List of largest hydroelectric power stations

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This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity. Only plants with capacity larger than 2,000 MW are listed.

The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Paraguay/Brazil in second place (14,000 MW). Despite the large difference in installed capacity, these two power stations generate nearly equal amounts of electrical energy during the course of an entire year - Itaipu 103 TWh in 2016[1] and Three Gorges 98.8 TWh in 2014,[2] because the Three Gorges experiences six months per year when there is very little water available to generate power, while the Paraná River that feeds the Itaipu has a much lower seasonal variance in flow. Energy output of the Three Gorges reaches 125 TWh in years of high feed availability.

The Three Gorges (22,500 MW - 32 × 700 MW and 2 × 50 MW) is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (2,715 MW), the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,215 MW. The Itaipu on the Brazil–Paraguay border has 20 generator units with overall 14,000 MW of installed capacity, however the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (12,600 MW).

The Jinsha River (the upper stream of Yangtze River) complex is the largest hydroelectric generating system currently under construction. It has three phases. Phase one includes four dams on the downstream of the Jinsha River. They are Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Xiangjiaba Dam, with generating capacity of 10,200 MW, 16,000 MW, 13,860 MW, and 6,448 MW respectively. Phase two includes eight dams on the middle stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 21,150 MW. Phase three includes eight dams on the upper stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 8,980 MW. The total combined capacity of the Jinsha complex with the Three Gorges complex will be 101,853 MW.

Preliminary plans exist for the construction of the next largest hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of 39,000 MW.[3] The Project is called Grand Inga and is planned to be realised on the lower Congo River.[4] China is said to have been working on a 50,000 MW[5] dam as part of the Yarlung Tsangpo Hydroelectric and Water Diversion Project

Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.

The largest hydroelectric power stations top the list of the largest power stations of any kind, are among the largest hydraulic structures and are some of the largest artificial structures in the world.

List[edit]

Completed[edit]

Only operational power stations with an installed capacity of at least 2,000 MW. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current installed capacity is listed. As of October 2020, there are 71 entries in the list, of which almost a third (31% or 22 entries) are in China.

Name Country River Installed
capacity
(MW)
Annual
production
(TW-hour)[note 1]
Area
flooded
(km²)
Years of completion
Three Gorges Dam  China Yangtze 22,500 103.1[6] 1,084 2008/2012
Itaipu Dam  Paraguay
 Brazil
Paraná 14,000 103 [1] 1,350 1984/1991, 2003[note 2]
Xiluodu  China Jinsha 13,860[7] 55.2 2014[8]
Belo Monte  Brazil Xingu 11,233[9] 39.5 441 2016-2019
Guri  Venezuela Caroní 10,235 53.41 4,250 1978, 1986
Tucuruí  Brazil Tocantins 8,370 41.43 3,014 1984, 2007
Grand Coulee  United States Columbia 6,809 20[10] 324 1942/1950, 1973, 1975/1980, 1983/1984, 1991[note 3]
Xiangjiaba  China Jinsha 6,448 30.7 95.6 2014[11]
Longtan Dam  China Hongshui 6,426 18.7[12] 2007/2009
Sayano-Shushenskaya  Russia Yenisei 6,400 26.8 621 1985/1989, 2010/2014[note 4]
Krasnoyarsk  Russia Yenisei 6,000 15 2,000 1967/1972
Nuozhadu  China Mekong 5,850 23.9[13] 320 2014[14]
Robert-Bourassa  Canada La Grande 7,722[note 5][15] 26.5 2,835 1979/1981
Churchill Falls  Canada Churchill 5,428[16] 35 6,988 1971/1974
Tarbela Dam  Pakistan Indus 4,888[17] 13 250 1976
Jinping-II  China Yalong 4,800 24.23 2014
Bratsk  Russia Angara 4,515 22.6 5,470 1961/1966
Laxiwa Dam  China Yellow 4,200[18] 10.2 2010
Xiaowan Dam  China Mekong 4,200[19] 19 190 2010
Ust Ilimskaya  Russia Angara 3,840 21.7 1,922 1980
Jirau  Brazil Madeira 3,750 19.1 258 2014/2016
Jinping-I  China Yalong 3,600 17 82.5 2014
Santo Antonio  Brazil Madeira 3,580[20] 21.2 490 2012/2016
Ilha Solteira Dam  Brazil Paraná 3,444 17.9 1,195 1973
Ertan Dam  China Yalong 3,300 17 101 1999
Pubugou Dam  China Dadu 3,300 14.6 2009/2010
Macagua  Venezuela Caroní 3,167.5 15.2 47.4 1961, 1996
Xingó Hydroelectrical Power Plant  Brazil São Francisco 3,162 18.7[21] 60 1994/1997
Yacyretá  Argentina
 Paraguay
Paraná 3,100 20.09 1,600 1994/1998, 2011
Nurek Dam  Tajikistan Vakhsh 3,015 11.2 98 1972/1979, 1988
Bath County PSP  United States - 3,003[22] 3.32 3.3 1985, 2005/2009
Goupitan Dam  China Wu 3,000[23] 9.67 94 2009/2011
Guanyinyan Dam  China Jinsha 3,000 13.62 2014/2016
Boguchany Dam  Russia Angara 2,997 17.6 2,326 2012/2014
W. A. C. Bennett Dam  Canada Peace 2,917 13.8 1,761 1968, 2012
Mica Dam  Canada Columbia 2,805 7.2 430 1973, 2015
La Grande-4  Canada La Grande 2,779[15] 765 1986
Gezhouba Dam  China Yangtze 2,715 17.01 1988
Niagara Falls (US)  United States Niagara 3,840[24] 0 1961
Volzhskaya (Volgogradskaya)  Russia Volga 2,671[25] 12.84[26] 3,117 1958/1961
Daniel-Johnson Dam  Canada Manicouagan 2,660[27] 1,950 1970/1971, 1989/1990
Chief Joseph Dam  United States Columbia 2,620 10.68 34 1958/1973/1979
Changheba  China Dadu 2,600 10.8 2016/2017
Dagangshan  China Dadu 2,600 11.43 2015/2016
Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya)  Russia Volga 2,488[28] 11.7[26] 6,450 1955/1957
Revelstoke Dam  Canada Columbia 2,480 8.75 115 1984, 2011
Paulo Afonso IV  Brazil São Francisco 2,462.4[29] 1979/1983
Chicoasén (Manuel M. Torres) Dam  Mexico Grijalva 2,430 1980, 2005
La Grande-3  Canada La Grande 2,418[15] 12.3 2,420 1984
Atatürk Dam  Turkey Euphrates 2,400 8.9 817 1990
Jinanqiao Dam  China Jinsha 2,400 11.04 2010
Sơn La Dam  Vietnam Black 2,400 10.25 440 2010/2012
Bakun Dam  Malaysia Balui 2,400 695 2011
Liyuan Dam  China Jinsha 2,400 10.7 14,7 2014/2015
Guandi Dam  China Yalong 2,400 11.87 2013
Iron Gates-I  Romania
 Serbia
Danube 2,281.8 11.3 104.4 1970, 1998/2007, 2013/2016
Karun III Dam  Iran Karun 2,280 4.17 48 2005
John Day Dam  United States Columbia 2,160 8.42 200~ 1971
Caruachi  Venezuela Caroní 2,160 12.95 238 2006
Ludila  China Jinsha 2,160 9.96 2014[30]
La Grande-2-A  Canada La Grande 2,106[15][31] 2,835 1992
Aswan  Egypt Nile 2,100 11 5,250 1967/1970
Itumbiara  Brazil Paranaíba 2,082 9 778 1980
Hoover Dam  United States Colorado 2,080 4.2 640 1936/1939, 1961, 1986/1993
Cahora Bassa  Mozambique Zambezi 2,075 2,739 1975/1977
Cleuson-Dixence Complex   Switzerland - 2,069 4.51 4 1965, 1998
Bureya Dam  Russia Bureya 2,010 6.59[26] 750 2003/2009
Lijiaxia Dam  China Yellow 2,000 5.9 383 1997/2000
Karun I (Shahid Abbaspour) Dam  Iran Karun 2,000 54.8 1976, 1995, 2006
Masjed Soleyman Dam  Iran Karun 2,000 3.7 7.5 2002/2007
Ahai Dam  China Jinsha 2,000 8.88 23,4 2014[32]

Under construction[edit]

This table lists stations under construction with expected installed capacity at least 2,000 MW.

Name Country Location River Expected
capacity (MW)
Expected
completion
Baihetan  China 28°15′06″N 103°39′34″E / 28.25167°N 103.65944°E / 28.25167; 103.65944 (Baihetan Dam) Jinsha 16,000[33] 2021-2022
Wudongde  China 26°20′02″N 102°37′48″E / 26.33389°N 102.63000°E / 26.33389; 102.63000 (Wudongde Dam) Jinsha 10,200[note 6] 2020[34]-2021
TaSang  Myanmar 20°27′23″N 98°39′0″E / 20.45639°N 98.65000°E / 20.45639; 98.65000 Salween 7,110 ?? (on hold)
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance  Ethiopia 11°12′51″N 35°05′35″E / 11.21417°N 35.09306°E / 11.21417; 35.09306 (Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) Blue Nile 6,350 2020-2023[35][36]
Diamer-Bhasha  Pakistan 35°31′08″N 73°47′10″E / 35.51889°N 73.78611°E / 35.51889; 73.78611 (Diamer-Bhasha Dam) Indus River 4,500 2028[37]
Dasu  Pakistan 35°31′10″N 73°44′21″E / 35.51944°N 73.73917°E / 35.51944; 73.73917 (Dasu Dam) Indus River 4,320 2025
Rogun  Tajikistan 38°41′03″N 69°46′26″E / 38.68417°N 69.77389°E / 38.68417; 69.77389 (Rogun Dam) Vakhsh 3,600[note 7] 2018-2029[citation needed]
Myitsone  Myanmar 25°41′23″N 97°31′04″E / 25.68972°N 97.51778°E / 25.68972; 97.51778 Irrawaddy 3,600 ?? (on hold)
Mambilla  Nigeria 07°09′44″N 10°34′17″E / 7.16222°N 10.57139°E / 7.16222; 10.57139 (Mambilla Power Station) Donga 3,050 2024[38]
Lianghekou  China 30°09′46″N 101°00′49″E / 30.16278°N 101.01361°E / 30.16278; 101.01361 (Lianghekou Dam) Yalong 3,000 2021-2023
Ituango  Colombia 7°05′03.6″N 75°41′16.8″W / 7.084333°N 75.688000°W / 7.084333; -75.688000 (Hidroituango) Cauca 2,456 2021[39] (?)
Tocoma  Venezuela 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Tocoma Dam) Caroní 2,320 ?? (on hold)
Maerdang  China 34°40′21″N 100°41′32″E / 34.67250°N 100.69222°E / 34.67250; 100.69222 (Maerdang Dam) Yellow 2,200 2020 (?)
Caculo Cabaça  Angola 9°41′01″S 14°58′56″E / 9.68361°S 14.98222°E / -9.68361; 14.98222 (Caculo Cabaça Dam) Cuanza 2,172 2024
Koysha (fr)  Ethiopia 6°34′29″N 36°32′55″E / 6.57472°N 36.54861°E / 6.57472; 36.54861 (Koysha Dam) Omo 2,160 2021
Lauca  Angola 9°44′34.9″S 15°07′32.2″E / 9.743028°S 15.125611°E / -9.743028; 15.125611 (Lauca Dam) Cuanza 2,069.5[note 8] 2017-2020
Shuangjiangkou  China 31°47′29″N 101°56′03″E / 31.79139°N 101.93417°E / 31.79139; 101.93417 (Shuangjiangkou Dam) Dadu 2,000 2023
Subansiri  India 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Subansiri Lower Dam) Subansiri 2,000 ?? (on hold)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Generating capacity is not the only factor determining the amount of electricity generated, as this also depends on consistent utilization of the plant's capacity. Factors enhancing this are the free capacity of the reservoir and the consistency of water supply during and across years.
  2. ^ first unit installed in 1984, 18th in 1991; in 2003 2 additional units were installed
  3. ^ first unit installed in 1942, 18th in 1950, 21st in 1991; 6 units in third powerplant were installed between 1975 and 1980, 2 units of pumped-storage plant were installed in 1973, 4 more units in 1983 and 1984
  4. ^ 10 units were installed between 1985 and 1989, after 2009 failure new units were installed between 2010 and 2014
  5. ^ Combined with adjacent La Grande-2-A the LG-2 complex has 7,722 MW of installed capacity, so would be on 7th place.
  6. ^ 1,700 MW commissioned as of July 2020
  7. ^ 240 MW commissioned as of September 2019
  8. ^ 1,670 MW commissioned as of July 2019

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Brasil retiró casi 92 millones MWh de la producción récord de Itaipú". Abc.com. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  2. ^ "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'". Yahoo! News. AFP. 2015-01-02.
  3. ^ Development of the Grand Inga, retrieved 2010-03-21
  4. ^ "Africa plans biggest dam project, the Grand Inga", BBC News, 2008-04-21, retrieved 2010-03-21
  5. ^ "World's largest hydropower project planned for Tibetan Plateau". www.chinadialogue.net. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  6. ^ "China's largest hydropower plant breaks annual output world record". www.youtube.com. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  7. ^ "China's second-largest hydropower station in full operation". Xinhua News Agency. 2014-07-02. Archived from the original on 2014-10-21.
  8. ^ 2425 (2014-07-02). "世界第三大水电站溪洛渡水电站机组全部投产-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "A história de Belo Monte – Cronologia". Norte Energia (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  10. ^ "Generation Records Fall at Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-18.
  11. ^ 马常艳 (2014-06-28). "中国第三大水电站向家坝水电站将全部投产发电". Ce.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  12. ^ "龙滩水电站创世界建设最快纪录-能源-人民网". Energy.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  13. ^ "Largest hydropower station on Mekong River starts operation - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2012-09-06. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  14. ^ "云南省最大水电站糯扎渡水电站全面建成投产". Yn.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  15. ^ a b c d Hydro-Québec (April 2009). Powering Our Future : Annual Report 2008 (PDF). Montreal. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-550-55046-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
  16. ^ Nalcor Operations. "Churchill Falls". Nalcor Energy. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  17. ^ "Tarbela 4th extension project starts power production". The Express Tribune. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "小湾电站机组全部投产 我国水电装机突破2亿千瓦". Yn.xinhuanet.com. 2010-08-25. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  20. ^ "Geração – Santo Antônio Energia". Santoantonioenergia.com.br. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  21. ^ "Form 20-F". Sec.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  22. ^ "Bath County Pumped Storage Station | Dominion Energy". www.dominionenergy.com. Archived from the original on 2019-03-29. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ Combined US-CA capacity >= 2 GW greater than this so would be on 17th place.
  25. ^ "Волжская ГЭС увеличила установленную мощность в результате модернизации оборудования". www.volges.rushydro.ru. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  26. ^ a b c "2013". Rushydro.ru. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  27. ^ Hydro-Québec (2019), Hydroelectric Generating Stations, Montreal: Hydro-Québec, retrieved 2019-10-16
  28. ^ http://www.zhiges.rushydro.ru/press/news/108670.html
  29. ^ Combined with adjacent Paulo Afonso IV, Paulo Afonso I, II, III and Apollonius Sales the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex has 4,279 MW of installed capacity
  30. ^ "鲁地拉水电站事故生态放水孔已封堵-中国水力发电工程学会". Hydropower.org.cn. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  31. ^ Combined with Robert-Bourassa, it would place LG-2 complex in 5th place
  32. ^ "金沙江流域阿海水电站5台机组全部投产_云南网". Yn.yunnan.cn. 2014-06-08. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  33. ^ "中国东方电气集团有限公司". Dongfang.com. 2015-07-08. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  34. ^ https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/wudongde-project-china-builds-third-largest-hydropower-station-on-yangtze-river/articleshow/50309565.cms
  35. ^ http://www.globalconstructionreview.com/news/ethiopias-huge-nile-dam-delayed-2022/
  36. ^ "Ethiopia to fill contested dam as Nile talks falter". Deutsche Welle. 2020-06-22. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
  37. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (27 August 2013). "Dasu power project gets precedence over Bhasha". dawn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  38. ^ "Construction begins on Nigeria's 3,050-MW Mambilla hydropower plant". www.hydroworld.com. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  39. ^ https://www.elcolombiano.com/antioquia/hidroituango-epm-investiga-socavacion-o-vacio-en-la-montana-BA10011000