List of Roman consuls
|Precedent and law|
|Titles and honours|
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
From the establishment of the Republic to the time of Augustus, the consuls were the chief magistrates of the Roman state, and normally there were two of them, so that the executive power of the state was not vested in a single individual, as it had been under the kings. As other ancient societies dated historical events according to the reigns of their kings, it became customary at Rome to date events by the names of the consuls in office when the events occurred, rather than (for instance) by counting the number of years since the foundation of the city, although that method could also be used. If a consul died during his year of office, another was elected to replace him. Although his imperium was the same as his predecessor's, he was termed consul suffectus, in order to distinguish him from the consul ordinarius whom he replaced; but the eponymous magistrates for each year were normally the consules ordinarii.
Because of this method of dating events, it was important to keep records of each year's eponymous magistrates. Many such lists have survived, either in the form of monumental inscriptions, conventionally referred to as fasti, or indirectly through the ancient historians, who had access to linen rolls recording the names of magistrates. Although these lists account for the entire period of the Republic, and most of Imperial times, there are discrepancies due to gaps and disagreements between different sources. Many of these no doubt arose as copying errors, especially those that involved the substitution of a familiar name for a less common one. Others may represent later attempts to edit the lists in order to explain deficiencies in the record, to reconcile conflicting traditions, or to ascribe particular actions or events to the time of a particular individual.
Other magistrates included
Occasionally, the authority of the consuls was temporarily superseded by the appointment of a dictator, who held greater imperium than that of the consuls. By tradition, these dictators laid down their office upon the completion of the task for which they were nominated, or after a maximum period of six months, and did not continue in office longer than the year for which the nominating consul had been elected. However, in four years at the end of the fourth century BC, dictators are said to have continued in office in the year following their nomination, in place of consuls. Modern scholars are skeptical of these years, which might be due to later editing of the lists of magistrates in order to fill a gap. All known dictators have been included in this table.
Two other types of magistrates are listed during the period of the Republic. In the year 451 BC, a board of ten men, known as decemviri, or decemvirs, was appointed in place of the consuls in order to draw up the tables of Roman law, in a sense establishing the Roman constitution. According to tradition, a second college of decemvirs was appointed for the next year, and these continued in office illegally into 449, until they were overthrown in a popular revolt, and the consulship was reinstated.
Among the disputes which the decemvirs failed to resolve was the relationship between the patricians, Rome's hereditary aristocracy, and the plebeians, or common citizens. Although it has been argued that some of the consuls prior to the Decemvirate may have been plebeians, the office was definitely closed to them in the second half of the fifth century BC. To prevent open hostility between the two orders, the office of military tribune with consular power, or "consular tribune", was established. In place of patrician consuls, the people could elect a number of military tribunes, who might be either patrician or plebeian.
According to Livy, this compromise held until 376 BC, when two of the tribunes of the plebs, Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, blocked the election of any magistrates for the following year, unless the senate would agree to place a law before the people opening the consulship to the plebeians, and effecting other important reforms. The senate refused, and the tribunes continued to prevent the election of magistrates for several years until the senate capitulated, and the lex Licinia Sextia was passed, leading to the election of the first plebeian consul in 367. Other accounts of this event are inconsistent, and current scholarly opinion is that the duration of the period without magistrates may have been exaggerated, or even invented to fill a gap in the record; nevertheless Roman tradition unanimously holds that Licinius and Sextius were able to open the consulship to the plebeians.
The consulship in imperial times
In imperial times the consulship became the senior administrative office under the emperors, who frequently assumed the title of consul themselves, and appointed other consuls at will. The consulship was often bestowed as a political favour, or a reward for faithful service. Because there could only be two consuls at once, the emperors frequently appointed several sets of suffecti sequentially in the course of a year; holding the consulship for an entire year became a special honour. As the office lost much of its executive authority, and the number of consuls appointed for short and often irregular periods increased, surviving lists from Imperial times are often incomplete, and have been reconstructed from many sources, not always with much certainty. In many cases it is stated that a particular person had been consul, but the exact time cannot be firmly established.
As an institution, the consulship survived the abdication of the last emperor of the West, and for a time consuls continued to be appointed, one representing the Eastern Roman Empire, and the other the Western, even as the Western Empire dissolved as a political entity. The last consuls appointed represented only the Eastern Empire, until finally the title became the sole province of the Emperor, who might or might not assume it upon taking office.
For the early Republic, this article observes the Varronian chronology, established by the historian Marcus Terentius Varro, who calculated that Rome was founded in what is now called the year 753 BC (the founding of the city was traditionally observed on the Palilia, a festival occurring on April 21). This becomes the year 1 ab urbe condita, or AUC. The Republic was established in 245 AUC, or 509 BC. Although other ancient historians gave different years, Varro's chronology was the most widely accepted; it was used in the Fasti Capitolini, and its use by Censorinus brought it to the attention of Joseph Scaliger, who helped popularize its use in modern times.
For Imperial times, the dates of the consules ordinarii are far more certain than those of the suffecti, who were not recorded with the same attention as the eponymous magistrates. Their identification and dating is far more controversial, and despite the efforts of generations of scholars, gaps in coverage remain. Known consules suffecti are shown with their known (or reconstructed) dates of tenure, which normally varied from two to six months — although one suffect consul, Rosius Regulus, is known to have held the fasces for a single day, October 31, AD 69. Where neither consul is known or inferred for a portion of the year, their names are omitted for convenience; if one consul can be named, but his colleague is unknown, the unnamed colleague is listed as ignotus (unknown).
Consules prior and posterior
Consuls during the Republic and the early Empire are identified as consul prior and consul posterior, terms that the Romans used to distinguish between the magistrates. The consul prior was the more senior and esteemed of the pair. Under the Republic he was elected first, and had priority in holding the fasces, as well as the honor of being named first in the lists for the year, although in all other respects the two consuls' authority was equal. The order of the consuls of the Republic was however edited in the Fasti Capitolini. Augustus and several prominent patricians falsified the Fasti by listing some of their ancestors as consuls prior. Livy apparently gives the initial order throughout most of his work, but seems to have followed the new "official" order in his later books; perhaps he was influenced by the imperial propaganda.
When the emperor assumed the consulship, he was necessarily consul prior. This distinction continued until the fourth century AD, when the Empire was divided into a Western Roman Empire and an Eastern Roman Empire: the consuls who were appointed by the court in the Western Empire, which was sometimes at Rome, are commonly identified as the "Western consul", and those appointed by the court in the Eastern, usually Constantinople, the "Eastern consul". These designations were used until the end of the consulship in the sixth century.
Other lists of consuls
For a list of consuls whose year of office is uncertain or entirely unknown (usually suffecti, although some of the ordinarii in the breakaway Gallic Empire also lack dates), see the List of undated Roman consuls. For those individuals who were elected consul but never assumed the office due to death, disgrace, or any other reason, see List of Roman consuls designate.
- Imperator (abbreviated Imp.) = literally "commander"; originally an honorary title bestowed upon a general by his soldiers, the term later became part of the style of the emperors, and the word "emperor" is derived from it.
- suffectus (abbreviated suff.) = a substitute elected or appointed in place of a magistrate who died or resigned. Information is not available for all consules suffecti, and some may not be listed.
- ignotus = unknown. All consuls who can be assigned to a particular date, at least tentatively, are included in this table. If neither consul for a given period is known, they are entirely omitted; if one is known, and the other is not, the unknown colleague is referred to as ignotus.
- sine collega = without colleague. On a few occasions before the dissolution of the Western Empire, only one consul was appointed.
- post consulatum = after the (preceding) consulship. Used for gaps when no consuls were appointed for a period following the end of another consulship, or at least none are known to have been appointed.
- inter alios = among others.
Abbreviations for praenomina
- Republican senators
- Imperial senators
Sixth century BC (509–501)
Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of the consuls between 509 and 81 BC are taken from Thomas Broughton's The Magistrates of the Roman Republic.
|Year||Consul prior||Consul posterior|
|509||L. Junius Brutus||L. Tarquinius Collatinus|
|suff.||Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus||P. Valerius Poplicola|
|suff.||M. Horatius Pulvillus|
|508||P. Valerius Poplicola II||T. Lucretius Tricipitinus|
|507||P. Valerius Poplicola III||M. Horatius Pulvillus II|
|506||Sp. Lartius (Rufus or Flavus)||T. Herminius Aquilinus|
|505||M. Valerius Volusus||P. Postumius Tubertus|
|504||P. Valerius Poplicola IV||T. Lucretius Tricipitinus II|
|503||Agrippa Menenius Lanatus||P. Postumius Tubertus II|
|502||Opet. Verginius Tricostus||Sp. Cassius Viscellinus|
|501||Post. Cominius Auruncus||T. Lartius (Flavus or Rufus)|
Fifth century BC (500–401)
Fourth century BC (400–301)
|Year||Consul prior||Consul posterior|
|P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus||P. Maelius Capitolinus|
|P. Manlius Vulso||Sp. Furius Medullinus|
|L. Titinius Pansa Saccus||L. Publilius Philo Vulscus|
|Cn. Genucius Augurinus||C. Duillius Longus|
|L. Atilius Priscus||M. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus|
|M. Pomponius Rufus||Volero Publilius Philo|
|L. Valerius Potitus V||L. Furius Medullinus III|
|M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus||Q. Servilius Fidenas II|
|M. Furius Camillus II||Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus II|
|L. Julius Iulus II||A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis|
|L. Furius Medullinus IV||P. Cornelius Maluginensis|
|L. Sergius Fidenas||A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus III|
|L. Titinius Pansa Saccus II||Q. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus|
|P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus II||Cn. Genucius Augurinus II|
|P. Maelius Capitolinus II||L. Atilius Priscus II|
|P. Cornelius Cossus||L. Furius Medullinus V|
|P. Cornelius Scipio||Q. Servilius Fidenas III|
|K. Fabius Ambustus III||M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus II|
|M. Furius Camillus III||L. Valerius Poplicola|
|L. Furius Medullinus VI||Sp. Postumius Albinus Regillensis|
|C. Aemilius Mamercinus||P. Cornelius II|
|393||L. Valerius Potitus||Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis|
|suff.||L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus||Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus|
|392||L. Valerius Potitus II||M. Manlius Capitolinus|
|L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus||L. Furius Medullinus VII|
|Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus||Agrippa Furius Fusus|
|L. Aemilius Mamercinus||C. Aemilius Mamercinus II|
|Q. Fabius Ambustus||Q. Sulpicius Longus|
|K. Fabius Ambustus IV||Q. Servilius Fidenas IV|
|N. Fabius Ambustus II||P. Cornelius Maluginensis II|
|L. Valerius Poplicola II||A. Manlius Capitolinus|
|L. Verginius Tricostus Esquilinus (II?)||L. Aemilius Mamercinus II|
|P. Cornelius||L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis|
|T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus||Q. Servilius Fidenas V|
|L. Julius Iulus||L. Aquillius Corvus|
|L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus II||Ser. Sulpicius Rufus|
|L. Papirius Cursor||Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo|
|L. Aemilius Mamercinus III||Licinus Menenius Lanatus|
|L. Valerius Poplicola III|
|M. Furius Camillus IV||Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis|
|Q. Servilius Fidenas VI||L. Quinctius Cincinnatus|
|L. Horatius Pulvillus||P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola|
|A. Manlius Capitolinus II||P. Cornelius|
|T. Quinctius (Cincinnatus?) Capitolinus II||L. Papirius Cursor II|
|L. Quinctius Capitolinus||Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo II|
|Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis II||P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola II|
|M. Furius Camillus V||Ser. Sulpicius Rufus II|
|C. Papirius Crassus||T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus III|
|L. Valerius Poplicola IV||A. Manlius Capitolinus IV|
|Ser. Sulpicius Rufus III||L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus III|
|L. Aemilius Mamercinus IV||M. Trebonius|
|Sp. Papirius Crassus||L. Papirius Mugillanus|
|Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis III||Q. Servilius Fidenas|
|C. Sulpicius Camerinus||L. Aemilius Mamercinus V|
|M. Furius Camillus VI||A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis II|
|L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis II||L. Furius Medullinus|
|L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus IV||M. Fabius Ambustus|
|L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola V||P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola III|
|Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis IV||Licinus Menenius Lanatus II|
|C. Sulpicius Peticus||L. Aemilius Mamercinus VI|
|Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo III||Ti. Papirius Crassus|
|L. Papirius Mugillanus II|
|P. Manlius Capitolinus||Cn. Manlius Vulso|
|L. Julius Iulus II||C. Sextilius|
|M. Albinius||L. Antistius|
|P. Trebonius||C. Erenucius|
|Sp. Furius Medullinus||Q. Servillius Fidenas II|
|Licinus Menenius Lanatus III||P. Cloelius Siculus|
|M. Horatius||L. Geganius Macerinus|
|L. Aemilius Mamercinus||P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola IV|
|C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus||Ser. Sulpicius Rufus IV or:|
Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus
|L. Quinctius Cincinnatus III||C. Quinctius Cincinnatus|
|L. Papirius Mugillanus III||Licinus Menenius Lanatus IV|
|Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis V||Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus II|
According to Livy (6.35), the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius introduced new laws known as the Lex Licinia Sextia, which provoked strong resistance from the patricians. Licinius Stolo and Sextius resorted to using the tribunican veto to prevent either consuls or consular tribunes from being elected.
The actual length of this period is controversial, with primary sources stating it was one (Diodorus Siculus), five (Fasti Capitolini), or ten (Livy) years.
|A. Manlius Capitolinus V||L. Furius Medullinus II|
|Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus III||Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis VI|
|P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola V||C. Valerius Potitus|
|Q. Servilius Fidenas III||C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus II|
|A. Cornelius Cossus||M. Cornelius Maluginensis|
|Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus||M. Fabius Ambustus II|
|Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis VII||Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus IV|
|Sp. Servilius Structus||T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus|
|L. Papirius Crassus||L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus|
|A. Cornelius Cossus II||M. Cornelius Maluginensis II|
|M. Geganius Macerinus||P. Manlius Capitolinus II|
|L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus II||P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola VI|
|366||L. Aemilius Mamercinus||L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus (first plebeian)|
|365||L. Genucius Aventinensis||Q. Servilius Ahala|
|364||C. Sulpicius Peticus||C. Licinius Calvus|
|363||L. Aemilius Mamercinus II||Cn. Genucius Aventinensis|
|362||Q. Servilius Ahala II||L. Genucius Aventinensis II|
|361||C. Sulpicius Peticus II||C. Licinius Stolo|
|360||M. Fabius Ambustus||C. Poetelius Libo Visolus|
|359||M. Popillius Laenas||Cn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus|
|358||C. Fabius Ambustus||C. Plautius Proculus|
|357||C. Marcius Rutilus||Cn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus II|
|356||M. Fabius Ambustus II||M. Popillius Laenas II|
|355||C. Sulpicius Peticus III||M. Valerius Poplicola|
|354||M. Fabius Ambustus III||T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus|
|353||C. Sulpicius Peticus IV||M. Valerius Poplicola II|
|352||P. Valerius Poplicola||C. Marcius Rutilus II|
|351||C. Sulpicius Peticus V||T. Quinctius Pennus Capitolinus Crispinus II|
|350||M. Popillius Laenas III||L. Cornelius Scipio|
|349||L. Furius Camillus||Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis|
|348||M. Valerius (Maximus) Corvus||M. Popillius Laenas IV|
|347||T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus||C. Plautius Venno (or Venox)|
|346||M. Valerius (Maximus) Corvus II||C. Poetelius Libo Visolus II|
|345||M. Fabius Dorsuo||Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Rufus|
|344||C. Marcius Rutilus III||T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus II|
|343||A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina||M. Valerius (Maximus) Corvus III|
|342||C. Marcius Rutilus IV||Q. Servilius Ahala III|
|341||C. Plautius Venno (or Venox) II||L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas|
|340||T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus III||P. Decius Mus|
|339||Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus||Q. Publilius Philo|
|338||L. Furius Camillus||C. Maenius|
|337||C. Sulpicius Longus||P. Aelius Paetus|
|336||L. Papirius Crassus||K. Duillius|
|335||M. Valerius (Maximus) Corvus IV||M. Atilius Regulus Calenus|
|334||Sp. Postumius Albinus (Caudinus)||T. Veturius Calvinus|
|333||Dictator: P. Cornelius Rufinus|
|332||A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina II||Cn. Domitius Calvinus|
|331||M. Claudius Marcellus||C. Valerius Potitus|
|330||L. Papirius Crassus II||L. Plautius Venno (or Venox)|
|329||L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas II||C. Plautius Decianus|
|327||L. Cornelius Lentulus||Q. Publilius Philo II|
|326||C. Poetelius Libo Visolus III||L. Papirius Cursor|
|325||L. Furius Camillus II||D. Junius Brutus Scaeva|
|324||Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor|
|323||C. Sulpicius Longus II||Q. Aulius Cerretanus|
|322||Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus||L. Fulvius Curvus|
|321||T. Veturius Calvinus II||Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus II|
|320||Q. Publilius Philo III||L. Papirius Cursor II|
|319||L. Papirius Cursor III||Q. Aulius Cerretanus II|
|318||M. Folius Flaccinator||L. Plautius Venno (or Venox)|
|317||C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus||Q. Aemilius Barbula|
|316||Sp. Nautius Rutilus||M. Popillius Laenas|
|315||L. Papirius Cursor IV||Q. Publilius Philo IV|
|314||M. Poetelius Libo||C. Sulpicius Longus III|
|313||L. Papirius Cursor V||C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus II|
|312||M. Valerius Maximus (Corvinus)||P. Decius Mus|
|311||C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus III||Q. Aemilius Barbula II|
|310||Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus II||C. Marcius Rutilus Censorinus|
|309||Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor|
|308||Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus III||P. Decius Mus II|
|307||Ap. Claudius Caecus||L. Volumnius Flamma Violens|
|306||P. Cornelius Arvina||Q. Marcius Tremulus|
|305||L. Postumius Megellus||Ti. Minucius Augurinus|
|suff.||M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus|
|304||P. Sempronius Sophus||P. Sulpicius Saverrio|
|303||L. Genucius Aventinensis||Ser. Cornelius Lentulus|
|302||M. Livius Denter||M. Aemilius Paullus|
|301||Dictator: M. Valerius Maximus Corvus|
Third century BC (300–201)
Second century BC (200–101)
First century BC (100–1)
First century (1–100)
Second century (101–200)
|Year||Consul prior||Consul posterior|
|101||Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus IV (January)||Q. Articuleius Paetus II (January–March)|
|suff.||Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus (February–March)|
|suff.||C. Sertorius Brocchus Q. Servaeus Innocens (April–May)||M. Maecius Celer|
|suff.||[...]us Proculus (Sometime between May and October)||ignotus|
|suff.||L. Arruntius Stella (attested October)||L. Julius Marinus Caecilius Simplex|
|102||L. Julius Ursus Servianus II (January–April)||L. Licinius Sura II (January–February)|
|suff.||L. Fabius Justus (March–April)|
|suff.||T. Didius Secundus (May–August)||L. Publilius Celsus|
|suff.||L. Antonius Albus (September–December)||M. Junius Homullus|
|103||Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus V (January)||M'. Laberius Maximus II (January–March)|
|suff.||Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola II (January–March)|
|suff.||P. Metilius Nepos (April–June)||Q. Baebius Macer|
|suff.||[? M. Flavius Ap]er (July–September)||C. Trebonius Proculus Mettius Modestus|
|suff.||(A?)nnius Mela (October–December)||P. Calpurnius Macer Caulius Rufus|
|104||Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus II||M. Asinius Marcellus|
|105||Ti. Julius Candidus Marius Celsus II (January–March)||C. Antius A. Julius Quadratus II|
|suff.||C. Julius Quadratus Bassus (May–August)||Cn. Afranius Dexter (May–15 July)|
|suff.||Q. Caelius Honoratus (July–August)|
|suff.||M. Vitorius Marcellus (September–December)||C. Caecilius Strabo|
|106||L. Ceionius Commodus||Sex. Vettulenus Civica Cerialis|
|suff.||L. Minicius Natalis||Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus Quadronius Proculus|
|107||L. Licinius Sura III (January–February or April)||Q. Sosius Senecio II|
|suff.||Acilius Rufus (March–April)|
|suff.||C. Minicius Fundanus (May–August)||C. Vettennius Severus|
|suff.||C. Julius Longinus (September–December)||C. Valerius Paullinus|
|108||Ap. Annius Trebonius Gallus (January–?)||M. Appius Bradua|
|suff.||P. Aelius Hadrianus (attested 22 June)||M. Trebatius Priscus|
|suff.||Q. Pompeius Falco (attested 27 July)||M. Titius Lustricus Bruttianus|
|109||A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus II (January–February)||P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso (January–April)|
|suff.||L. Annius Largus (March–April)|
|suff.||Cn. Antonius Fuscus (May–August)||C. Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus|
|suff.||C. Aburnius Valens (September–December)||C. Julius Proculus|
|110||M. Peducaeus Priscinus (January–March)||Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus|
|suff.||C. Avidius Nigrinus (April–June)||Ti. Julius Aquila Polemaeanus|
|suff.||L. Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus (July–September)||C. Erucianus Silo|
|suff.||A. Larcius Priscus (October–December)||Sex. Marcius Honoratus|
|111||C. Calpurnius Piso (January–April)||M. Vettius Bolanus|
|suff.||T. Avidius Quietus (May–August)||L. Eggius Marullus|
|suff.||L. Octavius Crassus (September–December)||P. Coelius Apollinaris|
|112||Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus VI (January)||T. Sextius Cornelius Africanus (January–March)|
|suff.||[M. ?] Licinius Ruso (January–March)|
|suff.||Cn. Pinarius Cornelius Severus (April–June)||L. Mummius Niger Q. Valerius Vegetus|
|suff.||P. Stertinius Quartus (July–September)||T. Julius Maximus Manlianus Brocchus Servilianus|
|suff.||C. Claudius Severus (October–December)||T. Settidius Firmus|
|113||L. Publilius Celsus II (January)||C. Clodius Crispinus (January–April)|
|suff.||Ser. Cornelius Dolabella Metilianus Pompeius Marcellus (February–April)|
|suff.||L. Stertinius Noricus (May–August)||L. Fadius Rufinus|
|suff.||Cn. Cornelius Urbicus (September–December)||T. Sempronius Rufus|
|114||Q. Ninnius Hasta (January–April)||P. Manilius Vopiscus Vicinillianus|
|suff.||C. Clodius Nummus (May–August)||L. Caesennius Sospes|
|suff.||L. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus (September–December)||M. Messius Rusticus|
|115||L. Vipstanus Messalla (January–April)||M. Pedo Vergilianus (January)|
|suff.||T. Statilius Maximus Severus Hadrianus (February–April)|
|suff.||L. Julius Frugi (May–August)||P. Juventius Celsus T. Aufidius Hoenius Severianus|
|suff.||M. Pompeius Macrinus Neos Theophanes (September–December)||T. Vibius Varus|
|116||L. Fundanius Lamia Aelianus (January–March)||Sex. Carminius Vetus|
|suff.||Ti. Julius Secundus (April–June)||M. Egnatius Marcellinus|
|suff.||D. Terentius Gentianus (July–September)||L. Co[...]|
|suff.||L. Statius Aquila (October–December)||C. Julius Alexander Berenicianus|
|117||Q. Aquilius Niger (January–? March)||M. Rebilus Apronianus|
|suff.||L. Cossonius Gallus (attested 16 August)||P. Afranius Flavianus|
|suff.||ignotus (attested 8 September)||Cn. Minicius Faustinus|
|118||Imp. Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus Augustus II (January–June)||Cn. Pedanius Fuscus Salinator (January–February)|
|suff.||Bellicius Tebanianus (March)|
|suff.||C. Ummidius Quadratus (attested May)|
|suff.||L. Pomponius Bassus (attested 9 July and 31 August)||T. Sabinius Barbarus|
|119||Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus III (January–April)||P. Dasumius Rusticus (January–February)|
|suff.||A. Platorius Nepos (March–April)|
|suff.||M. Paccius Silvanus Q. Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (May–June)||Q. Vibius Gallus|
|suff.||C. Herennius Capella (November–December)||L. Coelius Rufus|
|120||L. Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus II||T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus|
|suff.||C. Quinctius Certus Poblicius Marcellus (May–June)||T. Rutilius Propinquus|
|suff.||C. Arminius Gallus (attested 19 October)||C. Atilius Serranus|
|121||M. Annius Verus II (January–February)||Cn. Arrius Augur|
|suff.||M. Herennius Faustus (March–April)||Q. Pomponius Marcellus|
|suff.||T. Pomponius Antistianus Funisulanus Vettonianus (May–June)||L. Pomponius Silvanus|
|suff.||M. Statorius Secundus (July–August)||L. Sempronius Merula Auspicatus|
|122||M'. Acilius Aviola||L. Corellius Neratius Pansa|
|suff.||Ti. Julius Candidus Capito (attested 17 July)||L. Vitrasius Flamininus|
|suff.||C. Trebius Maximus (attested 18 November)||T. Calestrius Tiro Orbius Speratus|
|123||Q. Articuleius Paetinus||L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus|
|suff.||T. Prifernius Geminus (attested 16 June)||P. Metilius Secundus|
|suff.||T. Salvius Rufinus Minicius Opimianus (attested 10 August)||Cn. Sentius Aburnianus|
|124||M'. Acilius Glabrio (January–April)||C. Bellicius Flaccus Torquatus Tebanianus|
|suff.||A. Larcius Macedo (May–August)||P. Ducenius Verres|
|suff.||C. Julius Gallus (September–December)||C. Valerius Severus|
|125||M. Lollius Paulinus D. Valerius Asiaticus Saturninus II||L. Titius Epidius Aquilinus|
|suff.||Q. Vetina Verus (attested 1 June)||P. Lucius Cosconianus|
|126||M. Annius Verus III (January–February)||C. Eggius Ambibulus|
|suff.||L. Valerius Propinquus (From 1 March)|
|suff.||L. Cuspius Camerinus (attested 1 July)||C. Saenius Severus|
|127||T. Atilius Rufus Titianus (January–March)||M. Gavius Squilla Gallicanus|
|suff.||P. Tullius Varro (April)||[D.?] Junius Paetus|
|suff.||Q. Tineius Rufus (May–September)||M. Licinius Celer Nepos|
|suff.||L. Aemilius Juncus (October–December)||Sex. Julius Severus|
|128||L. Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas II (January)||M. Annius Libo (January–March)|
|suff.||L. Caesennius Antoninus (February–March)|
|suff.||M. Junius Mettius Rufus (April–June)||Q. Pomponius Maternus|
|suff.||L. Valerius Flaccus (July–September)||M. [Junius Homullus ?]|
|suff.||A. Egrilius Plarianus (October–December)||Q. [Planius Sardus Varius Ambibulus ?]|
|129||P. Juventius Celsus T. Aufidius Hoenius Severianus II (January – after 22 March)||L. Neratius Marcellus II (January–? February)|
|suff.||Q. Julius Balbus (attested 22 March)|
|130||Q. Fabius Catullinus (January–February)||M. Flavius Aper|
|suff.||Cassius Agrippa (or Agrippinus) (attested 19 March)||Ti. Claudius Quartinus|
|131||Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus (January–April)||M. Antonius Rufinus|
|suff.||L. Fabius Gallus (May–August)||Q. Fabius Julianus|
|132||C. Junius Serius Augurinus (January–April)||C. Trebius Sergianus|
|suff.||C. Acilius Priscus (September–December)||A. Cassius Arrianus|
|133||M. Antonius Hiberus (January–April)||P. Mummius Sisenna|
|suff.||Q. Flavius Tertullus (May–August)||Q. Junius Rusticus|
|suff.||Ti. Claudius Atticus Herodes (September–December)||P. Sufenas Verus|
|134||L. Julius Ursus Servianus III (January–March)||T. Vibius Varus (January–April)|
|suff.||T. Haterius Nepos (attested 2 April)|
|suff.||P. Licinius Pansa (attested September–December)||L. Attius Macro|
|135||L. Tutilius Lupercus Pontianus (January–April)||P. Calpurnius Atilianus (Atticus Rufus?)|
|suff.||M. Cutius Priscus Messius Rusticus Aemilius Papus
Arrius Proculus Julius Celsus (May–August)
|L. Burbuleius Optatus Ligarianus|
|suff.||P. Rutilius Fabianus (September–December)||Cn. Papirius Aelianus Aemilius Tuscillus|
|136||L. Ceionius Commodus I||Sex. Vettulenus Civica Pompeianus|
|137||L. Aelius Caesar II||P. Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius|
|138||Kanus Junius Niger (January–March)||C. Pomponius Camerinus|
|suff.||M. Vindius Verus (April–June)||P. Pactumeius Clemens (in absentia)|
|suff.||P. Cassius Secundus (October–December)||Marcus Nonius Mucianus|
|139||Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius II (January–April)||C. Bruttius Praesens L. Fulvius Rusticus II|
|suff.||L. Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus (July–August)||L. Claudius Proculus|
|suff.||ignotus (September–October)||C. Julius Scapula|
|suff.||M. Ceccius Justinus (November–December)||C. Julius Bassus|
|140||Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius III (January)||M. Aurelius Caesar (January–April)|
|suff.||Q. Antonius Isauricus (May)||L. Aurelius Flaccus|
|suff.||Julius Crassipes (between June and October)||ignotus|
|suff.||M. Barbius Aemilianus (November–December)||T. Flavius Julianus|
|141||T. Hoenius Severus (January–February)||M. Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus|
|suff.||C. Julius Pisibanus (May–June)||(Larcius?) Lepidus|
|suff.||T. Caesernius Statianus (September–October)||ignotus|
|suff.||L. Annius Fabianus (November–December)||ignotus|
|142||L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus (January–March)||L. Statius Quadratus|
|suff.||L. Granius Castus (April–June)||Ti. Junius Julianus|
|suff.||M. Cornelius Fronto (July–August)||C. Laberius Priscus|
|suff.||L. Tusidius Campester (September–October)||Q. Cornelius Senecio Annianus|
|suff.||[? Sulpicius] Julianus (November–December)||T. Julius Castus|
|143||C. Bellicius Flaccus Torquatus (January–March)||L. Vibullius Hipparchus Ti. Claudius Atticus Herodes|
|suff.||Q. Junius Calamus (attested 7 August)||M. Valerius Junianus|
|144||L. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus (January–February)||T. Statilius Maximus|
|suff.||L. Aemilius Carus (attested 19 March)||Q. Egrilius Plarianus|
|suff.||ignotus (attested 7 September)||Q. Laberius Licinianus|
|suff.||L. Marcius Celer M. Calpurnius Longus (attested 18 December)||D. Velius Fidus|
|145||Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius IV (January–February)||M. Aurelius Caesar II|
|suff.||L. Plautius Lamia Silvanus (March–April)||L. Poblicola Priscus|
|suff.||Cn. Arrius Cornelius Proculus (May–June)||D. Junius (Paetus?)|
|suff.||Q. Mustius Priscus (July–August)||M. Pontius Laelianus|
|suff.||L. Petronius Sabinus (September–October)||C. Vicrius Rufus|
|suff.||C. Fadius Rufus (November–December)||P. Vicrius|
|146||Sex. Erucius Clarus II (January–February)||Cn. Claudius Severus Arabianus (January–April)|
|suff.||Q. Licinius Modestinus (Sex.?) Attius Labeo (March–April)|
|suff.||P. Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus (May–June)||T. Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Nonius Agricola C. Labeo Tetius Geminus|
|suff.||Cn. Terentius Homullus Iunior (July–August)||L. Aurelius Gallus|
|suff.||Q. Voconius Saxa Fidus (September–October)||C. Annianus Verus|
|suff.||L. Aemilius Longus (November–December)||Q. Cornelius Proculus|
|147||C. Ulpius Pacatus Prastina Messalinus (January–March)||L. Annius Largus|
|suff.||A. Claudius Charax (April–June)||Q. Fuficius Cornutus|
|suff.||Cupressenus Gallus (July–September)||Q. Cornelius Quadratus|
|suff.||Sex. Cocceius Severianus Honorinus (October–December)||Ti. Licinius Cassius Cassianus (October–?)|
|suff.||C. Popilius Carus Pedo (to December)|
|148||L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius Julianus Aemilianus (January–March)||C. Bellicius Calpurnius Torquatus|
|suff.||Satyrius Firmus (April–June)||C. Salvius Capito|
|suff.||L. Coelius Festus (July–September)||P. Orfidius Senecio|
|suff.||C. Fabius Agrippinus (October–December)||M. Antonius Zeno|
|149||L. Sergius Salvidienus Scipio Orfitus (January–? February)||Q. Pompeius Sosius Priscus|
|suff.||Q. Passienus Licinus (attested 5 July)||C. Julius Avitus|
|150||M. Gavius Squilla Gallicanus (attested 18 February)||Sex. Carminius Vetus|
|suff.||--]mus (attested 27 May)||C. La[berius Priscus]|
|suff.||M. Cassius Apollinaris (attested 1 August)||M. Petronius Mamertinus|
|suff.||C. Curtius Justus (October–December)||C. Julius Julianus|
|151||Sex. Quintilius Condianus (January–March)||Sex. Quintilius Valerius Maximus|
|suff.||M. Cominius Secundus (attested 24 September)||L. Attidius Cornelianus|
|152||M'. Acilius Glabrio Cn. Cornelius Severus (January–March)||M. Valerius Homullus|
|suff.||P. Sufenas [? Verus] (April–June)||L. Dasumius Tullius Tuscus|
|suff.||C. Novius Priscus (July–September)||L. Julius Romulus|
|suff.||P. Cluvius Maximus Paulinus (October–December)||M. Servilius Silanus|
|153||L. Fulvius Rusticus C. Bruttius Praesens I (January–March)||A. Junius Rufinus|
|suff.||Sex. Caecilius Maximus (April–June)||M. Pontius Sabinus|
|suff.||P. Septimius Aper (July–September)||M. Sedatius Severianus Julius Acer Metilius|
Nepos Rufinus Ti. Rutilianus Censor
|suff.||C. Cattius Marcellus (October–December)||Q. Petiedius Gallus|
|154||L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus I (January–March)||T. Sextius Lateranus|
|suff.||[Prifernius ?] Paetus (April–June)||M. Nonius Macrinus|
|suff.||M. Valerius Etruscus (?) (July–August)||L. [Aemilius Iuncus ?]|
|suff.||Ti. Claudius Julianus (September–October)||Sex. Calpurnius Agricola|
|suff.||C. Julius Statius Severus (November–December)||T. Junius Severus|
|155||C. Julius Severus (January–March)||M. Junius Rufinus Sabinianus|
|suff.||C. Aufidius Victorinus (April–June)||M. Gavius ...|
|suff.||Antius Pollio (attested 3 November)||Minicius Opimianus|
|suff.||[? D. Rupilius] Severus (attested 11 December)||L. Julius T. Statilius Severus|
|156||M. Ceionius Silvanus (January–February)||C. Serius Augurinus|
|suff.||A. Avillius Urinatius Quadratus (attested 7–14 March)||Strabo Aemilianus|
|suff.||Q. Canusius Praenestinus (attested 13 December)||C. Lusius Sparsus|
|157||M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus (January–March)||M. Metilius Aquillius Regulus Nepos Volusius Torquatus Fronto|
|suff.||L. Roscius Aelianus (April-? June)||Cn. Papirius Aelianus|
|suff.||C. Julius Commodus Orfitianus (attested 28 September)||C. Caelius Secundus|
|suff.||Q. Vilius Proculus (attested 6 December)||Q. [...]binus|
|158||Sex. Sulpicius Tertullus (January–March ?)||Q. Tineius Sacerdos Clemens|
|suff.||M. Servilius Fabianus Maximus (attested 8 July)||Q. Iallius Bassus|
|suff.||Q. Pomponius Musa (attested 27 December)||L. Cassius Juvenalis|
|159||Plautius Quintillus (January–March)||M. Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus|
|suff.||M. Pisibanius Lepidus (April–June)||L. Matuccius Fuscinus|
|suff.||P. Cornelius Dexter (July–September)||ignotus|
|suff.||A. Curtius Crispinus (October–December)||ignotus|
|160||Ap. Annius Atilius Bradua (January–February)||T. Clodius Vibius Varus|
|suff.||A. Platorius Nepos Calpurnianus (March–April)||M. Postumius Festus|
|suff.||[? C. Septimius] Severus (May–June)||[...] Flavus|
|suff.||C. Prastina Pacatus (July–September)||M. Censorius Paulus|
|suff.||Ti. Oclatius Severus (October–December)||[Q.?] Ninnius Hastianus (October-?)|
|suff.||[... N]ovius Sabinianus (attested 18 December)|
|161||M. Aurelius Caesar III (1–13 January or 31 January)||L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus II|
|suff.||M. Annius Libo (13 or 31 January–? March)||Q. Camurius Numisius Junior|
|suff.||[? Julius] Geminus Capellianus (attested 26 October)||T. Flavius Boethus|
|162||Q. Junius Rusticus II||L. Titius Plautius Aquilinus|
|suff.||Ti. Claudius Paullinus (attested 23 August)||Ti. Claudius Pompeianus|
|suff.||D. Fonteius Frontinianus L. Stertinius Rufus||ignotus|
|suff.||M. Insteius Bithynicus||ignotus|
|163||M. Pontius Laelianus||A. Junius Pastor L. Caesennius Sospes|
|164||M. Pompeius Macrinus||P. Juventius Celsus|
|suff.||Ti. Haterius Saturninus (attested 19 and 21 July)||Q. Caecilius Avitus|
|165||M. Gavius Orfitus||L. Arrius Pudens|
|166||Q. Servilius Pudens||L. Fufidius Pollio|
|suff.||M. Vibius Liberalis (attested 23 March)||P. Martius Verus|
|167||Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus III||M. Ummidius Quadratus|
|suff.||Q. Caecilius Dentilianus (attested 5 May)||M. Antonius Pallas|
|168||L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus II||L. Sergius Paullus II|
|suff.||Q. Tullius Maximus||ignotus|
|169||Q. Pompeius Senecio Sosius Priscus||P. Coelius Apollinaris|
|170||C. Erucius Clarus||M. Gavius Cornelius Cethegus|
|suff.||T. Hoenius Severus||ignotus|
|171||T. Statilius Severus||L. Alfidius Herennianus|
|172||Ser. Calpurnius Scipio Orfitus||Sex. Quintilius Maximus|
|suff.||C. Modius Justus||ignotus|
|173||Cn. Claudius Severus II||Ti. Claudius Pompeianus II|
|174||L. Aurelius Gallus||Q. Volusius Flaccus Cornelianus|
|suff.||M. Aemilius Macer Saturninus||ignotus|
|175||L. Calpurnius Piso||P. Salvius Julianus|
|suff.||P. Helvius Pertinax||M. Didius Severus Julianus|
|176||T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio II||M. Flavius Aper II|
|177||L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Caesar||M. Peducaeus Plautius Quintillus|
|178||Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus||D. Velius Rufus (Julianus?)|
|179||Imp. Caesar L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus II||P. Martius Verus II|
|suff.||T. Flavius Claudianus (attested 21 March)||L. Aemilius Iuncus|
|suff.||M'. Acilius Faustinus (attested 1 April)||L. Julius Proculianus|
|180||L. Fulvius Rusticus C. Bruttius Praesens II||Sex. Quintilius Condianus|
|181||Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Commodus Augustus III||L. Antistius Burrus|
|182||M. Petronius Sura Mamertinus||Q. Tineius Rufus|
|suff.||(?) Aurelianus (attested 15 May)||(L. Attidius?) Cornelianus|
|183||Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus IV||C. Aufidius Victorinus II|
|suff.||L. Tutilius Pontianus Gentianus (attested 8 February)||ignotus|
|suff.||M. Herennius Secundus (attested 13 and 20 May)||M. Egnatius Postumus|
|suff.||T. Pactumeius Magnus (after 20 May)||L. Septimius Flaccus|
|184||L. Cossonius Eggius Marullus||Cn. Papirius Aelianus|
|suff.||C. Octavius Vindex (attested 18 May)||Cassius Apronianus|
|185||Triarius Maternus Lascivius||Ti. Claudius M. Ap. Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus|
|186||Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus V||M'. Acilius Glabrio II|
|suff.||L. Novius Rufus (attested 25 May)||L. Annius Ravus|
|suff.||C. Sabucius Maior Caecilianus (attested 24 and 27 November)||Valerius Senecio|
|187||L. Bruttius Quintius Crispinus||L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus|
|188||P. Seius Fuscianus II||M. Servilius Silanus II|
|189||Dulius Silanus||Q. Servilius Silanus|
|suff.||Severus (attested 27 May)||Vitellius|
|190||Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus VI||M. Petronius Sura Septimianus|
|suff.||L. Septimius Severus (May–?)||Apuleius Rufinus|
|191||Popilius Pedo Apronianus||M. Valerius Bradua Mauricus|
|192||Imp. Caesar L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus VII||P. Helvius Pertinax II|
|193||Q. Pompeius Sosius Falco||C. Julius Erucius Clarus Vibianus|
|suff.||Q. Tineius Sacerdos (March)||P. Julius Scapula Priscus|
|suff.||M. Silius Messala (May)||ignotus|
|suff.||L. Julius Messala Rutilianus (July)||C. Aemilius Severus Cantabrinus|
|suff.||L. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus|
|194||Imp. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus II||D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Caesar II|
|suff.||C. Gabinius Barbarus Pompeianus||ignotus|
|195||P. Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus||Q. Tineius Clemens|
|196||C. Domitius Dexter II||L. Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus|
|197||T. Sextius Magius Lateranus||Cuspius Rufinus|
|198||P. Martius Sergius Saturninus||L. Aurelius Gallus|
|suff.||Q. Anicius Faustus||ignotus|
|199||P. Cornelius Anullinus II||M. Aufidius Fronto|
|200||Ti. Claudius Severus Proculus||C. Aufidius Victorinus|
Third century (201–300)
Fourth century (301–395)
Roman Consuls of East and West (396–534)
In 395, the Roman Empire was divided into a Western Roman Empire and an Eastern Roman Empire, and thereafter the separate courts each appointed one consul. Western Consuls continued to be appointed after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476.
Roman Consuls of the East alone (535–887)
During the reign of Justinian I (527–565), the position of consul altered in two significant ways. From 535, there was no longer a Roman consul chosen in the West. In 541, the separate office of Roman consul was abolished. When used thereafter, the office was with few exceptions used as part of the imperial title. The office was finally abolished as part of the Basilika reforms of Leo VI the Wise in 887.
- "Consules", in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.
- "Consul" in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. I, pp. xi, xii.
- "Dictator" in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. I, pp. xi, xii, 141, 148, 149, 163, 171.
- Livy, History of Rome, iii. 32 ff.
- "Decemviri" in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.
- "Tribunus" in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.
- Livy, History of Rome, vi. 42, vii. 1.
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. I, pp. 108–114.
- Anthony Grafton and Noel Swerdlow, "Technical Chronology and Astrological History in Varro, Censorinus, and Others", Classical Quarterly, N.S. 35 (1985), p. 454-65
- Lendering, Jona (2008). "Varronian Chronology". Livius.Org.
- Tacitus, Historiae, 3.37
- The evidence for this is collected in Lily Ross Taylor and T. Robert S. Broughton, "The Order of the Two Consuls' Names in the Yearly Lists", Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 19 (1949), pp. 3-14
- Taylor, Lily Ross (1951). "New Indications of Augustan Editing in the Capitoline Fasti". Classical Philology. 46 (2): 73–80. doi:10.1086/363374. JSTOR 265964. S2CID 162251023. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Roger S. Bagnall, et alia, Consuls of the later Roman Empire, Philological Monographs #36 (Atlanta: American Philological Association, 1987), pp. 13-18
- The fasti for the Gallic consuls under Postumus are incomplete, with the names of some ordinary consuls known, but not the year they served — see Martindale et al., Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (1971), p. 1041.
- Both Livy (ii.8.5) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (iv.1.2, iv.12.3, iv.19.2) assign 5 consuls to the first year of the Republic; however Polybius (iii.22.1), a historian considered very reliable and having access to an older tradition, names only Brutus and Horatius as consuls for this year. Various theories have been offered to explain this contradiction. For example, Gary Forsythe argues that Polybius accurately reports the names of the first pair of consuls, while Livy and Dionysius follow "the later annalistic tradition". (Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (Berkley: University of California, 2005), p. 153)
- These consuls are omitted by Livy, likely due to confusion with the consuls of 506 BC
- So Dionysius of Halicarnassus (v.36.1) and others. Livy (ii.15.1), however, names another pair: P. Lucretius and P. Valerius Poplicola. Alan Samuel explains this difference as Lucretius being an error for Larcius, due to confusion with Poplicola's colleague in 508 and 504 BC. (Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), p. 256)
- This pair of consuls as well as those of 489 BC are omitted by Livy.
- The order of these consuls was reversed in the Fasti Capitolini after Augustus and other patricians falsified the list in order to enhance the prestige of their ancestors (by placing them as consuls prior). Cf. Taylor, "Augustan Editing in the Capitoline Fasti", pp. 73–80.
- From 509 to 479 BC, the date magistrates entered office was probably 1 September. In 478, this seems to have become 1 August, and remained so until the Decemvirate was established in 451. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, pp. 404–405.
- So the Fasti Capitolini; both Livy and Dionysisus of Halicarnassus call him simply C. Servilius. Diodorus Siculus (XI.52.1) names C. Cornelius Lentulus as the colleague of Mamercus (Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 256)
- Both Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus omit all mention of this suffect consul.
- Aulus Gellius (17.21.13) names a different pair of consuls for this year: Menenius Agrippa and M. Horatius Pulvillus. B.W. Frier suggests his source may have been the Chronica of Cornelius Nepos, "who is cited three times in this passage". (Frier, "Licinius Macer and the Consules Suffecti of 444 B. C.", Transactions of the American Philological Association, 105 (1975), p. 84)
- So Dionysius of Halicarnassus (IX.37.2) and Fasti Capitolini, which Livy admits is an alternative to the man he names as Mamercus' colleague, Opet. Verginius (II.54.3). Diodorus Siculus (XI.65.1) names L. Studius Iullus as Mamercus' colleague. (Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 256)
- R. M. Ogilvie opens his article on the line containing the consuls for this year with the words "One of the outstanding puzzles of the Capitoline Fasti." ("The Consul of 458 B.C.", Hermes, 89 (1961), pp. 379-382) The Fasti Capitolini adds a suffect consul with the cognomen Carve[tus] or Carve[ntanus] for the suffect of this year; Livy (III.25.1) names only the consuls L. Minucius and C. Nautius for this year, as does Dionysius of Halicarnassus (X.22.1; XI.20.1); Diodorus Siculus XI.88.1 gives L. Minucius the cognomen Karoutianos; the late sources the Chronicle Pascal and the Fasti Hydratus both present the cognomen Atratinus. Based on these contradictory entries, Ogilvie notes that it "was the practice of the Annalists to collect together whatever material from whatever sources they could and to combine evidence from the tabulae pontificum, inscriptions, monuments and family tradition" and claims to have found here an example of such an interpolation.
- Diodorus Siculus (XII.3.1) instead lists the consuls for this year as L. Quinctius Cincinnatus and M. Fabius Vibulanus
- Livy mentions Claudius and Genucius as being elected consuls, but resigning to allow the Decemviri to take office (III.33); Diodorus Siculus mentions them only as Decemviri (XII.23.1).
- Two different praenomina have been reported for this person: Publius and Servius. If he was P. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, he would be identical with an officer who fought the Volscians in 446 BC under the consuls Quinctius and Furius; if he was Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, he would be identical with the consul of 461 BC; in either case, this Decemvir was one of three ambassadors sent to Greece to study their laws. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 46 n. 4, p. 51 and note)
- Three different praenomina have been reported for this person: Spurius, Lucius, and Titus. If he was T. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus, he would be identical with the consul of 462 BC; if he was C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus (in Old Roman cursive, "C", "S" and "L" are similar enough that it is not unreasonable to assume they could be confused), he would be identical with the consul of 455 BC. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 46 n. 3
- His praenomen is not preserved in Fasti Capitolini, but ancient authors disagree. Livy gives "Marcus" and later "Lucius", Diodorus Siculus gives "Gaius", and Dionysius of Halicarnassus gives "Marcus". (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 47 n. 3)
- The consuls probably assumed office on 13 December. This was the official date until 402. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
- Livy (IV.7.10) adds this pair of consuls, based on Macer's reading of the libri lintei; however they are not mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, and according to Cicero these two consuls became Rome's first pair of censors the following year. As a result modern authorities eliminate the consuls, the consular tribunes, or attempt to fit both into 444 BC. B.W. Frier argues that this textual issue "reflects an important historiographic conflict in the late Roman Republic." (Frier, "Licinius Macer", p. 79; this is the thesis of his article.)
- Livy (IV.12.6) records his praenomen as Lucius, while Diodorus Siculus (XII.36.1) gives it as Titus.
- Livy (IV.23.1–3) states Gaius Julius Iullus and Lucius Verginius Tricostus were re-elected consuls, based on the testimony of Licinius Macer, while admitting Valerius Antias and Aelius Tubero both report M. Manlius Capitolinus and Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus as consuls. Diodorus (XII.53.1) includes Manlius and Sulpicius with Ser. Cornelius Cossus as Consular Tribunes for the year. Broughton: "Of the three possibilities listed ... it seems least likely that the consuls of 435 continued in office this year. The second pair of Consuls are repeated in the other tradition which reported Military Tribunes with consular powers." (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 62 n. 1)
- Cicero (De Re Publica 2.60), when referring to the consul of this year, calls him P. Papirius while Diodorus Siculus (xii, 72.1) calls him C. Papirius
- Diodorus Siculus (XII.77.1) inserts the pair L. Quinctius Cincinnatus and A. Sempronius Atratinus between the consuls of 428 and 427 BC.
- So Diodorus Siculus (XII.82.1), whose reading is favored by Broughton; Livy names this consular tribune Naevius Rutilius, but in another passage (IV.35.6) states all four consular tribunes are Patricians, and in a third passage (IV.44.13) calls him Nautius Rutilus.
- So Broughton (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 69) following Degrassi, which is the praenomen Livy (IV.43.1) gives; the Fasti Capitolini has "N." which is a much more common praenomen for the gens Fabia than Gnaeus. This praenomen would also indicate he is identical to the consular tribune of 415 and 407 BC, N. Fabius Vibulanus.
- Livy (IV.44.1) calls him L. Quinctius Cincinnatus III; the Fasti Capitolini reads [...] Cincinnatus II which would indicate he was T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus II
- So Diodorus Siculus (XIII.7.1); Livy has here Sp. Rutilius Crassus Cicurinus, but none of the Rutilii appear in the Fasti for the next 250 years, and neither do they use the praenomen Spurius or the cognomen Crassus. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 73 n.1)
- So Livy (IV.52.4), following Licinius Macer who attributed this reading to the libri lintei; Fasti derived from the Fasti Capitolini show it was Marcus Papirius Mugillanus. Ogilvie notes that "is the only instance of a Papirius being attributed the cognomen Atratinus which is common among, if not confined to, the Sempronii", and on this basis argues that "the original list of 411 will have been a college of three consular tribunes, Papirius, Sempronius and Nautius". (Ogilvie, "Consul of 458 BC", pp. 380f)
- Livy (IV.61.4) instead has Gaius Fabius Ambustus, and treats him as a different person than the Consular Tribune of 401, 395 and 390 BC.
- Livy adds to this college the two Censors M. Furius Camillus and M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1 p. 82 n. 1)
- Entered office on 1 October. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
- The Fasti Capitolini is damaged where the cognomen would appear; Broughton suggests three identifications: P. Cornelius Scipio (consular tribune 395 BC), P. Cornelius Cossus (consular tribune 395 BC) or P. Cornelius Maluginensis (consular tribune 397 BC). (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 90 n. 1)
- Livy (5.29.2) omits all reference to Valerius and Cornelius, presenting L. Lucretius Tricipinus Flavus and Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus as the consules ordinaires for the year.
- Entered office on 1 July. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
- Livy (5.32.1) calls him M. Aemilius Mamercinus, indicating he is a different person than the four-time consular tribune of 389 BC forward.
- Diodorus Siculus (XV.24.1) states that there were six consular tribunes this year, but Livy only lists five; Attilio Degrassi suggests either L. Cornelius or A. Manlius for the sixth member of this college; Broughton, based on the evidence of the Fasti Capitolini, suggests A. Manlius Capitolinus. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 100 n. 1)
- These are the nine consular tribunes the Fasti Capitolini lists for this year. Livy names only six (omitting C. Sulpicius Peticus, L. Aemilius Mamercinus, and Ti. Papirius Crassus), and Diodorus Siculus eight (omitting L. Papirius Mugillanus). Broughton notes, "Clearly Fast. Cap. has the most seriously interpolated tradition." (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1 p. 106 n. 1)
- These two consular tribunes are only known from Diodorus Siculus (XV.51.1). Broughton suggests "Erenucius" may be a corruption of "Genucius" or "Minucius". (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 106 n. 1)
- These two consular tribunes are only known from Livy (6.31.1)
- Modern scholarly consensus is that the fasti for the fourth century was discovered to be missing several sets of eponymous magistrates, and explained this gap by stating elections were blocked by these two tribunes. See the discussions of T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (London: Routeledge, 1995), pp. 399-402; and Forsythe, Critical History of Early Rome, pp. 368-70
- The Fasti Capitolini states C. Licinius Calvus was consul in 364 BC and C. Lincinius Stolo in 361 BC; however Livy reverses these two.
- Livy (7.18.10) notes that "in some annals" M. Popillius Laenas appears instead of Quinctius.
- Diodorus Siculus (XVI.59.1) reports instead the consuls for this year were M. Aemilius and T. Quinctius. Identification of this consular, although doubtful, could be that of Appius Claudius Crassus Inregillensis (consular tribune 403 BC)
- The years 333, 324, 309 and 301 BC come from the Fasti Capitolini, but are not evidenced in other authorities, such as Livy, Diodorus Siculus, or Cicero. A. Drummond has persuasively argued that they are the introduction of the antiquarian Titus Pomponius Atticus (whose work is better known as the Varronian Chronology, which was adopted by the Fasti Capitolini) both to fix the synchronization of the Battle of Allia to 390 BC, and to provide precedent for Julius Caesar's use of annual dictatorships. "The Dictator Years", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 27 (1978), pp. 550-572
- Broughton admits that the primary sources -- Livy, Diodorus Siculus, and the lists derived from the Fasti Capitolini -- "admit of four different identifications for Plautius and two for Cornelius". Plautius may be C. Plautius Proculus (cos. 358 BC); P. Plautius Proculus, an otherwise unattested son of the consul; C. Plautius Decianus (cos. 329 BC); or C. Plautius Venno/Vennox, a brother of the consul of 330 BC. Likewise, P. Cornelius could be P. Cornelius Scapula or P. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 145 n. 1)
- Livy (8.37.2-3) would prefer Aemilius to Aulius, but notes this form is found in some annals, and describes Aulius as consul iterum in 319 BC.
- Livy (9.15.11) notes one source instead names as consul L. Papirius Mugillanus.
- So Broughton; Munzer (De Gente Valeria 50, no. 50 and 38, n. 8) identifies this M. Valerius Maximus with M. Valerius Maximus Corvinus, consul in 312 and 289 BC. For the period 289–285 BC the only authorities for this list are late sources such as the "Chronography of 354", Fasti Hydratus and the Pascal Chronicle, which are often corrupt. (Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 186 n. 1)
- Entered office on 15 March. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
- For some reason Laevinus and Scaevola never entered office, and in their place Catulus and Philo served as consuls. (Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. 1, p. 235)
- Killed before taking office. Cf. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 253, 257 (note 1).
- Election declared invalid. Cf. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 254, 257 (note 3).
- Entered office on 1 January. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 100 BC through 81 BC are taken from Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. Philological Monograph No. 15. New York: American Philological Association, 1951
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 80 BC through 1 BC are taken from Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), pp. 455-458
- Metellus died early in 68 BC; Vatia was elected to replace him, but Vatia died before he could enter office and Marcius continued as sole consul. (Dio 36.4.1; Broughton, Magistrates vol. II p. 137)
- P. Cornelius Sulla and P. Antonius Paetus were elected consuls, but both were convicted of bribery under the Calpurnian Law. L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus were their replacements
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from John Bodel, "Chronology and Succession 2: Notes on Some Consular Lists on Stone", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 105 (1995), p. 285
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Bodel, "Chronology and Succession", p. 280
- Umberto Soldovieri: Un inedito cinerario plumbeo e Q. MARCIUS RUFUS, cos. suff. 36 a.C. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE), 217 (2021), S. 235f.
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Bodel, "Chronology and Succession", p. 287
- Ernest Weinrib, The Spaniards in Rome (1990), pp. 180, 309–311
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Darryl A. Phillips, "The Conspiracy of Egnatius Rufus and the Election of Suffect Consuls under Augustus", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 46 (1997), pp. 106f
- Aulus Terentius Varro Murena was consul designate for 23 BC, but died before taking office – see Swan, Michael (1967). "The Consular Fasti of 23 B.C. and the Conspiracy of Varro Murena". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Harvard University Press. 71: 235–247. doi:10.2307/310766. JSTOR 310766.
- Augustus was apparently intended to be the other consul ordinarius, but never took office. Dates of succession for this year are taken from Phillips, "Conspiracy of Egnatius Rufus", p. 107
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Phillips, "Conspiracy of Egnatius Rufus", p. 107
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Phillips, "Conspiracy of Egnatius Rufus", pp. 107f
- Dates of succession for this year are taken from Bodel, "Chronology and Succession", p. 289
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from AD 1 through AD 12 are taken from Ronald Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), pp. 455–458
- The consuls of this year are taken from Diana Gorostidi Pi, "Sui consoli dell’anno 13 d.C.: Nuovi dati dai fasti consulares Tusculani", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 189 (2014), pg 265–275
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 14–36 are taken from Alison E. Cooley, The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy (Cambridge: University Press, 2012), pp.458-460
- Cooley indicates no suffect consuls for this year
- Tacitus, Ann., IV, 28.
- Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgardiae 1999, T. 12/2, c. 177
- The dates of the consuls in this year is taken from John Bodel, "Chronology and Succession 2: Notes on Some Consular Lists on Stone", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 105 (1995), p. 296
- First proposed by Hans-Georg Pflaum, and accepted by Ladislaus Vidman (Fasti Ostienses, 2nd edition, p. 68); Cooley offers as a possible alternative A. Didius Gallus although she also puts him in the last nundinium of 39.
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 37–40 are taken from Paul Gallivan, "The Fasti for the Reign of Gaius", Antichthon, 13 (1979), p. 66–69
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 41-54 are taken from Gallivan, "The Fasti for the Reign of Claudius", Classical Quarterly, 28 (1978), pp. 407–426
- M. Christol and S. Demougin have shown that the colleague of P. Suillius Rufus is not the governor of Britain, but another member of the gens Ostoria ("Notes de prosopographie équestre", in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 57 (1984), pp. 171-8).
- Gallivan's source (Gaius Institutes, 3.63) does not indicate which months Cornelius held office.
- In a re-examination of the primary source, Camodeca has shown that the consul "L. S[...]" is a phantom, and it has been removed from this list. ("I consoli del 43 e gli Antistii Veteres d'età claudia dalla riedizione delle Tabulae Herculanenses", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 140 (2002), pp. 227–236
- Camodeca concludes that the former reading, L. Oppius, is erroneous, and that the initial is certainly 'S', probably followed by 'p', but the name is definitely not Sex. This late occurrence of the praenomen indicates that the consul was probably descended from the praetor Spurius Oppius of 44 BC, and recalls the decemvir Spurius Oppius Cornicen. "I consoli del 43", pp. 230, 232, 233.
- Suffect consuls for July–December Gallivan placed in 44 Camodeca moved to 47 ("Novità sui fasti consolari delle tavolette cerate della Campania", Publications de l'École française de Rome, 143 (1991), p. 52)
- Giuseppe Camodeca, "I consoli del 43 e gli Antistii Veteres d'età claudia dalla riedizione delle Tabulae Herculanenses", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 140 (2002), pp. 234–236.
- See Camodeca, "Novità sui fasti consolari", p. 52
- Giuseppe Camodeca argues that Gallivan mistakenly followed an error by the writer of Tabula Pompeiana 41, and combined the two Vipstani into one person; other wax tablets dated to that year show the two suffect consuls as separate people. ("Novità sui fasti consolari", p. 53)
- Gallivan shows Aefulanus held his office in this year, but not which month.
- Names and dates for 55 and 56 taken from Giuseppe Camodeca, "I consoli des 55–56 e un nuovo collega di seneca nel consolato: P. Cornelius Dolabella (TP.75 [=1401 +135)*", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 63 (1986), pp. 201–215.
- Camodeca allocates January–April to Vetus, while Werner Eck, Historia, 24 (1975), pp. 338 ff. extends his tenure to June.
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 57-67 are taken from Gallivan, "Some Comments on the Fasti for the Reign of Nero", Classical Quarterly, 24 (1974), pp. 290–311
- George Houston points out that this consul had no attested cognomen, and "Celsus" was added based on a preliminary reading of a wax table from Pompeii, CIL IV.3340.151. "P. Marius P.f., Cos. Ord. A.D. 62", ZPE 16 (1975), pp. 33–35
- The nundinium Saturninus and Niger were consuls moved to this year based on Eck, "Miscellanea prosopographica", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 42 (1981), pp. 227f
- Giuseppe Camodeca reads C. Junius Marullus ("I consoli degli anni di Nerone nelle 'Tabulae Herculanenses'", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 193 (2015), p. 277)
- Gallivan, "Reign of Nero" followed Degrassi in assuming that the ordinary consul for this year was named "A. Licinius Nerva Silianus P. Pasidienus Firmus", a case of polyonymy. A military diploma published later (AE 1978, 658) shows they are two different people.
- Gallivan, "Reign of Nero", placed Appius Annius Gallus and Severus in 66 and Marcus Annius Afrinus and Africanus in 67; however Camodeca published one of the Tabulae Herculei that shows Appius Annius Gallus and Severus were suffect consuls 4 November of an unknown year -- thus proving their office was in 67. (AE 1993, 460 = Bolletino del Centro internazionale per lo studio dei papiri ercolanesi, 23 (1993), 109-119)
- Names and dates for this year are taken from Camodeca, "I consoli degli anni di Nerone", p. 281
- Names and dates for this year are taken from G. B. Townend, "The Consuls of A. D. 69/70", American Journal of Philology, 83 (1962), pp. 113–129
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 70–96 are taken from Paul Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70–96", Classical Quarterly, 31 (1981), pp. 186–220
- Gallivan dated M. Ulpius Traianus (father of Trajan) to 70 based on his arrangement of the fragments of tablet E of the Fasti Ostienses (p. 187); however, subsequent recovery of fragments allowed Ladislav Vidman to date Ulpius Traianus' tenure to 72 (Vidman, Fasti Ostienses, pp. 73-75). AE 1978, 60 proves that C. Licinius Mucianus was suffect consul for that nundinium; redating Ulpius Traianus is the only change required.
- The suffect consuls for September–October are attested in 80 by the Fasti Septempeda, a primary source.
- This pair of suffects added from Camodeca, "Novità sui fasti consolari", pp. 57–62
- Gallivan ("Fasti for A. D. 70–96", pp. 206, 219) dated this pair of suffects to 30 December "71-72"; because Camodeca added the consuls for November–December 71, they are placed here.
- All that survives of this suffect's name on the Fasti Feriarum Latinarum (CIL VI, 2242)
- AE 1968, 7 restores this as "Sex. Iulius Fr]on[tinus", stating he is attested as suffect consul in June.
- Grainger, John D. (2004). Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis of AD 96–99. London: Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 0203218078.
- See Syme, "P. Calvisius Ruso. One Person or Two?" Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 173-192
- Gallivan ("Fasti for A. D. 70–96", pp. 209, 219) dated this pair of suffects to "79–80"; this is the only open office in those two years, so he is placed here.
- Added from the Fasti Septempeda (AE 1998, 419)
- All that survives of this suffect's name on the Fasti Ostienses (frag. Fa)
- So Gallivan. Werner Eck suggests instead M. Mettius Modestus. "Epigraphische Untersuchungen zu Konsuln und Senatoren des 1.-3. Jh. n. Chr.", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 37 (1980), pp. 51-60
- CIL IX, 5420 dates Patruinus to this nundinium, and Werner Eck ("Epigraphische Untersuchungen zu Konsuln und Senatoren des 1.-3. Jh. n. Chr.", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 37 (1980), pp. 51-60) restores the deleted name as Saturninus'.
- For the suffect consuls Gallivan placed in July/August of this year see List of undated Roman consuls and note.
- This person is a puzzle. G.B. Townend stated he was the son of the suffect consul of 70 and 74, but that means the older Petillius either held the fasces late in life, or had his son very young. Gallivan suggests that this may actually be the third consulship of Petilius. (Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70–96", p. 212)
- Syme first proposed the identification of this consul with M. Raecius Gallus ("Pliny the Procurator", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 73 (1969), pp. 201–236 [p. 229]). However, he later concluded that Publius Glitius Gallus "is on every count a better candidate" than Raecius ("P. Calvisius Ruso. One Person or Two?", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 173-192 [p. 175]).
- Syme raised the possibility that L. Valerius Catullus Messallinus was the second consul ordinarius for this year Journal of Roman Studies, 43 (1953), p. 155), a suggestion shared by H. Nesselhauf (Gnomon 26 (1954), p. 270); however, Vidman has found an inscription which is dated a.d. X k. Februarias Imp. Domitiano XI, T. Aurelio Fulvo it(terum) co(n)sulibus, showing that Fulvus was the consul posterior for this year. (Fasti Ostienses, pp. 78f)
- This pair of suffects taken from Eck and Pangerl, "Neue Diplome mit den Namen von Konsuln und Statthaltern", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 187 (2013), pp. 274f
- Evidence is lacking to determine whether Campanus served until April, or an unknown person held the fasces in March and April.
- So AE 2012, 1959; Gallivan "Bellicus", following CIL VI, 2065
- Or M. Tuccius Cerialis, a consular mentioned by Pliny (Epistulae, II.11.9)
- Names and dates for this year are taken from Werner Eck, "Diplome, Konsuln und Statthalter: Fortschritte und Probleme der kaiserzeitlichen Prosopographie", Chiron, 34 (2004), pp. 35-44.
- AE 2008, 1753
- Unless otherwise noted, the consuls for this year are taken from Fausto Zevi "I consoli del 97 d. Cr. in due framenti gia' editi dei Fasti Ostienses", Listy filologické / Folia philologica, 96 (1973), pp. 125–137
- All that survives of the consul's name on the Fasti ostienses is "..]us", which Zevi had plausibly restored as Lucius Licinius Sura. However, two more recently recovered fragments of military diplomas show that the name of this consul is L. Pomponius Maternus, who is otherwise unknown. (Eck and Pangerl, "Zwei Konstitutionen für die Truppen Niedermösiens vom 9. September 97", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 151 (2005), pp. 185-192
- So Zevi; Cooley offers no colleague for Tacitus. Peter Weiss has argued, based on more recently recovered evidence, that Scapula could have been suffect consul in September–October 99, or even later. (Weiss, "Weitere Diplomfragmente von Moesia Inferior", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 124 (1999), pp. 287-289
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 98 - 100 are taken from Cooley, Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, pp. 466f
- This pair of suffects added from Vidman (Fasti Ostienses, p. 94), following Syme's suggestion (review of Degrassi, I Fasti Consolari dell' Impero Romano dal 30 Av anti Christo al 613 Dopo Christo in Journal of Roman Studies, 43 (1953), p. 154)
- Placed in this year by Mommsen.
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 101 through 115 are taken from Cooley, Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, pp. 467f
- Added from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfastern der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), p. 327 n.181
- Added from AE 2013, 650
- As proposed by Syme, "People in Pliny", Journal of Roman Studies, 58 (1968), pp. 139f
- It is uncertain which ordinary consul Acilius Rufus replaced.
- Fasti ostiensis reads ...] Rufu[s]; Attilo Degrassi and Vidman restore this name as "L. Acilius Rufus", while Ronald Syme restores it as "M. Acilius Rufus" (Syme, "Superior Suffect Consuls", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 58 (1985), pp. 239-242)
- This pair of consuls added from AE 2004, 1898
- Added from Evgeni I. Paunov and Margaret M. Roxan, "The Earliest Extant Diploma of Thrace, AD 114 (=RMD I 14)"[permanent dead link], Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 119 (1997), pp. 269–279.
- The praenomen Marcus is attested by an inscription dated 1 September. (AE 1998, 1727)
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 116 and 117 are taken from Werner Eck, "Konsuln des Jahres 117 in Militärdiplomen Traians mit Tribunicia Potestas XX", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 185 (2013), pp. 235–238
- All that survives of the name on the Fasti ostienses. Suggested restorations include Q. Cornelius Senecio Annainus (favored by Cooley) and Q. Coelius Honoratus. (Vidman Fasti Ostienses, 2nd edition, p. 114)
- The names and dates for this year are taken from Cooley, Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, p. 469
- The names and dates for this year are taken from Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl, "Neue Diplome mit den Namen von Konsuln und Statthaltern," Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 187 (2013), p. 282
- The names and dates for 120 and 121 are taken from Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl, "Ein Consul Suffectus Q. Aburnius in drei fragmentarischen Diplomen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 185 (2013), pp. 239–247
- W. Eck, A. Pangerl,"Neue Diplome aus der Zeit Hadrians für die beiden mösischen Provinzen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 207 (2018), pp. 219-224
- The names and dates for this year are taken from Eck and Pangerl, "Neue Diplome," pp. 287f
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 124 through 130 are taken from Cooley, Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, pp. 469f
- Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl had previously reconstructed the gentilicium of this otherwise unknown person as "Accena", but a more recently discovered military diploma proved this is his correct name. Eck and Pangerl, "Eine Konstitution für das Herr von Moesia Inferior vom 1. Juni 125 in fünf Diplomen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 188 (2014), pp. 245–249
- All that survives from the Fasti ostienses is the praenomen; Vidman suggests this restoration (Vidman, Fasti Ostienses, p. 118)
- All that survives from the Fasti ostienses is the praenomen; Cooley suggests this restoration.
- Unless otherwise noted, the names and dates for the consuls from 131 to 135 are taken from Werner Eck, Paul Holder and Andreas Pangerl, "A Diploma for the Army of Britain in 132 and Hadrian's Return to Rome from the East", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 174 (2010), p. 194. The structure of the nundinia presented for those years is also used here.
- Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 136 and 137 are taken from Cooley, Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, p. 471
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 138 to 161 are taken from Werner Eck, "Die Fasti consulares der Regungszeit des Antoninus Pius, eine Bestandsaufnahme seit Géza Alföldys Konsulat und Senatorenstand" in Studia epigraphica in memoriam Géza Alföldy, hg. W. Eck, B. Feher, and P. Kovács (Bonn, 2013), pp. 69–90
- Werner Eck and Peter Weiß have shown a fragment of a military diploma proves that the suffect consuls previously allocated to 165 are correctly placed in 142. "Tusidius Campester, cos. suff. unter Antoninus Pius, und die Fasti Ostienses der Jahrec141/142 n. Chr.", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 134 (2001), pp. 251-260
- So Eck ("Die Fasti consulares", p.75) and James H. Oliver ("The Solonian Constitution and a Consul of A.D. 149", Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 13 (1972), pp. 103-107) separately. Alföldy identifies this consul with Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, proconsul of Africa 163/164 (Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 153)
- AE 1947, 59, as restored by Alföldy; Eck accepts this restoration.
- Attested in a military diploma dated 19 November 150. Another source, dated 2 October, appears to indicate P. Julius Nauto instead, but Tomlin and Pearce note that his name is poorly inscribed and argue it was probably an incorrect transcription of Julianus's name. If Nauto and Julianus are different individuals, the former will have died by 19 November. Roger S. O. Tomlin, John Pearce, "A Roman Military Diploma for the German Fleet (19 November 150) Found in Northern Britain", ZPE 206 (2018), pp. 207–216.
- Thus Ronald Syme and Alföldy. Fasti ostiensis reads ...]imus; Attilo Degrassi reads "C. Julius Maximus". (Eck, "Die Fasti consulares", p. 76)
- Fasti ostiensis reads [...]cus; Eck restores the name as the legate of Legio III (Eck, "Die Fasti consulares", p. 77)
- All that survives from the Fasti ostienses is the praenomen; Eck accepts this restoration by Alföldy.
- Identified by Alföldy as M. Gavius Appalius Maximus. (Eck, "Die Fasti consulares", p. 77 n. 24)
- The son of the son of the suffect consul of 123. (Eck, "Die Fasti consulares", p. 77)
- Or Q. Virius Larcius Sulpicius, both suggested by Eck. The inscription these suggestions are based on, IGR III 667 reads Q. V[...]SV[...]clus. (Eck, "Die Fasti consulares", p. 79)
- Eck suggests that he may be identical to C. Septimus Severus, proconsul of Africa.
- All that survives of this suffect's name on the diploma CIL XVI, 130
- Ladislav Vidman, "Ein neuer Konsul des Jahres 160", Listy filologické / Folia philologica, 100 (1977), pp. 199–203
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 162 to 180 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 176-191
- W. Eck, A. Pangerl, "Eine neue Bürgerrechtskonstitution für die Truppen von Pannonia inferior aus dem Jahr 162 mit einem neuen Konsulnpaar", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 173 (2010), pp. 223-236
- P. A. Holder, Roman Military Diplomas V, (2006), p. 861
- C. Römer, "Diplom für einen Fußsoldaten aus Koptos vom 23. März 179", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 82 (1990), pp. 137–153
- Ioan Piso and Doina Benea, "Das Militärdiplom von Drobeta", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 263ff
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 181 to 235 are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander, (Amsterdam: Verlag Gieben, 1989), pp. 129-137
- David Stone Potter, The Roman Empire at bay, AD 180–395 (2006), pg. 72
- CIL VI, 2100 reads ..]vo or (nominative) ...]vus for Rufus' colleague. This is the most frequent restoration.
- Leunissen disagrees with Dessau, Groag, and Barbieri that the gentilicium of this suffect consul could be Atulenus. (Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 132 n. 20)
- The suffects for this year are taken from Peter Weiß, "Konstitutionen eines toten Kaisers: Militärdiplome von Commodus aus dem Jahr 193 n. Chr.", PHAROS Studien zur griechisch-römischen Antike. Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, Rahden 2015. Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, Rahden 2015, pp. 273–280.
- Fabius Cilo was possibly a colleague of Silius Messalla. Peter Weiß, p. 277.
- The sources disagree on his praenomen: CIL XIII, 1754 attests "L.", while CIL VIII, 8937 attests "C."
- Suffectus in absentia. It is uncertain which consul he replaced. (Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 134 and note)
- This pair of suffect consuls taken from Werner Eck, "Prosopographische Bemerkungen zum Militärdiplom vom 20.12.202 n. Chr. Der Flottenpräfekt Aemilius Sullectinus und das Gentilnomen des Usurpators Regalianus", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 139 (2002), pp. 208–210.
- Added from Leunissen, p. 238
- This pair is attested in M. M. Roxan, Roman Military Diplomas, 3: 1985–93 (1994), no. 188
- His praenomen was confirmed by Askold Ivantchik, Oleg Pogorelets and Rostislav Savvov, "A New Roman Military Diploma from the Territory of the Ukraine", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 163 (2007), pp. 255-262
- Andreas Krieckhaus, "Vater und Sohn. Bemerkungen zu den severischen consules ordinarii M. Munatius Sulla Cerialis und M. Munatius Sulla Urbanus", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 153 (2005), pp. 283-284
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 236 to 285 are taken from Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (München: Beck'sch, 1972), pp. 272f
- Cognomen restored from RMD-03, 199
- Olivier Hekster, Nicholas Zair, Rome and Its Empire, AD 193–284 (2008), pg. 117
- Bowman, Alan K. The Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire, AD. 193–337, pg. 120
- Jones & Martindale& Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire volume I, pp. 676, 681
- Diocletian assumed the ordinary consulship in the east in opposition to Carinus in Rome – see Bagnall, Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), pg. 105
- From the Fasti Caleni, as published in Bagnall, Roger S., et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), p. 110
- From the Fasti Caleni, as published in Bagnall, Roger S., et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), pp. 112–113
- Constantine did not recognize his own appointment as consul by Galerius, which is reflected in his later iteration numbers. Bagnall et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire, p. 152
- Probably Aradius Rufinus, whom Maxentius appointed praefectus urbi in 312, but perhaps Statius Rufinus, praefectus urbi 308–309. Barnes, New Empire, p. 100.
- Potentially related to Vettius Rufinus, consul of 316 AD, see discussion in Bagnall, Roger S., et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), p. 180
- Proculus seems to have fallen into disgrace and Iulianus appointed for him, see T. D. Barnes, in ZPE 21 (1976), p. 280 and T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, p. 102. Proculus could be identical with the proc. Africae in 319/320 AD, see Bagnall, Roger S., et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), p. 184.
- Following p.Stras 137.20 and p.Stras 138.17 the first name could be Ionius instead of Iulius, see discussion in Bagnall, Roger S., et al., Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), p. 629f.
- This Aëtius was not the general of the Western Empire, but comes domesticorum of the Eastern court. Bagnall, Roger S.; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R.; Worp, Klaas A. Consuls of the later Roman Empire. Philological Monographs #36. American Philological Association, 1989, p. 443
- Probably not the consul of 469. Bagnall et al. p. 479.
- "the first consul designated by a barbarian king" according to Bagnall, Roger S.; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R.; Worp, Klaas A. (1987). Consuls of the later Roman Empire. Philological Monographs #36. American Philological Association. p. 495. ISBN 1-55540-099-X.
- Both consuls were Easterners – see Bagnall, Roger S.; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R.; Worp, Klaas A. (1987). Consuls of the later Roman Empire. Philological Monographs #36. American Philological Association. p. 18. ISBN 1-55540-099-X.
- '[P]resumably a westerner' – Bagnall, Roger S.; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R.; Worp, Klaas A. (1987). Consuls of the later Roman Empire. Philological Monographs #36. American Philological Association. p. 524. ISBN 1-55540-099-X.
- Patrizia Sabbatini Tumolesi, Silvia Orlandi, Marco Buonocore, Maurizio Fora, Epigrafia anfiteatrale dell'occidente romano, volume 6, p. 292, 397
- Vasiliev (1952), p. I 192.
- Timothy Gregory, A History of Byzantium, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), p. 227
- Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 535 through 613 are taken from Attilio Degrassi, I fasti consolari dell'Impero Romano dal 30 avanti Cristo al 613 dopo Cristo (Rome, 1952), pp. 99-106
- Latin-Greek Inscription (AE 2004, 01410)
- Chapman, John. Buehler, Joe (ed.). "Catholic Encyclopedia: Maxiums of Constantinople, Saint". Eternal Word Television Network.
- Bede (1999). Halsall, Paul (ed.). "Bede (673–734): Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book V: Chapter VII". Medieval Sourcebook. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Justinian II adopted the title of consul for all the Julian years of his reign, consecutively numbered.
- Thompson, Margaret (1940). "The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora: Eighteenth Report (Jul. – Sep., 1940): Some Unpublished Bronze Money of the Early Eighth Century". Hesperia. 9 (3): 358–380. doi:10.2307/146483. JSTOR 146483.
- Baiterus, Georgius (1837). "Consulares Triumphalesque Romanorum ad Fidem Optimorum Auctorum". In von Orelli, Johann Caspar (ed.). M. Tullii Ciceronis opera quae supersunt omnia, ac deperditorum (in Latin). Volume 12. Turici: Typis Orelli, Fuesslini et Sociorum.
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- B. Bargaglia and C. Grosso, I Fasti Ostienses, Itinerari Ostiensi 8 (1997).
- Attilio Degrassi. Fasti Capitolini. n.p.: G. B. Paravia, 1954
- An English translation of one version of this primary source can be found on attalus.org
- Mommsen, Theodor; Pearse, Roger, eds. (2006) . "Part 8: List (fasti) of the consuls to 354 AD". Chronography of 354. The Tertullian Project.
- Ladislav Vidman (ed.), Fasti ostienses. First edition: Praha: Československá Akademie Věd, 1957. Second edition: Praha: Academia, 1982
- Richard W. Burgess, "'Non Duo Antonini Sed Duo Augusti' The Consuls of 161 and the Origins and Traditions of the Latin Consular Fasti of the Roman Empire", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 132 (2000), pp. 259–290
- Alföldy, Géza (1977). Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen (in German). Bonn: Habelt Verlag.
- Bagnall, Roger S.; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R.; Worp, Klaas A. (1987). Consuls of the Later Roman Empire. Philological Monographs #36. American Philological Association. ISBN 1-55540-099-X.
- Broughton, Thomas Robert Shannon; Patterson, Marcia L. (Collaborator) (1986). The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. Philological Monograph No. 15. American Philological Association. ISBN 0-89130-811-3.
- Camodeca, Giuseppe (1986). "I consoli des 55–56 e un nuovo collega di seneca nel consolato: P. Cornelius Dolabella (TP.75 [=1401 +135)*". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (in Italian). 63: 201–215.
- Camodeca, Giuseppe (1991). "Epigrafia. Actes du Colloque international d'epigraphie latine en mémoire de Attilio Degrassi etc". Collection de l’ecole française de Rome 143 (in Italian). Rome: 45–74. Cite journal requires
- Degrassi, Attilio (1952). I fasti consolari dell'impero romano dal 30 avanti Cristo al 613 dopo Cristo (in Italian). Roma.
- Eck, Werner (1970). Senatoren von Vespasian bis Hadrian (in German). München: Beck.
- Eck, Werner (1975). "Ergänzungen zu den Fasti Consulares des 1. und 2. Jh.n.Chr". Historia (in German). 24: 324–344.
- Gallivan, Paul A. (1974). "Some Comments on the Fasti for the Reign of Nero". Classical Quarterly. New Series. 24 (2): 290–311. doi:10.1017/S0009838800032821.
- Gallivan, Paul A. (1978). "The Fasti for the Reign of Claudius". Classical Quarterly. 28 (2): 407–426. doi:10.1017/S0009838800034959.
- Ginsburg, Judith R. (1981). "Nero's Consular Policy". American Journal of Ancient History. 6 (1): 51–68.
- Leunissen, Paul (1989). Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander (in German). Amsterdam: Verlag Gieben.
- Mennen, Inge (2011). Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. BRILL.
- Peck, Harry Thurston, ed. (1897). "Consules". Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities (Second ed.). p. 406.
- Smith, William, ed. (1859). "Consul". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (Second ed.). Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. pp. 352–356.
- Smith, William; Anthon, Charles, eds. (1886). "Fasti Consulares". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (Third American Carefully Revised ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. pp. 1075–1092.
- Tortoriello, Annalisa (2004). I fasti consolari degli anni di Claudio (in Italian). Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.