List of largest protected areas

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This is a list of largest protected areas in the world.

Largest protected areas of the world[edit]

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Name Country Size (square kilometres) Date established Ref
Ross Sea Marine Reserve Antarctica 1,550,000 December 2017 (temporal for 35 years) [1]
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument United States (Hawaii and the Midway Atoll) 1,510,000 2006 [2][3]
Natural Park of the Coral Sea New Caledonia (France) 1,292,967 2012
Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument United States 1,271,500 2014 [4]
South Georgia Marine Protected Area United Kingdom 1,070,000 2012
Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve Australia 989,842 2012 [5]
Northeast Greenland National Park Greenland 972,000 1974 [6]
Chagos Marine Protected Area British Indian Ocean Territory/Chagos Archipelago (British Overseas Territory) 640,000 2010 [7]
Ahaggar National Park Algeria/Sahara 450,000 1987 [8]
Phoenix Islands Protected Area Kiribati (Phoenix Islands) 408,250 2008 [9]
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Australia 345,400 1975 [10]
Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 387,132 2010 [11]
Marianas Trench Marine National Monument Mariana Islands, United States of America 250,000 2009
Macquarie Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve Australia 162,000 [12]
Galápagos Marine Reserve Ecuador (Galápagos Islands) 133,000 1986
Irish Conservation Box Ireland 110,000 2003
Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe 99,800 2002 [13]
Kluane / Wrangell–St. Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek International Park and World Heritage Site Alaska, United States of America, British Columbia, Yukon, Canada 97,957 1994
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Alaska, United States of America 78,000 1960
Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Alaska, United States of America 77,550 1980
Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves Niger 77,360 1991
Western Eyre Commonwealth Marine Reserve Australia (south of South Australia) 57 946 2012 [14]
Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve United States (Alaska) 53,321 1980
Central Kalahari Game Reserve Botswana 52,800 1961
Namib-Naukluft National Park Namibia 59,768 1907 [15]
Great Australian Bight Commonwealth Marine Reserve Australia (south of South Australia) 45,926 2012 [16]
Wood Buffalo National Park Canada (Alberta and Northwest Territories) 44,807 1922
Selous Game Reserve Tanzania 44,600 1922
Niassa National Reserve Mozambique 42,000 1954
Great Arctic State Nature Reserve Russia 41,692 1993
Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve United States(Alaska) 39,460 1980
Tumucumaque Mountains National Park Brazil 38,874 2002
Parima Tapirapecó National Park Venezuela 38,290 1991
Quittinirpaaq National Park Canada (Nunavut) 37,775 2001
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park Botswana, South Africa 37,256 2000 [17]
Salonga National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 36,000 1984
Bernardo O'Higgins National Park Chile 35,259 1969
Rose Atoll National Monument American Samoa 35,000
Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Alaska, United States of America 35,000
Guiana Amazonian Park French Guiana 33,900 2007
Canaima National Park Venezuela 30,000 1962
Nahanni National Park Reserve Canada (Northwest Territories) 30,000 1976
Simpson Desert Regional Reserve Australia (South Australia) 29,239 1985 [18]
Chiribiquete National Park Colombia 27,823 1989 and 2003 [19]
Noatak National Preserve United States (Alaska) 26,587 1978
Boucle du Baoulé National Park Mali 25,330 1982
Lorentz National Park West Papua, Indonesia 25,056 1997
Denali National Park and Preserve United States (Alaska) 24,585 1917
Jaú National Park Brazil 23,000 1980
Boma National Park South Sudan 22,800 2012
Kafue National Park Zambia 22,400 1924
Etosha National Park Namibia 22,270 1907 [20]
Sirmilik National Park Canada (Nunavut) 22,200 2001
Kluane National Park Canada (Yukon) 22,013 1972
Auyuittuq National Park Canada (Nunavut) 21,471 2001
Tsavo National Park Kenya 20,812 1948
Ukkusiksalik National Park Canada (Nunavut) 20,500 2003
Ruaha National Park Tanzania 20,200 1964
Yellabinna Regional Reserve Australia (South Australia) 20,008 1990 [18]
Bosawás Biosphere Reserve Nicaragua 20,000 1991
Kakadu National Park Australia (Northern Territory) 19,804 1981
Nullarbor Regional Reserve Australia (South Australia) 19,198 1989 [18]
Katmai National Park and Preserve United States (Alaska) 19,122 1980
Yugyd Va National Park Russia (Komi) 18,917 1994
Laguna San Rafael National Park Chile 17,420 1959
Skeleton Coast National Park Namibia 16,870 1971
Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation Area Lesotho, South Africa 16,226 2001 [21]
Tuktut Nogait National Park Canada (Northwest Territories) 16,340 1996
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve United States (Alaska) 16,309 1980
Central Suriname Nature Reserve Suriname 16,000 1998
Manú National Park Peru 15,328 1987
Iona National Park Angola 15,150 1964
Serengeti National Park Tanzania 14,763 1981
Hwange National Park Zimbabwe 14,651 1930
Alberto de Agostini National Park Chile 14,600 1965
Okapi Wildlife Reserve Democratic Republic of the Congo 14,000 1996
Watarru Indigenous Protected Area Australia (South Australia) 13,925 2000 [22]
Kerinci Seblat National Park Sumatra, Indonesia 13,791 1982
Death Valley National Park United States (California) 13,630 1933
Innamincka Regional Reserve Australia (South Australia) 13,540 1988 [18]
Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre National Park Australia (South Australia) 13491 1985 [18]
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve United States (Alaska) 13,287 1980
Judbarra/Gregory National Park Australia (Northern Territory) 12,882 1990
Karlamilyi National Park Australia (Western Australia) 12,837 1977
Fiordland National Park New Zealand 12,500 1952
Aulavik National Park Canada (Northwest Territories) 12,200 1992
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania 12,000 1978
Vatnajökull National Park Iceland 14,200 2008
Upemba National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 11,730 1939
Wapusk National Park Canada (Manitoba) 11,475 1996
Puinawai Natural Reserve Colombia (Guainía Department) 10,925 1989 [23]
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve United States (Alaska) 10,922 1978
Jasper National Park Canada (Alberta) 10,878 1907
Maiko National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 10,830 1970
Yaigojé Apaporis Natural Park Colombia 10,557 2009 [24]
Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve United States (Alaska) 10,220 1978
Ivvavik National Park Canada (Yukon) 10,168 1984
Munga-Thirri National Park Australia (Queensland) 10,120 1967
Central Karakoram National Park Skardu District, Gilgit District, Pakistan 10,000 1993
W Transborder Park Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger 10,000 1954
Quiçama National Park Angola 9,960 1957
Torngat Mountains National Park Canada (Labrador and Newfoundland) 9,600 2005
Laponian Area - UNESCO World Heritage Site Sweden (Lapland) 9,400 1996 [25]
Misty Fjords National Monument United States (Alaska) 9,246 1978
South Luangwa National Park Zambia 9,050 1972
Yellowstone National Park United States (Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming) 8,983 1872
Nullarbor Wilderness Protection Area Australia (South Australia) 8,942 2013 [18]
Ngorongoro Conservation Area Tanzania 8,288 1959
Gunung Leuser National Park Indonesia 7,927 1980
Tadres Reserve Niger 7,889
Virunga National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,800 1925
Witjira National Park Australia (South Australia) 7,711 1985
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument United States (Utah) 7,571 1996
Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve Russia 7,213 1930
Nahuel Huapi National Park Argentina 7,050 1934
Termit Massif Reserve Niger 7,000+ 1962
Kosciuszko National Park Australia (New South Wales) 6,900 1967
Kobuk Valley National Park United States (Alaska) 6,758 1980
Banff National Park Canada (Alberta) 6,641 1885
Alpine National Park Australia (Victoria) 6,460 1989
Murray-Sunset National Park Australia (Victoria) 6,330 1991
Karijini National Park Australia (Western Australia) 6,274 1991
Mojave National Preserve United States (California) 6,211 1994
Southwest National Park Australia (Tasmania) 6,183 1955
Everglades National Park United States (Florida) 6,105 1947
Lake Mead National Recreation Area United States (Arizona and Nevada) 6,053 1936
Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park Namibia, South Africa 6,045 2003 [26]
Kahuzi-Biega National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 6,000 1980
Lake Torrens National Park Australia (South Australia) 5,677 1991
Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park Canada (Alberta), United States (Montana) 5,606 1995
Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve Sweden (Lapland) 5,600 [27]
Saoyú-ʔehdacho National Historic Site Canada (Northwest Territories) 5,587 1997 [28]
Lake Gairdner National Park Australia (South Australia) 5,481 1991
Lakefield National Park Australia (Queensland) 5,370 1979
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area United States (Arizona and Utah) 5,076 1972
Diamantina National Park Australia (Queensland) 5,070 1993
Conkouati-Douli National Park Republic of Congo 5,050 1993
Wollemi National Park Australia (New South Wales) 5,017 1979
Yellabinna Wilderness Protection Area Australia (South Australia) 5,007 2005
Bafing National Park Mali 5,000 2000
Sioma Ngwezi National Park Zambia 5,000
Garamba National Park Democratic Republic of the Congo 4,920 1938
Quetico Provincial Park Canada (Northwestern Ontario) 4,760 1913
Staaten River National Park Australia (Queensland) 4,700 1977
Oyala Thumotang National Park Australia (Queensland) 4,570 1994
Cairngorms National Park Scotland 4,528 2003
Kahurangi National Park New Zealand 4,520 1996
Drysdale River National Park Australia (Western Australia) 4,483 1974
Katavi National Park Tanzania 4,471 1974
Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park Australia (Tasmania) 4,570 1908
Los Glaciares National Park Argentina 4,459 1981
Vuntut National Park Canada (Yukon) 4,345 1995
Taman Negara National Park Malaysia 4,343 1938
Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park Republic of Congo 4,000 1993
ROSCI0227 - Sighisoara, Tarnava Mare, Podisul Hartibaciului Romania 3,600 2008 [30]

Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) and International Peace Parks[edit]

As the need for larger expanses of protected land grows, governments of various countries have recently made efforts to inscribe protected areas that are multiple times larger than ever before. These parks have been established under a couple different definitions: Transfrontier Conservation Areas (southern Africa) and International Peace Parks (North America and Europe). The focus of these parks is to remove international borders within protected areas that would impede the migration of large mammal herds. Another primary reason for the creation of these parks is to help boost eco-tourism by allowing tourists to cross international borders to experience larger, more primeval wilderness without political borders and legal concerns. The inception of these parks has increased the land areas of many of Africa's most prolific parks (such as Kruger and Chobe), and will allow greater herds of large land mammals to migrate in more natural settings. In southern Africa these parks have been jump-started by the Peace Parks Foundation. These Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs, also known as Transfrontier Parks) are either in the finishing stages of political evaluation or beginning their delineation processes. TFCAs with preliminary geographic itineraries have been included here under the new name and area size of the designated TFCA. TFCAs still in early planning stages have not been listed here as a conglomerate. The Peace Parks Foundation include a list of all initiated and planned TFCAs as orchestrated by them, with goals for similar parks to be started in other regions of Africa in the future.

The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area is still undergoing a delineation process between the governments of the five countries, hopefully coming to completion by the end of 2010. The parks listed are provisional geographic boundaries initially set forth by representatives from the countries. For more information visit Peace Parks Foundation.

International Peace Park is a designation used in similar fashion for a couple parks in North America and Europe that have turned their geographic focus in the same direction. The two most prominent of these parks are the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park on the border of the United States and Canada and the Balkans Peace Park connecting pristine tracts of wilderness in Albania, Kosovo, and Serbia and Montenegro.[31]

Park definitions to be included[edit]

This list is not restricted to National Parks, and includes all protected areas inscribed at the national level. This includes Game Reserves, Game Preserves, Wilderness Areas, National Monuments, National Preserves, Special Reserves, Safari Areas, Strict Forest Reserves, and also cultural lands under the protection of the national government that do not possess a protected area name (example: the Senge Communial Land Area in Zimbabwe that will join the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park). Protected areas not inscribed at the national level (such as State Parks and Provincial Parks) are not included except for those being inscribed into a larger protected area. Parks are not listed individually if they make up a portion of a confirmed mega-park's inception.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Massive marine park declared in Antarctic Ocean". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-10-28. 
  2. ^ UNESCO's World Heritage listing for Papahānaumokuākea
  3. ^ Barnett, Cynthia (26 August 2016). "Hawaii Is Now Home to an Ocean Reserve Twice the Size of Texas". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  4. ^ MPAtlas
  5. ^ "Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (Commonwealth Marine Reserves) Proclamation 2012 - F2012L02188". Commonwealth of Australia, Comlaw. Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  6. ^ Statistics Greenland, Greenland in Figures, 2009
  7. ^ Chagos Conservation Trust, About - Chagos Marine Reserve
  8. ^ http://www.mate.gov.dz/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=221&Itemid=315%7CLe
  9. ^ UNESCO's World Heritage listing for PIPA
  10. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
  11. ^ South African Peace Parks, Kavango – Zambezi
  12. ^ "Macquarie Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  13. ^ South African Peace Parks, Great Limpopo
  14. ^ "Western Eyre Commonwealth Marine Reserve". Department of the Environment (DoE). Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  15. ^ Namib Naukluft Park
  16. ^ "Great Australian Bight Commonwealth Marine Reserve". Department of Environment. Retrieved 19 March 2015. 
  17. ^ South African Peace Parks, Kgalagadi
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Protected Areas Information System - reserve list (as of 25 November 2014)" (PDF). Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 8 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia". Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  20. ^ Etosha National Park
  21. ^ South African Peace Parks, Maloti-Drakensberg
  22. ^ "Terrestrial Protected Areas of South Australia (see 'DETAIL' tab)". CAPAD 2012. Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  23. ^ "Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia". Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  24. ^ "Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  25. ^ UNESCO's World Heritage listing for the Laponian Area
  26. ^ South African Peace Parks, |Ai-|Ais-Richtersveld
  27. ^ Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve
  28. ^ CPAWS welcomes permanent protection for Saoyú-?ehdacho in NWT Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, 2009
  29. ^ "Wilderness Advisory Committee Annual Report 2012-13" (PDF). September 2013: 19. ISSN 1832-9357. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  30. ^ Administration of ROSCI0227 - ATMH , Administration of ROSCI0227 - ATMH
  31. ^ Balkans Peace Park Project, PProgress So Far