.99[21] 0.38 0.73% 1700[21]
Nazi Germany 0.824[15] 0.32 0.61% 1941[15]
Akkadian Empire 0.8[19] 0.31 0.59% 2250 BC[19]
Avar Khaganate 0.8[10] 0.31 0.59% 600[10]
Chu (state) 0.8[10] 0.31 0.59% 300 BC[10]
First Portuguese Empire 0.8[8] 0.31 0.59% 1580[8]
Huns 0.8[10] 0.31 0.59% 287[10]
Songhai Empire 0.8[8] 0.31 0.59% 1550[8]
Hyksos 0.65[19] 0.25 0.48% 1650 BC[19]
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt 0.65[19] 0.25 0.48% 550 BC[19]
Austro-Hungarian Empire 0.62 0.24[22] 0.46% 1905[22]
Caliphate of Córdoba 0.6[8] 0.23 0.45% 1000[8]
Visigothic Kingdom 0.6[10] 0.23 0.45% 580[10]
Zhou dynasty 0.55[23] 0.21 0.41% 1100 BC[23]
Kosala 0.5[10] 0.19 0.37% 543 BC[10]
Lydia 0.5[19] 0.19 0.37% 585 BC[19]
Magadha 0.5[10] 0.19 0.37% 510 BC[10]
Middle Kingdom of Egypt 0.5[19] 0.19 0.37% 1850 BC[19]
Neo-Babylonian Empire 0.5[19] 0.19 0.37% 562 BC[19]
Satavahana dynasty 0.5[10] 0.19 0.37% 150[10]
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt 0.5[19] 0.19 0.37% 715 BC[19]
Western Satraps 0.5[10] 0.19 0.37% 100[10]
New Hittite Kingdom 0.45[19] 0.17 0.33% 1250 BC1220 BC[19]
Xia dynasty 0.45[19] 0.17 0.33% 1800 BC[19]
Kingdom of France (Middle Ages) 0.4[8] 0.15 0.30% 1250[8]
Middle Assyrian Empire 0.4[19] 0.15 0.30% 1080 BC[19]
Old Kingdom of Egypt 0.4[19] 0.15 0.30% 2400 BC[19]
Sokoto Caliphate 0.4[24] 0.15 0.30% 1804[24]
Ancient Carthage 0.3[10] 0.12 0.22% 220 BC[10]
Indus Valley Civilisation 0.3[23] 0.12 0.22% 1800 BC[23]
Mitanni 0.3[19] 0.12 0.22% 1450 BC1375 BC[19]
First Babylonian Empire 0.25[19] 0.10 0.19% 1690 BC[19]
Aztec Empire 0.22[8] 0.08 0.16% 1520[8]
Zulu Empire 0.21 0.08[25] 0.16% 1822[25]
Elamite Empire 0.2[19] 0.08 0.15% 1160 BC[19]
Phrygia 0.2[19] 0.08 0.15% 750 BC[19]
Second Dynasty of Isin 0.2[19] 0.08 0.15% 1130 BC[19]
Urartu 0.2[19] 0.08 0.15% 800 BC[19]
Middle Hittite Kingdom 0.15[19] 0.06 0.11% 1450 BC[19]
Old Assyrian Empire 0.15[19] 0.06 0.11% 1730 BC[19]
Old Hittite Empire 0.15[19] 0.06 0.11% 1530 BC[19]
Larsa 0.1[19] 0.04 0.07% 1750 BC1700 BC[19]
Neo-Sumerian Empire 0.1[19] 0.04 0.07% 2000 BC[19]
Tarascan empire 0.075[26] 0.03 0.06% 1450[26]
Lagash 0.05[23] 0.02 0.04% 2400 BC[23]
Sumer 0.05[19] 0.02 0.04% 2400 BC[19]
  1. ^ a b The reason the Empire of Brazil is listed as having a larger area in 1889 than the Portuguese Empire had in 1820, despite Brazil having been a Portuguese colony, is that the Portuguese settlers had effective control over approximately half of Brazil at the time of Brazilian independence in 1822.[8]
  2. ^ More recent reassessment of the historical evidence, both archaeological and textual, has led modern scholars to question previous notions of the extent of the realm of the Medes and even its existence as a unified state.[18]

Timeline of largest empires to date

The earliest empire which can with certainty be stated to have been larger than all previous empires was that of Upper and Lower Egypt, which tenfolded the area of the previous largest civilisation.[27]

Empire Land area (million km2) Year
Upper and Lower Egypt 0.1[19] 3000 BC[19]
Old Kingdom of Egypt 0.25[19] 2850 BC[19]
0.4[19] 2400 BC[19]
Akkadian Empire 0.65[19] 2300 BC[19]
0.8[19] 2250 BC[19]
New Kingdom of Egypt 1.0[19] 1450 BC[19]
Shang dynasty 1.25[19] 1122 BC[19]
Assyria 1.4[19] 670 BC[19]
Median Empire[a] 2.8[10] 585 BC[10]
Achaemenid Empire 3.6[10] 539 BC[10]
5.5[10] 500 BC[10]
Xiongnu Empire 9.0[10] 176 BC[10]
Umayyad Caliphate 11.1[8] 720[8]
Mongol Empire 13.5[8] 1227[8]
24.0[8] 1309[8]
British Empire 24.5[8] 1880[8]
35.5[8] 1920[8]
  1. ^ More recent reassessment of the historical evidence, both archaeological and textual, has led modern scholars to question previous notions of the extent of the realm of the Medes and even its existence as a unified state.[18] If the Median Empire never surpassed the size of Assyria, the latter remained the largest empire the world had seen until the Achaemenid Empire surpassed it.[19][10]

Timeline of largest empires at the time

Empire Land area during time
as largest empire
(million km2)
Year
Upper Egypt 0.1[23] 3000 BC[23]
Old Kingdom of Egypt 0.25–0.4[23] 2800 BC2400 BC[23]
Akkadian Empire 0.2–0.6[23] 2300 BC2200 BC[23]
Indus Valley Civilisation 0.15[23] 2100 BC[23]
Middle Kingdom of Egypt 0.2–0.5[23] 2000 BC1800 BC[23]
Xia dynasty 0.4[23] 1700 BC[23]
Hyksos 0.65[23] 1600 BC[23]
New Kingdom of Egypt 0.65–1.0[23] 1500 BC1300 BC[23]
Shang dynasty 0.9–1.1[23] 1250 BC1150 BC[23]
New Kingdom of Egypt 0.5–0.6[23] 1100 BC1050 BC[23]
Zhou dynasty 0.35–0.45[23] 1000 BC900 BC[23]
Assyria 0.4–1.4[23] 850 BC650 BC[23]
Median Empire[a] 3.0[23] 600 BC[23]
Achaemenid Empire 2.5–5.5[23] 550 BC350 BC[23]
Macedonian Empire 5.2[23] 323 BC[23]
Seleucid Empire 4.0[23] 300 BC[23]
Maurya Empire 3.5[23] 250 BC[23]
Han dynasty 2.5[23] 200 BC[23]
Xiongnu Empire 5.7[23] 150 BC[23]
Han dynasty 4.2–6.5[23] 100 BC200[23]
Roman Empire 4.4[23] 250350[23]
Sasanian Empire 3.5[23] 400[23]
Hunnic Empire 4.0[23] 450[23]
Sasanian Empire 3.5[23] 500[23]
Göktürk Khaganate 3.0–5.2[23] 550600[23]
Rashidun Caliphate 5.2[23] 650[23]
Umayyad Caliphate 9.0–11.0[23] 700750[23]
Abbasid Caliphate 8.3–11.0[23] 750800[23]
Tibetan Empire 2.5–4.7[23] 850950[23]
Song dynasty 3.0[23] 1000[23]
Seljuk Empire 3.0–4.0[23] 10501100[23]
Tibetan Empire 2.5[23] 1150[23]
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) 2.3[23] 1200[23]
Mongol Empire 18.0–24.0[23] 12501300[23]
Yuan dynasty 11.0[23] 1350[23]
Timurid Empire 4.0[23] 1400[23]
Ming dynasty 4.7–6.5[23] 14501500[23]
Ottoman Empire 4.3[23] 1550[23]
Tsardom of Russia 6.0–12.0[23] 16001700[23]
Russian Empire 14.0–17.0[23] 17501800[23]
British Empire 23.0–34.0[23] 18501925[23]
Soviet Union 22.5[23] 19501975[23]
  1. ^ More recent reassessment of the historical evidence, both archaeological and textual, has led modern scholars to question previous notions of the extent of the realm of the Medes and even its existence as a unified state.[18] If the largest empire in the year 600 BC was not the Median Empire, it was Late Egypt with a size of 0.55 million km2.[23]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1978). "Size and duration of empires: Systematics of size" (PDF). Social Science Research. 7 (2): 111. doi:10.1016/0049-089X(78)90007-8. ISSN 0049-089X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  2. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1978). "Size and duration of empires: Systematics of size" (PDF). Social Science Research. 7 (2): 108–127. doi:10.1016/0049-089X(78)90007-8. ISSN 0049-089X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  3. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1978). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 B.C." (PDF). Social Science Research. 7 (2): 180–196. doi:10.1016/0049-089x(78)90010-8. ISSN 0049-089X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  4. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 115–138. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  5. ^ Taagepera, Rein (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  6. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 117. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  7. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020. Antarctica [...] land: 14.2 million sq km (285,000 sq km ice-free, 13.915 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)
    [...]
    World [...] land: 148.94 million sq km
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du Taagepera, Rein (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 492–502. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222–223. ISSN 1076-156X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121–122, 124–129, 132–133. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  11. ^ a b "Área Territorial Brasileira". www.ibge.gov.br (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016. A primeira estimativa oficial para a extensão superficial do território brasileiro data de 1889. O valor de 8.337.218 km2 foi obtido a partir de medições e cálculos efetuados sobre as folhas básicas da Carta do Império do Brasil, publicada em 1883. [The first official estimate of the surface area of the Brazilian territory dates from 1889. A value of 8,337,218 km2 was obtained from measurements and calculations made on drafts of the Map of the Empire of Brazil, published in 1883.]
  12. ^ a b Conrad, Sebastian (2014). "The Dialectics of Remembrance: Memories of Empire in Cold War Japan" (PDF). Comparative Studies in Society and History. 56 (1): 8. ISSN 0010-4175. JSTOR 43908281. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020. In 1942, at the moment of its greatest extension, the empire encompassed territories spanning over 7,400,000 square kilometers.
  13. ^ a b James, David H. (1 November 2010). The Rise and Fall of the Japanese Empire. Routledge. ISBN 9781136925467. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2018. by 1942, this 'Empire' covered about 3,285,000 square miles
  14. ^ a b Rodríguez, Jaime; Vincent, Kathryn (1997). "The Colonization and Loss of Texas: A Mexican Perspective". Myths, Misdeeds and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in US-Mexican Relations (First ed.). Wilmington, DE, USA: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 47. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020. When it was founded in 1821, the Mexican Empire extended over 4,429,000 km2 (not including the 445,683 km2 temporarily added by the short-lived union of the Central American provinces).
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Soldaten-Atlas (Tornisterschrift des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht, Heft 39). Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut. 1941. pp. 8, 32.
  16. ^ a b "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 7, "Geoponici" to "Germany (part)"". www.gutenberg.org. 1911. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  17. ^ a b Korchmina, Elena; Sharp, Paul (June 2020). "Denmark and Russia: What can we learn from the historical comparison of two great Arctic agricultural empires?" (PDF). European Historical Economics Society. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020. Around 1700, the Danish Empire covered around 3 million square kilometers
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