List of letters used in mathematics and science

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This list is about the meanings of the letters used in mathematics, science and engineering. SI units are indicated in parentheses. For the Unicode block
see Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.

Latin and Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.

Some common conventions:

Latin[edit]

Uppercase Lowercase
A Ampere
area
a blood type
a spectral type
vector potential
Work
set of algebraic numbers
a SI prefix atto-
acceleration
reflectance
B B meson
a blood type
boron
buoyancy
luminance
magnetic field
a spectral type
b Bottom quark
C carbon
degrees Celsius
set of complex numbers
coulomb
molar heat capacity
the C programming language
specific heat capacity
Cunningham correction factor
c SI prefix centi-
Charm quark
speed of light
speed of sound
D deuterium
differential operator
electric displacement
D meson
density
d SI prefix deci-
distance
Down quark
infinitesimal increment
differential operator
density
E electric field
energy
SI prefix exa-
expected value
e Napier's constant
electron
positron
electric charge
F degrees Fahrenheit
farad
fluorine
force
Helmholtz free energy
a spectral type
f SI prefix femto-
frequency
G Einstein tensor
SI prefix giga-
Gibbs free energy
gravitational constant
Green's function
Momentum
a Spectral type
g gram
gravitational acceleration
gravitational field
distance metric of spacetime
H auxiliary magnetic field
enthalpy
Hamiltonian
Hankel function
Heaviside step function
Henry
Higgs boson
homology group
Hubble constant
hydrogen
set of quaternions
hat matrix
h height
hour
Planck's constant
spherical Hankel function
I iodine
impulse
luminous intensity
moment of inertia
current
i imaginary complex unit
imaginary quaternion unit
unit vector
current
row index
J angular momentum
Bessel function of the first kind
current
joule
j electric current and current density
radiant intensity
spherical Bessel function of the first kind
unit vector
column index
imaginary complex unit
imaginary quaternion unit
K kaon
kelvin
potassium
sectional curvature
a spectral type
k Boltzmann constant
imaginary quaternion unit
SI prefix kilo-
wave vector
unit vector
L angular momentum
inductance (Henries)
Lagrangian
litre
a spectral type
l length
litre
mean free path
M magnetization
mass
SI prefix mega-
a spectral type
torque
m magnitude
mass
SI prefix milli-
metre
minute
N Avogadro's number
Bessel function of the second kind
set of natural numbers
newton
nitrogen
normal distribution
normal vector
n SI prefix nano-
neutron
refractive index
spherical Bessel function of the second kind
O big O notation
a blood type
oxygen
a spectral type
o small o notation
P Legendre polynomial
luminous flux
phosphorus
polarization
power
pressure
probability
projection
p electric dipole moment
momentum
SI prefix pico-
proton
point of a space
sound pressure
Q electric charge
quantity of heat
set of rational numbers
flow rate
q electric charge
generalized coordinate
R curvature tensor
electrical resistance
radius
set of real numbers
r position (vector)
radial polar coordinate
radius
S area
entropy
siemens
sphere
spin operator
sulfur
symmetric group
s second
Strange quark
distance
T a spectral type
temperature
tesla
tritium
t period
time
Top quark
U potential energy
uranium
unitary operator
u Up quark
V potential energy
vanadium
volt
voltage
volume
v velocity (m/s)
W energy
Lambert's W function
tungsten
watt
W boson
Work
work function
Wiener process
w velocity (m/s)
X random variable
abscissa
x abscissa
real-valued argument
variable to be determined
vector,
Y Bessel function of the second kind
SI prefix yotta-
yttrium
ordinate
luminance
y ordinate
SI prefix yocto-
pixel row index
Z atomic number
impedance
set of integers
partition function (statistical mechanics)
partition function (quantum field theory)
Z boson
SI prefix zetta-
altitude
z complex variable
altitude
SI prefix zepto-

Greek[edit]

Uppercase Lowercase
α Alpha particle
Fine structure constant
Angular acceleration
Β Beta function β Beta particle
Inverse temperature
Γ Angular momentum
Gamma function
Christoffel symbols
γ Euler–Mascheroni constant
Gamma-ray (Photon)
Photon
Relativistic gamma factor
Δ A macroscopic change in the value of a variable
Laplace operator
Delta particle
δ Dirac delta function
Infinitesimal quantity
Kronecker delta
ε Infinitesimal quantity
Permittivity
ζ Damping Ratio
Riemann zeta function
η Distance metric of flat spacetime
Efficiency
Dynamic viscosity
η-meson
Θ Heaviside step function θ Angle
Angular polar coordinate
Temperature
Theta role
ι
κ Gravitational constant
Λ Iwasawa algebra
Lorentz transformation
Lambda hyperon
λ Lagrangian multiplicator
Lambda expression
Thermal conductivity
Wavelength
μ Absorption coefficient
Chemical potential
Magnetic dipole moment
Mean
SI prefix micro-
Micron
Muon
Permeability
Reduced mass
ν Frequency
Kinematic viscosity
Neutrino
Ξ Cascade hyperon ξ Riemann Xi function
ο
Π Product π Fundamental group
Conjugate momentum
Homotopy groups
Number π
Pion
Prime-counting function
Projection
ρ Density
Electrical resistivity
Radial polar coordinate
ρ-meson
Σ Sum
Surface
Sigma hyperon
σ Cross section
Electrical conductivity
Spin
Standard deviation
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
τ Tau lepton
Torque
Shear stress
Time constant
the number τ
υ
Φ Alternative symbol for Quantum mechanical wavefunction φ Angular polar coordinate
Electric potential
Euler's totient function
Golden mean
Phase
Potential energy
χ Electric susceptibility
Ψ Quantum mechanical wavefunction ψ Quantum mechanical wavefunction
J/ψ particle
Ω Chaitin's constant
Ohm
Solid angle
Omega hyperon
ω Frequency (rad/s)
angular velocity (rad/sec)

More[edit]

Å angstrom
Ш Tate–Shafarevich group (Ш(G ))
ш shuffle product
Cardinality of infinite sets
Cardinality of infinite sets
Partial derivative
Del operator
Gradient
Divergence
Curl

See also[edit]