List of largest hydroelectric power stations

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This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity. Only plants with capacity larger than 3,000 MW are listed.

The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Paraguay/Brazil in second place (14,000 MW). Despite the large difference in installed capacity, these two power stations generate nearly equal amounts of electrical energy during the course of an entire year - Itaipu 103 TWh in 2016[1] and Three Gorges 98.8 TWh in 2014,[2] because the Three Gorges experiences six months per year when there is very little water available to generate power, while the Paraná River that feeds the Itaipu has a much lower seasonal variance in flow. Energy output of the Three Gorges reaches 125 TWh in years of high feed availability.

The Three Gorges (22,500 MW - 32 × 700 MW and 2 × 50 MW) is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (2,715 MW), the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,215 MW. The Itaipu on the Brazil–Paraguay border has 20 generator units with overall 14,000 MW of installed capacity, however the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (12,600 MW).

The Jinsha River (the upper stream of Yangtze River) complex is the largest hydroelectric generating system currently under construction. It has three phases. Phase one includes four dams on the downstream of the Jinsha River. They are Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Xiangjiaba Dam, with generating capacity of 10,200 MW, 16,000 MW, 13,860 MW, and 6,448 MW respectively. Phase two includes eight dams on the middle stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 21,150 MW. Phase three includes eight dams on the upper stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 8,980 MW. The total combined capacity of the Jinsha complex with the Three Gorges complex will be 101,853 MW.

Preliminary plans exist for the construction of the next largest hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of 39,000 MW.[3] The Project is called Grand Inga and is planned to be realised on the lower Congo River.[4] China is said to have been working on a 50,000 MW[5] dam as part of the Yarlung Tsangpo Hydroelectric and Water Diversion Project. Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.

The largest hydroelectric power stations top the list of the largest power stations of any kind, are among the largest hydraulic structures and are some of the largest artificial structures in the world.

List[edit]

Completed[edit]

Only operational power stations with an installed capacity of at least 3,000 MW. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current installed capacity is listed.

Name Country Location River Installed
capacity
(MW)
Annual
production
(TW-hour)[note 1]
Area
flooded
(km²)
Reservoir

volume (km3)[6]

Years of completion
Three Gorges Dam  China 30°49′15″N 111°00′08″E / 30.82083°N 111.00222°E / 30.82083; 111.00222 (Three Gorges Dam) Yangtze 22,500 111.8 [7] 1,084 39.3 2008/2012
Itaipu Dam  Paraguay
 Brazil
25°24′31″S 54°35′21″W / 25.40861°S 54.58917°W / -25.40861; -54.58917 (Itaipu Dam) Paraná 14,000 103 [1] 1,350 29 1984/1991, 2003[note 2]
Xiluodu  China 28°15′52″N 103°38′47″E / 28.26444°N 103.64639°E / 28.26444; 103.64639 (Xiluodu Dam) Jinsha 13,860[8] 55.2 12.67 2014[9]
Belo Monte  Brazil 03°07′27″S 51°42′01″W / 3.12417°S 51.70028°W / -3.12417; -51.70028 (Belo Monte Dam) Xingu 11,233[10] 39.5 441 1.89 2016-2019
Guri  Venezuela 07°46′00″N 63°00′00″W / 7.76667°N 63.00000°W / 7.76667; -63.00000 (Guri Dam) Caroní 10,235 53.41 4,250 135 1978, 1986
Wudongde  China 26°20′2″N 102°37′48″E / 26.33389°N 102.63000°E / 26.33389; 102.63000 Jinsha 10,200 39 7.4 2020/2021[11]
Tucuruí  Brazil 03°49′54″S 49°38′48″W / 3.83167°S 49.64667°W / -3.83167; -49.64667 (Tucurui Dam) Tocantins 8,370 41.43 3,014 45 1984, 2007
Baihetan Dam  China 28°15′06″N 103°39′34″E / 28.25167°N 103.65944°E / 28.25167; 103.65944 (Baihetan Dam) Jinsha 8,000[12][note 3] ? 17.9 2021/?[13]
Grand Coulee  United States 47°57′24″N 118°59′00″W / 47.95667°N 118.98333°W / 47.95667; -118.98333 (Grand Coulee Dam) Columbia 6,809 20[14] 324 12 1942/1950, 1973, 1975/1980, 1983/1984, 1991[note 4]
Xiangjiaba  China 28°38′57″N 104°22′14″E / 28.64917°N 104.37056°E / 28.64917; 104.37056 (Xiangjiaba Dam) Jinsha 6,448 30.7 95.6 5.16 2014[15]
Longtan Dam  China 25°01′38″N 107°02′51″E / 25.02722°N 107.04750°E / 25.02722; 107.04750 (Longtan Dam) Hongshui 6,426 18.7[16] 27.27 2007/2009
Sayano-Shushenskaya  Russia 52°49′31″N 91°22′15″E / 52.82528°N 91.37083°E / 52.82528; 91.37083 (Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam) Yenisei 6,400 26.8 621 31.3 1985/1989, 2010/2014[note 5]
Krasnoyarsk  Russia 55°56′05″N 92°17′40″E / 55.93472°N 92.29444°E / 55.93472; 92.29444 (Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Dam) Yenisei 6,000 15 2,000 73.3 1967/1972
Nuozhadu  China 22°33′51″N 100°30′46″E / 22.56417°N 100.51278°E / 22.56417; 100.51278 (Nuozhadu Dam) Mekong 5,850 23.9[17] 320 21.75 2014[18]
Robert-Bourassa  Canada 53°47′43″N 77°26′26″W / 53.79528°N 77.44056°W / 53.79528; -77.44056 (Robert-Bourassa GS) La Grande 5,616[note 6][19] 26.5 2,835 61.7 1979/1981
Churchill Falls  Canada 53°31′46″N 63°58′05″W / 53.52944°N 63.96806°W / 53.52944; -63.96806 (Churchhill Falls Hydroelectric Power Station) Churchill 5,428[20] 35 6,988 32.64 1971/1974
Tarbela Dam  Pakistan 34°05′23″N 72°41′54″E / 34.08972°N 72.69833°E / 34.08972; 72.69833 (Tarbela Dam) Indus 4,888[21] 13 250 13.7 1976
Jinping-II  China 28°14′20″N 101°38′32″E / 28.23889°N 101.64222°E / 28.23889; 101.64222 (Jinping-II Hydropower Station) Yalong 4,800 24.23 0.01 2014
Bratsk  Russia 56°17′10″N 101°47′10″E / 56.28611°N 101.78611°E / 56.28611; 101.78611 (Bratsk Dam) Angara 4,515 22.6 5,470 169.27 1961/1966
Laxiwa Dam  China 36°04′13″N 101°11′08″E / 36.07028°N 101.18556°E / 36.07028; 101.18556 (Laxiwa Dam) Yellow 4,200[22] 10.2 1.08 2010
Xiaowan Dam  China 24°42′19″N 100°05′32″E / 24.70528°N 100.09222°E / 24.70528; 100.09222 (Xiaowan Dam) Mekong 4,200[23] 19 190 15 2010
Ust Ilimskaya  Russia 57°58′06″N 102°41′45″E / 57.96833°N 102.69583°E / 57.96833; 102.69583 (Ust-Ilimsk Hydroelectric Station) Angara 3,840 21.7 1,922 59.4 1980
Jirau  Brazil 09°15′0″S 64°24′0″W / 9.25000°S 64.40000°W / -9.25000; -64.40000 (Jirau Dam) Madeira 3,750 19.1 258 2014/2016
Jinping-I  China 28°11′07″N 101°37′42″E / 28.18528°N 101.62833°E / 28.18528; 101.62833 (Jinping-I Hydropower Station) Yalong 3,600 17 82.5 7.76 2014
Fengning PSP Station  China 41°41′03″N 116°33′12″E / 41.68417°N 116.55333°E / 41.68417; 116.55333 (Fengning PS Hydro Power Station) - 3,600 3.4 0.07 2019/2021
Santo Antonio  Brazil 08°48′06″S 63°57′03″W / 8.80167°S 63.95083°W / -8.80167; -63.95083 (Santo Antonio Dam) Madeira 3,580[24] 21.2 490 2012/2016
Ilha Solteira Dam  Brazil 20°22′58″S 51°21′44″W / 20.38278°S 51.36222°W / -20.38278; -51.36222 (Ilha Solteira Dam) Paraná 3,444 17.9 1,195 21.2 1973
Ertan Dam  China 26°49′16″N 101°46′52″E / 26.82111°N 101.78111°E / 26.82111; 101.78111 (Ertan Dam) Yalong 3,300 17 101 5.8 1999
Pubugou Dam  China 29°12′34″N 102°50′11″E / 29.20944°N 102.83639°E / 29.20944; 102.83639 (Pubugou Dam) Dadu 3,300 14.6 5.39 2009/2010
Macagua  Venezuela 8°18′14″N 62°40′04″W / 8.30389°N 62.66778°W / 8.30389; -62.66778 (Macagua II) Caroní 3,167.5 15.2 47.4 0.36 1961, 1996
Xingó  Brazil 9°37′14″S 37°47′34″W / 9.62056°S 37.79278°W / -9.62056; -37.79278 (Xingó Hydroelectrical Power Plant) São Francisco 3,162 18.7[25] 60 3.8 1994/1997
Yacyretá  Argentina
 Paraguay
27°28′58″S 56°43′30″W / 27.48278°S 56.72500°W / -27.48278; -56.72500 (Yacyreta Dam) Paraná 3,100 20.09 1,600 1994/1998, 2011
Nurek Dam  Tajikistan 38°22′00″N 69°21′00″E / 38.36667°N 69.35000°E / 38.36667; 69.35000 (Nurek Dam) Vakhsh 3,015 11.2 98 10.5 1972/1979, 1988
Bath County PSP  United States 38°12′32″N 79°48′00″W / 38.20889°N 79.80000°W / 38.20889; -79.80000 (Bath County Pumped Storage Station) - 3,003[26] 3.32 3.3 0.03 1985, 2005/2009
Goupitan Dam  China 27°22′31″N 107°37′59″E / 27.37528°N 107.63306°E / 27.37528; 107.63306 (Goupitan Dam) Wu 3,000[27] 9.67 94 6.45 2009/2011
Guanyinyan Dam  China 26°31′17″N 101°26′16″E / 26.52139°N 101.43778°E / 26.52139; 101.43778 (Guanyinyan Dam) Jinsha 3,000 13.62 2.07 2014/2016

Under construction[edit]

This table lists stations under construction with an expected installed capacity at least 3,000 MW.

Name Country Location River Expected
capacity (MW)
Expected
completion
Baihetan Dam  China 27°13′23″N 102°54′11″E / 27.22306°N 102.90306°E / 27.22306; 102.90306 Jinsha 16,000[note 7] 2022[28]
TaSang  Myanmar 20°27′23″N 98°39′0″E / 20.45639°N 98.65000°E / 20.45639; 98.65000 Salween 7,110 ?? (on hold)
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance  Ethiopia 11°12′51″N 35°05′35″E / 11.21417°N 35.09306°E / 11.21417; 35.09306 (Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) Blue Nile 5,150[note 8] 2022-?[29][30]
Diamer-Bhasha  Pakistan 35°31′08″N 73°47′10″E / 35.51889°N 73.78611°E / 35.51889; 73.78611 (Diamer-Bhasha Dam) Indus River 4,500 2028[31]
Dasu  Pakistan 35°31′10″N 73°44′21″E / 35.51944°N 73.73917°E / 35.51944; 73.73917 (Dasu Dam) Indus River 4,320 2025
Rogun  Tajikistan 38°41′03″N 69°46′26″E / 38.68417°N 69.77389°E / 38.68417; 69.77389 (Rogun Dam) Vakhsh 3,600[note 9] 2018-2029[citation needed]
Myitsone  Myanmar 25°41′23″N 97°31′04″E / 25.68972°N 97.51778°E / 25.68972; 97.51778 Irrawaddy 3,600 ?? (on hold)
Mambilla  Nigeria 07°09′44″N 10°34′17″E / 7.16222°N 10.57139°E / 7.16222; 10.57139 (Mambilla Power Station) Donga 3,050 2024[32]
Lianghekou  China 30°09′46″N 101°00′49″E / 30.16278°N 101.01361°E / 30.16278; 101.01361 (Lianghekou Dam) Yalong 3,000[note 10] 2021-2023

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Generating capacity is not the only factor determining the amount of electricity generated, as this also depends on consistent utilization of the plant's capacity. Factors enhancing this are the free capacity of the reservoir and the consistency of water supply during and across years.
  2. ^ first unit installed in 1984, 18th in 1991; in 2003 2 additional units were installed
  3. ^ planned final capacity 16,000 MW
  4. ^ first unit installed in 1942, 18th in 1950, 21st in 1991; 6 units in third powerplant were installed between 1975 and 1980, 2 units of pumped-storage plant were installed in 1973, 4 more units in 1983 and 1984
  5. ^ 10 units were installed between 1985 and 1989, after 2009 failure new units were installed between 2010 and 2014
  6. ^ Combined with adjacent La Grande-2-A the LG-2 complex has 7,722 MW of installed capacity
  7. ^ 8,000 MW commissioned as of May 2022
  8. ^ 375 MW comissioned as of February 2022
  9. ^ 240 MW commissioned as of September 2019
  10. ^ 1,000 MW comissioned as of September 2021

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Brasil retiró casi 92 millones MWh de la producción récord de Itaipú". Abc.com. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  2. ^ "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'". Yahoo! News. AFP. 2015-01-02.
  3. ^ Development of the Grand Inga, retrieved 2010-03-21
  4. ^ "Africa plans biggest dam project, the Grand Inga", BBC News, 2008-04-21, retrieved 2010-03-21
  5. ^ "World's largest hydropower project planned for Tibetan Plateau". www.chinadialogue.net. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  6. ^ "Full dataset view - World Dams". rlist.io. Retrieved 2022-01-12.
  7. ^ "China's Three Gorges Dam sets world hydropower production record – China Daily". spglobal.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  8. ^ "China's second-largest hydropower station in full operation". Xinhua News Agency. 2014-07-02. Archived from the original on 2014-10-21.
  9. ^ "世界第三大水电站溪洛渡水电站机组全部投产-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  10. ^ "A história de Belo Monte – Cronologia". Norte Energia (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  11. ^ "China's Wudongde hydropower project begins full operations". www.power-technology.com. 17 June 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-01.
  12. ^ "50% of units in operation at Baihetan, China". www.waterpowermagazine.com. 2022-06-06. Retrieved 2022-06-21.
  13. ^ "Million-kilowatt hydropower unit is the only one in China". Donfang Electric Corporation. 2021-08-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Generation Records Fall at Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-18.
  15. ^ 马常艳 (2014-06-28). "中国第三大水电站向家坝水电站将全部投产发电". Ce.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  16. ^ "龙滩水电站创世界建设最快纪录-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  17. ^ "Largest hydropower station on Mekong River starts operation - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2012-09-06. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  18. ^ "云南省最大水电站糯扎渡水电站全面建成投产". Yn.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  19. ^ Powering Our Future : Annual Report 2008 (PDF). Montreal: Hydro-Québec. April 2009. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-550-55046-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
  20. ^ "Churchill Falls". Nalcor Energy. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  21. ^ "Tarbela 4th extension project starts power production". The Express Tribune. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". www.sasac.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "小湾电站机组全部投产 我国水电装机突破2亿千瓦". Yn.xinhuanet.com. 2010-08-25. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  24. ^ "Geração – Santo Antônio Energia". Santoantonioenergia.com.br. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  25. ^ "Form 20-F". Sec.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  26. ^ "Bath County Pumped Storage Station | Dominion Energy". www.dominionenergy.com. Archived from the original on 2019-03-29. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". www.hydropower.org.cn. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "China starts Baihetan hydro project, biggest since Three Gorges". Reuters. 28 June 2021.
  29. ^ "Ethiopia's huge Nile dam delayed to 2022 - News - GCR". 14 December 2018.
  30. ^ "Ethiopia to fill contested dam as Nile talks falter". Deutsche Welle. 2020-06-22. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  31. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (27 August 2013). "Dasu power project gets precedence over Bhasha". dawn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Construction begins on Nigeria's 3,050-MW Mambilla hydropower plant". www.hydroworld.com. Retrieved 2018-05-25.