List of letters used in mathematics and science

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This list is about the meanings of the letters used in mathematics and science. SI units are indicated in parentheses. For the Unicode block, see Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.

Some common conventions:


AAmpere, area, a blood type, a spectral type, vector potential, Work, set of algebraic numbers

BB meson, a blood type, boron, luminance, magnetic field, a spectral type

Ccarbon, degrees Celsius, set of complex numbers, coulomb, molar heat capacity, the C programming language, specific heat capacity, Cunningham correction factor

Ddeuterium, differential operator, electric displacement, D meson, density

Eelectric field, energy, SI prefix exa–, expected value

F — degrees Fahrenheit, farad, fluorine, force, Helmholtz free energy, a spectral type

GEinstein tensor, SI prefix giga–, Gibbs free energy, gravitational constant, Green's function, Momentum, a Spectral type

Hauxiliary magnetic field, enthalpy, Hamiltonian, Hankel function, Heaviside step function, Henry, Higgs boson, homology group, Hubble constant, hydrogen, set of quaternions, hat matrix

Iiodine, impulse, luminous intensity, moment of inertia, current

Jangular momentum, Bessel function of the first kind, current, joule

Kkaon, kelvin, potassium, sectional curvature, a spectral type

Langular momentum, inductance (Henries), Lagrangian, litre, a spectral type

Mmagnetization, mass, SI prefix mega–, a spectral type, torque

NAvogadro's number, Bessel function of the second kind, set of natural numbers, newton, nitrogen, normal distribution, normal vector

Obig O notation, a blood type, oxygen, a spectral type

PLegendre polynomial, luminous flux, phosphorus, polarization, power, pressure, probability, projection

Qelectric charge, quantity of heat, set of rational numbers, flow rate

Rcurvature tensor, electrical resistance, radius, set of real numbers

Sarea, entropy, siemens, sphere, spin operator, sulfur, symmetric group

T — a spectral type, temperature, tesla, tritium

Upotential energy, uranium, unitary operator

Vpotential energy, vanadium, volt, voltage, volume

Wenergy, Lambert's W function, tungsten, watt, W boson, Work, work function, Wiener process

Xrandom variable, abscissa

YBessel function of the second kind, SI prefix yotta, yttrium, ordinate, luminance

Zatomic number, impedance, set of integers, partition function (statistical mechanics), partition function (quantum field theory), Z boson, SI prefix zetta–, altitude

aSI prefix atto–, acceleration, reflectance

bBottom quark

cSI prefix Charm quark, speed of light, speed of sound

dSI prefix deci–, distance, Down quark, infinitesimal increment, differential operator, density

eNapier's constant, electron, positron, electric charge

fSI prefix femto–, frequency

ggram, gravitational acceleration, gravitational field, distance metric of spacetime

hheight, hour, Planck's constant, spherical Hankel function

iimaginary complex unit, imaginary quaternion unit, unit vector, current, row index

jelectric current and current density, radiant intensity, spherical Bessel function of the first kind, unit vector, column index, imaginary complex unit, imaginary quaternion unit

kBoltzmann constant, imaginary quaternion unit, SI prefix kilo–, wave vector, unit vector

llength, litre, mean free path

mmagnitude, mass, SI prefix milli–, metre, minute

nSI prefix nano–, neutron, refractive index, spherical Bessel function of the second kind

osmall o notation

pelectric dipole moment, momentum, SI prefix pico-, proton, point of a space, sound pressure

qelectric charge, generalized coordinate

rposition (vector), radial polar coordinate, radius

ssecond, Strange quark

tperiod, time, Top quark

uUp quark

vvelocity (m/s)

wvelocity (m/s)

xabscissa, real-valued argument, variable to be determined, vector,

yordinate, SI prefix yocto-, pixel row index

zcomplex variable, altitude, SI prefix zepto-


ΒBeta function

ΓAngular momentum, Gamma function, Christoffel symbols

Δ — A macroscopic change in the value of a variable, Laplace operator, Delta particle

ΘHeaviside step function

ΛIwasawa algebra, Lorentz transformation, Lambda Hyperon

Ξ — Cascade Hyperon


ΣSum, Surface, Sigma Hyperon

Φ — Alternative symbol for Quantum mechanical wavefunction

ΨQuantum mechanical wavefunction

ΩChaitin's constant, Ohm, Solid angle, Omega Hyperon

αAlpha particle, Fine structure constant, Angular acceleration

βBeta particle, Inverse temperature

γEuler–Mascheroni constant, Gamma-ray (Photon), Photon, Relativistic gamma factor

δDirac delta function, Infinitesimal quantity, Kronecker delta

εInfinitesimal quantity, Permittivity

ζDamping Ratio, Riemann zeta function

ηDistance metric of flat spacetime, Efficiency, Dynamic viscosity, η-meson

θAngle, Angular polar coordinate, Temperature, Theta role

ι -

κGravitational constant

λHalf-life, Lagrangian multiplicator, Lambda expression, Thermal conductivity, Wavelength

μAbsorption coefficient, Chemical potential, Magnetic dipole moment, Mean, SI prefix micro–, Micron, Muon, Permeability, Reduced mass

νFrequency, Kinematic viscosity, Neutrino

ξRiemann Xi function


πFundamental group, Conjugate momentum, Homotopy groups, Number π, Pion, Prime-counting function, Projection

ρDensity, Electrical resistivity, Radial polar coordinate, ρ-meson

σCross section, Electrical conductivity, Spin, Standard deviation, Stefan-Boltzmann constant

τTau lepton, Torque, Shear stress, Time constant


φAngular polar coordinate, Electric potential, Euler's totient function, Golden mean, Phase, Potential energy

χElectric susceptibility

ψQuantum mechanical wavefunction, J/ψ particle

ωFrequency (rad/s), angular velocity (rad/sec)



ШTate–Shafarevich group (Ш(G))

ш shuffle product

Cardinality of infinite sets

Cardinality of infinite sets

Partial derivative

Del operator, Gradient, Divergence, Curl

See also[edit]