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List of loanwords in Indonesian

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The Indonesian language has absorbed many loanwords from other languages, Sanskrit, Tamil, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, English, and other Austronesian languages.

Indonesian differs from the form of Malay used in Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore in a number of aspects, primarily due to the different influences both languages experienced and also due to the fact that the majority of Indonesians speak another language as their mother tongue. Indonesian functions as the lingua franca for speakers of 700 various languages across the archipelago.

Conversely, many words of Malay-Indonesian origin have also been borrowed into English. Words borrowed into English (e.g., bamboo, orangutan, dugong, amok, and even "cooties") generally entered through Malay language by way of British colonial presence in Malaysia and Singapore, similar to the way the Dutch have been borrowing words from the various native Indonesian languages. One exception is "bantam", derived from the name of the Indonesian province Banten in Western Java (see Oxford American Dictionary, 2005 edition). Another is "lahar" which is Javanese for a volcanic mudflow. Still other words taken into modern English from Malay/Indonesian probably have other origins (e.g., "satay" from Tamil, or "ketchup" from Chinese).

During development, various native terms (mostly Javanese) from all over the archipelago made their way into the language. The Dutch adaptation of the Malay language during the colonial period resulted in the incorporation of a significant number of Dutch loanwords and vocabulary. This event significantly affected the original Malay language, which gradually developed into modern Indonesian. Most terms are documented in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.[1]


The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reflects its historical and social context. Examples include the early Sanskrit borrowings, probably during the Srivijaya period, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian, especially during the time of the establishment of Islam, and words borrowed from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.[2]

  • Early Hindu and Buddhist influence from India results in many Sanskrit words in Indonesian (and especially adopted through Javanese influence). Indian traders may have contributed words as well, in Tamil and Sanskrit-related languages.
  • Indonesian has evolved through trade with China since ancient times, including through significant numbers of Chinese immigrants migrating to Indonesia. As a result, some of the Chinese language, especially the Hokkien dialect, has been incorporated into Indonesian.
  • Muslim influence, originally through Arabic and Persian traders over a number of centuries, resulted in an extensive influence from the Arabic and Persian.
  • Portuguese contact, trade and colonization in the 16th century was the first contact between Indonesia and European culture, and had an influence that remains today, in spite of the relatively short time period of that influence.
  • Dutch colonization and administration, lasting from the 17th century to the 20th, extensively affected the vocabulary. As Dutch-trained linguists determined the rules for the official Indonesian language, Dutch thus affected the structure of the language as well. For example, suffixes such as "-asi" (e.g., administrasi = administrative) and "-if" (e.g., fiktif = fictief) were applied with consistency. Some loan words are still intensively used today, although Indonesian equivalents exist.
  • Modern Indonesian regularly adopts new words from other languages, particularly English. In contrast to the large number of mechanical terms borrowed from Dutch (e.g., automotive parts), hi-tech words are typically taken from English (e.g., internet) and some informal greetings such as hai, he (probably from Javanesse), yo, etc.

But the processes may also be ‘out of period’; for example, Indonesian words are still being concocted from Sanskrit, and the influence of the Dutch language certainly continued after the Dutch themselves left.[2]

Indonesian has also generalized brand names into common (lower-case) nouns as generic name. For example, "sanyo" refers to any electrical well pump, regardless of manufacturer, "odol" as all of toothpastes, or “aqua” for mineral water. This is similar to the type of generalization that occurs in English words like "xerox" or "tampax" or "polaroid".

List of loanwords[edit]

From Austronesian languages[edit]

From Minangkabau[edit]

Most of Indonesian's vocabulary is natively derived from Malay, but some might ultimately be loanwords from the Minang language. Yet it is unclear, since Malay and Minang are closely related, and some might consider Minang to have been an ancestral dialect of Malay.[3]

Word Meaning Original word
acuh indifferent acuah
anjungan pavilion anjuang
awak you (regional), crew, member awak
bantah denies bantah
baruh lowland baruah
bernas spirited boneh
bunda mother bundo
buyung sonny buyuang
cabul lewd cabua
cakak fight cakak
campin skilled campin
cegak vigorous cegak
celoteh babble ciloteh
cemeeh jeer cemeeh
cengang amazed cangang
dara girl, virgin, dove daro
dadih buttermilk dadiah
dendang sing dendang
gadang large gadang
gadis girl, virgin gadih
gaek aged gaek
galau confusion galau
gelimang mixed galimang
gengsi prestige gengsi
heboh commotion, fuss heboh: noisy
himbau appeal, please (prohibit/warn) imbau
jangat skin jangek
jenjang ladder janjang
jerang boiled jarang
jinjing pick-up jinjiang
junjung respectful junjuang
kelok meanders kelok
lamban slow lamban
lampau over, past lampau
lancang sassy lancang
nan which, who (connecting word) nan
ngarai canyon ngarai
nian very, really, truly nian
pencak art (martial art) pancak
penghulu chief of family panghulu
ranah realm, domain ranah: land
rancak beautiful rancak
rantau foreign country rantau
rendang rendang randang
sanak family sanak
semarak splendor semarak
silat silat (martial art) silek
surau mosque surau
tandas demolished tandeh
teroka open up new areas taruko
terompah sandals tarompah
tuah good luck tuah
tungkai leg tungkai
usang obsolete usang

From Javanese[edit]

Compared to the Malay language spoken as the native regional language in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula or the standardized version of Malaysian, Indonesian differs profoundly by the large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into their already rich vocabulary. This is mostly contributed by Java's position as the center of Indonesian politics, education, and culture, since the capital is located in Jakarta on Java island, albeit in the area where the Javanese are not the majority. The disproportionate number of Javanese that dominate Indonesian politics is reflected by the fact that six out of seven Indonesian presidents have been ethnic Javanese. The result is that the Javanese began to pour their own vocabulary into Indonesian to describes terms and words that do not have exact counterparts in the Malay language. It is also important to note that most of Indonesian's Sanskrit loanwords have been transmitted through Old Javanese, a language whose Sanskrit borrowings number almost 50% of the total vocabulary. Javanese loanwords, unlike those from other native languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

Indonesian Word Meaning Javanese Word
Adem cool temperature ꦲꦝꦼꦩ꧀ (adhem)
Adiluhung/adiluhur refined, highly sophisticated taste ꦲꦢꦶꦭꦸꦥꦸꦁ (adiluhung)
Amblas vanish ꦲꦩ꧀ꦧ꧀ꦔꦼꦱ꧀ (ambles)
Ambruk collapse ꦲꦩ꧀ꦧꦿꦸꦏ꧀ (ambruk)
Among nurture ꦲꦩꦺꦴꦁ (among)
Ampuh potent ꦲꦩ꧀ꦥꦸꦃ (ampuh)
Anggun graceful ꦲꦁꦒꦸꦤ꧀ (anggun)
Angker haunted ꦲꦁꦏꦼꦂ (angker)
Anjlok dropped ꦲꦤ꧀ꦗ꧀ꦭꦺꦴꦒ꧀ (anjlog)
Antek stooge ꦲꦤ꧀ꦠꦺꦏ꧀ (antek)
Anyar new ꦲꦚꦂ (anyar)
Apik neat, nice ꦲꦥꦶꦏ꧀ (apik)
Asri beautiful (scenery/nature), neat, clean, nice ꦲꦱꦿꦶ (asri)
Ayu beautiful (women), pretty, gorgeous, graceful, elegant ꦲꦪꦸ (ayu)
Ayom give shade, foster, protect ꦲꦪꦺꦴꦩ꧀꧈ ꦲꦔꦪꦺꦴꦩꦶ (ayom, hangayomi)
Baluwarti palace fortified wall ꦧꦭꦸꦮꦼꦂꦠꦶ (baluwerti) [1]
Bangsal hall ꦧꦁꦱꦭ꧀ (Bangsal) [2]
Batik batik ꦩ꧀ꦧꦛꦶꦏ꧀ (mbathik) [3]
bejat depraved ꦧꦼꦗꦠ꧀ (bejat)
beres completed ꦧꦺꦫꦺꦱ꧀ (beres)
betot pull suddenly ꦧꦼꦠꦺꦴꦠ꧀ (betot)
bopong carry ꦧꦺꦴꦥꦺꦴꦁ (bopong)
berandal thugs ꦧꦿꦤ꧀ꦢꦭꦤ꧀ (brandalan)
bromocorah criminal ꦧꦿꦩꦕꦺꦴꦫꦃ (bromocorah)
Buron/buronan runaway or fugitive ꦧꦸꦫꦺꦴꦤ꧀ (buron) [4]
candi temple ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶ (candhi)
canggih sophisticated ꦕꦁꦒꦶꦃ (canggih)
cebol midget ꦕꦺꦧꦺꦴꦭ꧀ (cebol)
celingukan look around ꦕꦼꦭꦶꦁꦏꦸꦔꦤ꧀ (celingukan)
ceplas ceplos speak out frankly ꦕꦼꦥ꧀ꦭꦱ꧀ꦕꦼꦥ꧀ꦭꦺꦴꦱ꧀ (ceplas ceplos)
copet pickpocket ꦕꦺꦴꦥꦺꦠ꧀ (copet)
dengkul knee ꦢꦼꦁꦏꦸꦭ꧀ (dengkul)
doyan be fond ꦢꦺꦴꦪꦤ꧀ (doyan)
edan crazy ꦲꦺꦝꦤ꧀ (edhan)
empu maestro, master craftsman ꦩ꧀ꦥꦸ (mpu)
ganteng handsome ꦔ꧀ꦒꦤ꧀ꦠꦼꦁ (ngganteng)
gebrakan blow ꦒꦼꦧꦿꦏꦤ꧀ (gebrakan)
gede big ꦒꦼꦢꦺ (gede)
gembok padlock ꦒꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦺꦴꦏ꧀ (gembok)
gendong piggyback ꦒꦼꦤ꧀ꦝꦺꦴꦁ (gendong)
gerebek raid ꦒꦿꦼꦧꦼꦒ꧀ (grebeg) [5]
gilas run over ꦒꦶꦭꦼꦱ꧀ (giles)
gosong scorched ꦒꦺꦴꦱꦺꦴꦁ (gosong)
irit frugal ꦲꦶꦫꦶꦠ꧀ (irit)
jagal butcher ꦗꦒꦭ꧀ (jagal)
jago, jagoan tough guy, hero, skillful, expert ꦗꦒꦺꦴ (jago) [6]
jajan snack ꦗꦗꦤ꧀ (jajan)
kedut twitching ꦏꦼꦝꦸꦠꦤ꧀ (kedutan)
kemben torso wrap ꦏꦼꦩ꧀ꦧ꧀ꦲꦺꦤ꧀ (kembhen)
kesurupan possessed ꦱꦸꦫꦸꦥ꧀ (surup) [7]
konde bulbous hairdo or hair extension on the back of the head ꦏꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦝꦺ (kondhe)
lara sadness (poetic) ꦭꦫ (lara) [8]
larung intentionally swept or send away through water (river/sea) ꦭꦫꦸꦁ (larung)
lapik base ꦭꦥꦶꦏ꧀ (lapik)
luhur noble, high ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ (luhur)
manut obedient ꦩꦤꦸꦠ꧀ (manut)
melengos looked away ꦩꦼꦔꦼꦔꦺꦴꦱ꧀ (melengos)
minggat flee ꦩꦶꦁꦒꦠ꧀ (minggat)
mingkem keep quiet ꦩꦶꦁꦏꦼꦩ꧀ (mingkem)
mumpuni accomplished ꦩꦸꦩ꧀ꦥꦸꦤꦶ (mumpuni)
nganggur idle, jobless ꦔꦁꦒꦸꦂ (nganggur)
nusantara Indonesian archipelago, archipelago ꦤꦸꦱꦤ꧀ꦠꦫ (nusantara)
pagar langkan balustrade ꦲꦂꦒ ꦭꦁꦏꦤ꧀ (pagar langkan)
pamrih intention ꦥꦩꦿꦶꦃ (pamrih)
pemirsa viewers ꦥꦼꦩꦶꦂꦱ (pemirsa)
Pendopo roofed front open hall ꦥꦼꦤ꧀ꦝꦺꦴꦥꦺꦴ (pendhopo) [9]
pilek flu ꦥꦶꦭꦼꦏ (pilek)
resik clean, well maintained ꦪꦼꦱꦶꦏ꧀ (resik)
sedot suck ꦱꦼꦢꦺꦴꦠ꧀ (sedot)
selaras harmonious ꦱ꧀ꦭꦫꦱꦛ (slaras)
selingkuh affair ꦱꦼꦭꦶꦁꦏꦸꦃ (selingkuh)
semberono careless ꦱꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦿꦺꦴꦤꦺꦴ (sembrono)
semrawut complicated mess, out of order ꦱꦼꦩꦿꦮꦸꦠ꧀ (semrawut)
sungkan shy ꦱꦸꦁꦏꦤ꧀ (sungkan)
tembang song ꦠꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦁ (tembang)
tentram peaceful ꦠꦼꦤ꧀ꦠꦿꦼꦩ꧀ (tentrem)
titisan reincarnated ꦤꦶꦠꦶꦱ꧀ (nitis)
tuntas complete ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦠꦱ꧀ (tuntas)
undakan stages ꦲꦸꦤ꧀ꦝꦏ꧀ (undhak)
unduh download ꦲꦸꦤ꧀ꦢꦸꦃ (unduh)
unggah upload ꦩꦸꦁꦒꦃ (munggah)
umpak base ꦲꦸꦩ꧀ꦥꦏ꧀ (umpak)
^1 Ultimately from Spanish 'baluarte' via Filipino languages.
^2 Ultimately from Sanskrit: शाल (Śālā) meaning room.
^3 From Amba-nitik
^4 From Buron-an (to be hunted)
^5 A routine celebration held by the people of Java to commemorate an important event.
^6 A Rooster
^7 Fit, Enter
^8 Sick
^9 Ultimately from Sanskrit: मण्डप (mandapa)

From Sundanese[edit]

Besides Javanese, Sundanese is another local language that has influenced Indonesian's vocabulary, albeit to a lesser extent. This can be attributed to the fact that the capital, Jakarta, was formerly a part of West Java, a province which, together with Banten, before it too was divided, constituted the Pasundan (Sundanese world), the most significant non-Javanese region in an otherwise Javanese-dominated Java island. Some of the most populous cities in Indonesia are also located in the Pasundan, including West Java's capital, Bandung, and Jakarta's four satellite cities (Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, and Tangerang).

Word Meaning Original word
Aci tapioca flour ᮃᮎᮤ ᮞᮙ᮪ᮕᮩ (aci sampeu)
Amburadul mess, something out of order ᮃᮙ᮪ᮘᮥᮛᮓᮥᮜ᮪ (amburadul)
Anjangsana high official visiting ᮃᮔ᮪ᮏᮀᮞᮔ (anjangsana)
Becek puddle ᮘᮦᮎᮦᮊ᮪ (becek)
Berabe annoying, nuisance ᮎᮘᮦ (barabe)
Bloon (pronounced blo-'on) stupid ᮘᮣᮧᮇᮔ᮪ (blo'on/o'on)
Cocopet earwig ᮎᮧᮎᮧᮕᮦᮒ᮪ (cocopet)
Getol active ᮌᮨᮒᮧᮜ᮪ (getol)
Hatur to express, to send (polite) ᮠᮒᮥᮁᮊᮩᮔ᮪ (haturkeun)
Jangkung tall ᮜᮀᮊᮥᮀ (jangkung)
Juara champion, winner ᮏᮝᮛ (jawara)
Kedap proof as in "kedap air" (waterproof) ᮊᮨᮓᮕ᮪ (kedap)
Kesima awe, amaze ᮊᮨᮞᮤᮙ (kesima)
Kesohor famous ᮊᮞᮧᮠᮧᮁ (kasohor)
Kolot old fashioned ᮊᮧᮜᮧᮒ᮪ (kolot)
Lalap raw vegetable, consumed ᮜᮜᮘ᮪ (lalab)
Majikan boss ᮙᮏᮤᮊᮔ᮪ (majikan)
Menyaru pretending, camouflaging ᮞᮛᮥ (verbal form of "saru")
Patungan chip in, joint-venture, collecting money to buy something for common use ᮘᮒᮥᮛᮔ᮪ (patungan)
Pemulung waste picker ᮕᮥᮜᮥᮀ (pulung)
Pengaruh influence ᮕᮍᮛᮥᮂ (pangaruh)
Pepes cooking method using banana leaf wrapping ᮕᮕᮄᮞ᮪ (papais)
Risih uneasy, uncomfortable ᮛᮤᮞᮤᮂ (risih)
Siksa torture ᮞᮤᮊᮒ᮪ (siksa)
Songong no self-awareness ᮒᮧᮀᮌᮧᮀ (songong)
Uwa uncle or aunty older than parent ᮔᮑ (uwa)

From Betawi[edit]

Betawi is a Malay-based creole that arose from influences by foreign traders who stopped at the capital, Jakarta, including those from China and Arabia. Most of its speakers are inhabitants of Jakarta, and its influence upon Indonesian is attributed to its frequent usage in Indonesian mass media, including radio and television. Its status as a "hip" language by other portions of Indonesian society is another contributing factor as well.

Word Meaning Original word
abal-abal fake, false abal-abal
bangkotan aged bangkotan
begah replete begah
belagu ostentatious belagu
butut old-fashioned butut
cebur splash cebur
entot copulate entot
gelandang football midfielder, bringer gelandang
gelandangan homeless gelandangan
mampus dead mampus
ngamen street performance ngamen
rempong troublesome rempong
ribet complicated, hard, not easy ribet
rombeng rags rombeng
timpuk throw timpuk
udak chase udak

From Nias[edit]

mado Nias' clan system mado

From Batak[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
molek voluptuous ᯔᯬᯞᯧᯂ᯲(molek)

From Balinese[edit]

Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000) on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.

Arja a popular form of Balinese theatre which combines elements of opera, dance, and drama. ᬅᬃᬚ (Arja)
Awatara [1] an incarnation of god, or it's manifestation ᬅᬯᬢᬭ (Awatara)
Awig-Awig balinese customary law ᬅᬯᬶᬕ᭄ᬳᬯᬶᬕ᭄ (Awig-Awig)
Bade a corpse stretcher tower used in Ngaben ᬩᬤᬾ (Badé)
Bandrang a spear decorated with the hairs of animals ᬩᬦ᭄ᬤ᭄ᬭᬂ (Bandrang)
Bangkung a female sow ᬩᬗ᭄ᬓᬸᬂ (Bangkung)
Banjar a community organisation a level below villages ᬩᬜ᭄ᬚᬃ (Banjar)
Banten an offering/tribute ᬩᬦ᭄ᬢᭂᬦ᭄ (Bantên)
Barong a creature from Javanese and Balinese mythology ᬩᬭᭀᬂ (Barong)
Bebali semi sacred Balinese dances ᬩᭂᬩᬮᬶ (Bêbali)
Bebangkit an offering to the Hindu Goddess Durga in the form of cakes and fruit ᬩᭂᬩᬂᬓᬶᬢ᭄ (Bêbangkit)
Bebekel properties brought by husband or wife before marriage ᬩᭂᬩᭂᬓᭂᬮ᭄ (Bêbêkêl)
Bendesa the ruler of a village ᬩᭂᬦ᭄ᬤᬾᬰ (Bêndésa)
Caturjalma the four castes of society [citation needed] ᬘᬢᬸᬃᬚᬮ᭄ᬫ (Caturjalma)
Cokorda ruler of a local kingdom ᬘᭀᬓᭀᬃᬤ (Cokorda)
Dewa a deity or god ᬤᬾᬯ (Déwa)
^1 A loanword from Sanskrit, अवतार.

From Indian languages[edit]

From Sanskrit[edit]

Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit, the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem, and its status is comparable with that of Latin in English and other Western Indo-European languages. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms; these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. For example, the name of Jayapura city (former Hollandia) and Jayawijaya Mountains (former Orange Range) in the Indonesian province of Papua were coined in the 1960s; both are Sanskrit origin name to replace its Dutch colonial names. Some Indonesian contemporary medals of honor and awards, such as Bintang Mahaputra medal, Kalpataru award and Adipura award, are also Sanskrit derived names.

The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. The Sanskrit influence on Indonesia came from contacts with India long ago before the 1st century.[4] The words are either directly borrowed from India or through the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English dictionary by Prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries. Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

From Pali[edit]

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language and belongs to the Indo-European language family together with Sanskrit. As Sanskrit is the language vehicle of Hinduism, Pali is the language vehicle for Buddhism, especially the Theravada tradition which is mainly adhered to by Buddhists within Indosphere Southeast Asia. Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the Prakrits. The relationship to Vedic Sanskrit is less direct and more complicated; the Prakrits were descended from Old Indo-Aryan vernaculars.

Indonesian word Indonesian meaning Pali word Pali transcription Pali meaning Note
belanja shopping, expense वलञ्ज valañja that which is spent or secreted
biku bhikkhu (classical) भिक्खु bhikkhu beggar, bhikkhu see also biksu from Sanskrit.
bikuni bhikkhuni (classical) भिक्खुणी bhikkhuṇī beggar, bhikkhuni see also biksuni from Sanskrit.
dana allocated money धन dhana treasure
dana donation, funds दान dāna giving, liberality; offering, alms cognate of Sanskrit दान (dāna).
duka sadness दुक्ख dukkha stress; suffering; pain; distress; discontent
loba greed लोभ lobha greed; passion; unskillful desire.
mara calamity मार māra mara (demon) cognate of Sanskrit मार (māra).
merana sick, sadness मारण māraṇa killing, slaughter, murder cognate of Sanskrit मारण (māraṇa).
percaya believe परिचय paricaya familiarity cognate of Sanskrit प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ)
raga (physical) body राग rāga lust; greed

From Hindi[edit]

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi is an Indo-European, and specifically an Indo-Aryan language. It is descended from Sanskrit and is considered part of the Central Indo-Aryan subgroup.

acar pickles अचार achaar pickles
antari cloth अंतरीय antarīya under garment
gari, argari handcuffs हाथकड़ी hath-kaṛī hand+link
ayah father आया āyā ayah, nanny
bahadur brave बहादुर bahādur brave from Persian بهادر (bahâdor)
bahana 1. loud sound (n.),
2. great, bright (adj.)
भनक bhanak a low or distant sound, hum, buzz, ring
हनना hannā to speak, to break silence
bakdul rein बागडोर bāgḍor rein
banglo perforated crates to keep the fish in the dam area banglā
bangsal ward, shed, public building भनसाल bhansāl storehouse, magazine, granary see भण्डसाल (bhanḍsāl) < भण्डसार (bhaṇḍasāra) storehouse, magazine, granary
barua procuress bhaṛuā
basi stale, spoilt बासी bāsī stale, rancid
bel bell bel
belati dagger विलायती vilāyatī foreign
bendahari, bendari female treasurer भंडारी bhaṇḍārī store keeper
benian बनियान baniyān under garment, vest
beta I (first-person pronoun) (classical, Moluccas) बेटा beṭā son
bêti proof beṭī
bibi aunt
cacar pox (disease) चेचक cecak pox (disease)
cakela brothel, whorehouse (archaic) चकला caklā brothel, whorehouse
candu opium चण्डू caṇḍū opium from Sanskrit चण्ड+उकः
cap stamp ?
capal leather sandal चप्पल cappal slipper
celana pants, trousers चोलना ćolnā short breeches, reaching half-way down the thighs
cempa campā
ceri cherry (Muntingia calabura) curī
ceteri tent (in boat) (arch.) छत्री ćhatrī covering, canopy Sanskrit tadbhava word छत्रिका
cindai flowery silk cunrī
coli (arch.) colī
culim smoking pipe चिलम cilam smoking pipe see also chillum
cura funny churā
curi steal चूरी
cuti leave छुट्टी chuṭṭī leave
dal bean दाल dāl dried, split pulses see dal.
dam check (pattern) दाम dām net, snare
dandi a kind of musical instrument डोंडी ḍoṅḍī small kettle-drum Sanskrit tadbahva दुन्दुभी
dera lash durrā to whip
dian small lamp दिया dīyā light, lamp, lantern
dobi laundry worker धोबी dhobī laundry worker (male)
dol 1. Indian drum,
2. mast
ढोल ḍhol dhol
डोल ḍol mast probably from Arabic دلو (dalw)
duhai an interjection word दुहाई duhāī cry for help
duli dust; foot; honorary word for official, nobility, or king डोली ḍolī a kind of sedan see also paduka.
dura far दूर dūr far
gajus cashew (Anacardium occidentale) दूर kājū cashew (Anacardium occidentale) possibly from Tupian acajú through Portuguese caju
gala-gala small bee gūgal
ganda small bee gāna
ganja Cannabis sativa गांझा gāṅjhā Cannabis sativa probably from Sanskrit गृञ्ज+कः, or गृञ्जनकः
gap 1. sound of slapping on a table.
2 sound of heartbeat.
gap the sound made by a blow, or in swallowing
garam salt गरम garam hot, warm
geleca cake (arch.) gālīcā
guli marbles गोली golī ball from Sanskrit गोल+इका
gusar angry g̠uṣṣa choking, anger from Arabic غصة, from. غصّ 'to be choked'

From Tamil[edit]

Loanwords from Tamil, while also an Indian language (though not Indo-European like Sanskrit), mainly exist in cuisine, like Chinese and unlike Sanskrit. It is a Dravidian language and not an Indo-Aryan language. However, Hinduism had great impact in Tamil, there are several Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil and they are possibility to list them in Indo-Aryan loanwords, such as Sanskrit.

Interaction between Tamil speakers and Malay speakers has been established from ancient time. Tamil influence has been around such as Palava usage as ancient script in Indonesia (Palava dynasty was existed on 275 CE–897 CE) and Chola invasion of Srivijaya in 1025. It mainly entered the lexicon of Malay (and by extension, Indonesian) with the immigration of South Indian traders who settled around the Strait of Malacca.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Tamil Word Tamil Transliteration Tamil Meaning Note
acaram 1. ring,
2. earnest money
அச்சகாரம் accāram earnest money
acu mould, model அச்சு accu mould
andai if, suppose அண்டை aṇṭai near, support
apam kind of cake அப்பம் appam appam, rice cake, bread pastry
badai storm வாடை vāṭai wind, north wind
bagai sort of வகை vakai kind, sort
baji wedge வசி vaci cleft, point, edge
basi 1. commission, fee
2. overtime or extra pay
3. reduction (in price), discount
வாசி vāci 1. difference
2. rate, as of interest; portion
3. discount, in changing money
batil copper bowl, plate, tray வட்டில் vaṭṭil a brass tray, a platter; basket
bedil gun, rifle வெடி veṭi explosion, as of gun via Javanese bedhil
bicu lever வீச்சு vīccu blow, stroke
biram 1. elephant,
2. double-headed snake,
3. red
வேழம் vēḻam elephant
canai grindstone சாணை cāṇai-k-kal grindstone
cemeti whip சம்மட்டி cammaṭṭi 1. (horse-)whip,
2. large hammer
cerpelai mongoose (Herpestes sp.) கீரிப்பிள்ளை kīri-p-piḷḷai common Indian mungoose, Indian ichneumon, Herpestes mungo
cerpu leather sandals (terompah-like) செருப்பு ceruppu leather sandals, slippers, shoes
cerutu, serutu cigar சுருட்டு curuṭṭu 1. curling, coiling;
2. cigar
ceti money lender செட்டி ceṭṭi mercantile caste, traders from Prakrit sēṭṭišrēṣṭhin
cukai excise tax, custom சுங்கம் cuṅkam duty on goods, customs, tolls from Prakrit šuṅkašulka
cuku dried gambier roots சுக்கு cukku dried ginger
cuma only, no others சும்மா cummā leisurely, without any occupation or work ?
gula sugar குளம் kuḷam sugar *?
gulai kind of curry குலை gulai *?
gundu marbles குண்டு kuṇṭu ball; anything globular and heavy
gurindam two lines rhyme கிரந்தம் kirantam 1. book, treatise
2. A verse or prose containing 32 syllables, šlōka
from grantha.
helai sheet இலை ilai leaf, petal
jodoh, joli mate, partner சோடி cōṭi couple, pair loanword from Hind. jōḍi.
joli royal sedan டோலி ṭōli a kind of sedan loanword from Hind. ḍōlā.
kambi wooden frames to strengthen the edges of doors கம்பி kampi wall plate
kapal boat கப்பல் kappal ship, sailing vessel
kari, kare curry கறி kaṟi curry
katai, katik small, short கடை kaṭṭai short, low, dwarfish
defect, deficiency
katelum bastion கொத்தளம் kottalam part of a rampart, bastion, defensive erection on the top of a rampart from Pāli koṭṭhaka
kati a measure of weight = 6¼ ons கட்டி kaṭṭi a measure of weight = 25 palams
katik 1. Paspalum scrobiculatum,
2. Treron curvirostra,
3. area measurement (of land or field)
கட்டை kaṭṭai mile
katil bed கட்டில் kaṭṭil 1. cot, bedstead, couch, sofa,
2. Throne
kawal guard, escourt காவல் kāval defence, protection, watchman, guard
kedai foodstall கடை kaṭai bazaar, shop, market
kedelai Glycine max கடலை kaṭalai Cicer arietinum, Melastoma malabaricum Kanarese, Travancore usage kaḍale, Malayalam kaḍala
keledai Equus asinus கழுதை kaḻutai Equus asinus
ketumbar Coriandrum sativum கொத்தமல்லி kottamalli Coriandrum sativum from Sanskrit कुस्तुम्बुरु (kustumburu)
kodi twenty units கோடி kōṭi 1. Crore, ten millions,
2. large number
kolam pool, pond, basin, tank குளம் kuḷam tank, pond, reservoir, lake
konde, kundai dressing of hair in large coil on the head கொண்டை koṇṭai tuft, dressing of hair in large coil on the head related to Telugu koṇḍe, Kanarese Travancore goṇḍe, Malayalam koṇṭa
korundum natural Aluminum oxide குருந்தம் kuruntam corundum, emery
kudai basket made of rattan கூடை kūṭai basket made of rattan, ola or bamboo
kuil temple கோயில் kōyil 1. Palace,
2. Temple, Sanctuary
kulai limp குலை kulai to untie, loosen, dishevel
kuli physical worker கூலி kūli 1. wages, pay;
2. fare, hire, freight
kundi clay craftsman kuṉṟi ?
ladam horseshoe லாடம் lāṭam horseshoe
lebai mosque employees லப்பை lappai Tamil-speaking Muhammadans
logam metal உலோகம் ulōkam metal from lōha metal
madali a musical instrument மத்தளம் mattaḷam a kind of drum
malai strands மாலை mālai anything strung together
maligai royal chamber in palace மாளிகை māḷikai top floor of a storied building ?
mangga mango மாங்காய் māṅkāy mango
manik beads maṇi
manikam diamond மாணிக்கம் māṇikkam gem, precious stone
merikan, marikan clothes from America மரிக்கன் marikkaṉ from America
maru disturbing ghost மாற்று māṟṟu to change, alter
to conceal, hide
to shift; to transfer, as from a place
matu grade of gold மாற்று māṟṟu degree of fineness of gold or silver
mempelam mango மாம்பழம் mā-m-paḻam mango fruit
merunggai Moringa oleifera முருங்கை muruṅkai Moringa pterygosperma
metai bed மெத்தை mettai bed, cushion
meterai seal, stamp முத்திரை muttirai 1. impress, mark
2. seal, signet
3. stamp, as for postage, for court fees
misai mustache மீசை mīcai 1. upper part,
2. cf. šmašru. moustache
modal capital, stock முதல் mutal 1. beginning
2. principal, fund, capital, money yielding interest
3. stock, store
mundam large tub for royal bathing முந்தை muntai small vessel
mutu 1. quality, purity of gold
2. sad
3. In pinch (chess)
முட்டு muttu difficulty, as in passing,
hindrance, obstacle, impediment
nali volume unit =16 gantang =1/50 koyan நாழி nāḻi tubularity; tube,
a measure of capacity, =8 ollocks
related to nāḍi
nelayan fisherman நுளையன், கரையான், வலையன், வலைஞன் nuḷaiyaṉ, karaiyāṉ, valaiyaṉ, valaiñaṉ, fisher(man)
nila indigo நீல nila blue, black, common indigo, blue nelumbo
nilai value நிலை nilai standing
character, quality, temper, nature
nilakandi indigo (color, stone): blue vitriol நீலகண்டன் nīla-kaṇṭaṉ blue vitriol
nilam Pycnonotus aurigaster
Pogostemon cablin
நீலம் nīlam blue, azure or purple colour
ondé-ondé jian dui உண்டை uṇṭai ball, globe, sphere; anything round or globular
panai wooden tray பானை pāṉai 1. large earthen pot or vessel
2. measure of capacity
3. oil measure = 4 cempu
pancalogam mixture of five (many) metals பஞ்சலோகம் pañcalōkam 1. The five kinds of metal, poṉ, irumpu, cempu, īyam, veḷḷi;
2. Amalgam of the five metals
pandam resin (in the grip of keris) பண்டம் pantam 1. substance, material, utensils.
2. belly, body
from bhāṇḍa
pandu guide பந்து pantu relation, kinsman from bandhu.
patam, petam ornament, jewelry பட்டம் paṭṭam plate of gold worn on the forehead, as an ornament or badge of distinction
pawai 1. parade, procession
2. royal equipments
பவனி pavaṉi parade
pelbagai various 1. பல
2. வகை
1. pala
2. vakai
1. many
2. division, class, manner, way, nature, goods, places, detail
perisai shield பரிசை paricai 1. shield, buckler (come from phara)
2. large umbrella, as a badge of honour
perli satire, mockery புரளி puraḷi 1. Lying, falsehood;
2. Mischief, waggishness;
3. Quarrel, wrangle, broil;
peti chest, box பெட்டி peṭṭi chest, trunk, coffer, box
pitam headache, dizziness பித்தம்
lunacy, madness
puadai red carpet பாவாடை pāvāṭai red carpet
pualam marble பவளம் pavaḷam red coral
pudi small diamond பொடி poṭi small gem
putu kue putu புட்டு puṭṭu puttu
ragam various ராகம் (i)rākam desire, color, redness, music
roti bread ரொட்டி roṭṭi bread, wheaten cake
sambal sambal சம்பாரம் campāram spicy condiments, curry stuff 1. from Sanskrit सम्बार (sambāra) 'spices'.
2. related to sambar (சாம்பார் cāmpār)
satai, saté satay சதை catai flesh
sedelinggam red paint material சாதிலிங்கம் cātiliṅkam cermilion, red sulphurate of mercury
senam calisthenics சானம்
meditation (dhyāna)
people, crowd, herd
sengketa to dispute ஸங்கடம் saṅkaṭam trouble
talam tray without feet தாலம் tālam 1. eating- plate, porringer, usually of metal.
2. Salver
tampah tray தம்பா tampā tray see tatak
tambi 1. younger brother (Indian)
2. helper
தம்பி tampi younger brother (Indian)
tandil overseer தண்டல் taṇṭal tax-collector
tandu palanquin தண்டு taṇṭu pole of a palanquin or other vehicle
tembaga copper செம்பு cempu copper, gold, metal vessel
teman friend தமன் tamaṉ friend (male)
terusi, tursi blue vitriol துருசு turucu blue vitriol
tirai curtain திரை tirai curtain
tolan friend தோழன் tōlan friend (male)
topi hat தொப்பி toppi cap
tunai cash துணை tuṇai measure, extent, degree, quantity, number ?
Wéda Vēdas வேதம் vētam Vēdas

From Middle Eastern languages[edit]

From Arabic[edit]

The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam. Allah is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations, this practice has been discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew word. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa, but is now spelt as Yesus.

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
abdi servant عَبْد ʻabd
abjad alphabet الأبْجَدِيّة al'abjadia
adab civilize, proper أَدَب adab: manner
adat custom عادة ʻāda
ahad Sunday الأحد al-ahad
ajaib magical عجائب ʻajāʼīb
ajal death أَجَل ʻajl: fate
akad contract, promise عَقْد ʻaqd
akal reason عَقْل ʻaql
akhir end آخِر ʼākhir
akhirat hereafter آخِرة ākhira
akhlak character, nature (of person) أَخْلاق akhlāq
alam nature, realm عالَم ʻālam: world, earth
alami natural عالَميّ ʻālamiyy
aljabar algebra الجَبْر al-jabr
amal alms giving, good deed عَمَل ʻamal: work
aman safe, secure أمان ʼamān
anda you (formal) أَنْتَ anta
asal origin أَصْل ʼaṣl
asas foundation, basis أَساس ʼasās
asasi foundational, basic أَساسيّ ʼasāsiyy
asli real, original أَصْليّ ʼaṣliyy
awal beginning أَوَّل ʼawwal
badan body بَدَن badan
bahari maritime, naval, of the sea بَحْريّ baḥriyy
batin inner self بَطْن baṭn: stomach
berkah, berkat blessing بَرَكة baraka
daftar list دَفْتَر daftar: notebook
dahsyat awesome دَهْشَة dahshat: astonishment
dakwah sermon دَعْوة da'wa
derajat degree, level دَرَجَة daraja
doa pray دُعاء du'ā
dunia world دُنْيا dunyā
faedah benefit, profit فَائِدَة fāida
fajar dawn فَجْر fajr
fakir poor person, pauper فَقير faqīr
gaib unseen غَائِب ghāib
hadiah gift, present هدية hadiyyah
hafal memorize حَفِظَ hifz
halal religiously lawful حَلال ḥalāl
hak right حَقّ ḥaqq
hakikat truth, base حَقيقة ḥaqīqa
hakiki true, real حَقيقيّ ḥaqīqiyy
hakim judge (in court of law) حاكِم ḥākim
haram religiously unlawful حَرام ḥarām
harfiah literal حَرْفيّة ḥarfiyya
hayati living حَياتيّ ḥayātiyy
hewan animal حَيَوان ḥayawān
hikmah wisdom, deeper meaning حِكْمة ḥikma
hukum law حُكْم ḥukm
huruf letter (of an alphabet) حُروف ḥurūf
iblis devil إِبْلِيس 'iiblis
see setan
ijazah diploma إجازة ʼijāza: license
ikhlas sincere إخلاص ikhlas
ikrar pledge, declaration إقْرار ʼiqrār
ilmiah scientific عِلْميّة ʻilmiyya
ilmu knowledge, science عِلْم ʻilm
istilah term إصْطلَاح iṣṭilaḥ
istirahat rest, break, pause, recess اسْتِراحة istirāḥa
izin permission, to permit إذْن ʼidhn
jadwal schedule جَدْوَل jadwal
jahanam cursed, damned جَهَنَّم jahannam: hell
jahil prank, practical joke جاهِل jāhil: ignorant, uninformed
jawab answer جَواب jawāb
jenazah corpse جَنازة janāza: funeral
jilbab hijab, head covering جلباب jilbāb: loose coat
Jumat Friday الجُمْعة al-jumʻa
kabar news خَبَر khabar
kafan white shroud (to cover the dead) كَفَن kafan
kafir infidel كافِر kāfir
kaidah rule قَاعِدَة qā'ida
Kamis Thursday الخَميس al-khamīs
kamus dictionary قاموس qāmūs
kera ape قرد qarad
kertas paper قِرْطاس qirṭās
khalayak audience, public
khas specialty خاصّ khāṣṣ
khawatir worry خواطر khawatir: reflections
khayal imagination, fiction خَيَال khayāl
khianat betrayal, treason خِيَانَةُ khiāna
khitan circumcision خِتان khitān
khusus special, particular خصوص khuṣūṣ
kitab religious book كِتاب kitāb
korban victim قُرْبان qurbān: sacrifice
kuliah college/lecture كُلّيّة kulliyya: faculty
kurma date palm كَرْمة karma: grapevine
kursi chair كُرْسيّ kursiyy
kurun span (of time) قُرون qurūn: centuries
lahir to be born; physical, external, outer ظاهر ẓāhir
laskar soldier العَسْكَر al-ʻaskar
lezat delicious لذّة ladhdha
lisan verbally, tongue لِسان lisān
maaf sorry, to apologise معاف muʻāf
mahkamah court of law مَحْكَمة maḥkama
majelis assembly, board, council مَجْلِس majlis
makam grave مَقَام maqām: permanent place of s.t.
makhluk creature مخلوق maẖlūq
makna meaning مَعْنًى maʻnan
maksud meaning, purpose مَقْصود maqsūd
maktub written مَكْتوب maktūb
malaikat angel مَلائكة malāʼika
masalah problem مَسْأَلة masʼala
masjid mosque مَسْجِد masjid
maut dead, deadly مَوْت mawt
menara tower مَنارة manāra
Mesir Egypt مِصْر miṣr
miskin poor مِسْكين miskīn
mubazir useless مُبَذِّر mubaḏḏir
mufakat approval موافقة muwāfaqa
muflis bankrupt مُفْلِس muflis
mujizat miracle المعجزات al-mujazat
mungkin maybe مُمْكِن mumkin
munafik hypocrite مُنافِق munāfiq
murtad apostate مُرْتَدّ murtadd
musim season مَوْسِم mawsim
mustahil impossible مُسْتَحيل mustaḥīl
musyawarah discussion مشاورة mushāwara
nabi prophet نَبيّ nabiyy
nafas breathe, respire تَنَفَّسَ tanaffas
nafkah living نفقة nafaqa: alimony
nafsu desire نَفْس nafs: self, soul
najis impure, unclean نَجِس najis
nasihat advice نَصيحة naṣīḥa
nikah to marry نِكاح nikāḥ
nisbah ratio نسبة nisb
paham to understand فَهْم fahm
petuah lesson, advice فَتْوى fatwā
pikir to think فِكْر fikr
pondok cottage, lodge, shack فندق funduq
Rabu Wednesday الأَرْبِعاء al-ʼarbiʻāʼ
rahim uterus, womb رَحِم raḥim
rahmat blessing رَحْمة raḥma
rakyat people, citizen رَعيّة raʻiyya
rasul prophet, apostle رَسول rasūl
rehat, rihat rest راحة rāḥa
saat moment ساعة sāʻa: hour
sabar patient صَبْر ṣabr
Sabtu Saturday السَبْت as-sabt
sabun soap صابون ṣābūn
sahabat close friend صَحابة ṣaḥāba
salat to pray (for Muslims) صَلاة ṣalāh
saleh pious صالِح ṣāliḥ
salju snow ثَلْج thalj
saraf nerve صَرْف ṣarf
saum fasting صَوْم ṣawm
sebab cause, reason سَبَب sabab
sedekah charitable gift, alms صَدَقة ṣadaqa
sehat healthy صِحّة ṣiḥḥa
sirup syrup الشراب sharab
selamat safe, well-being سَلامة salāma
Selasa Tuesday الثُلاثاء ath-thulāthāʼ
Senin Monday الإثْنَيْن al-ithnayn
serikat company, federation شَرِكَة sharika
setan devil, demon شَيْطَان shaitan
siasat strategy, trick سِياسة siyāsa: policy, strategy
sifat characteristic, trait, quality صِفة ṣifa
soal question, problem سُؤال suʼāl
subuh early morning صُبْح ṣubḥ
sultan king سلطان sultan
syariat Islamic law شَريعة sharīʻa
syukur gratitude شُكْر shukr
taat obedient طاعة ṭāʿa
tabib traditional healer طَبيب ṭabīb
takabur arrogant تَكَبُّر takabbur
takdir destiny تقدير taqdir: estimation
terjemah to translate تَرْجَمة tarjama
tertib orderly تَرْتيب tartīb
umum common, public عُموم ʻumūm
umur age عُمْر ʻumr
unsur element عُنْصُر ʻunṣur
wahid one, the only واحِد wāḥid
wajah face وَجْه wajh
wajib required, compulsory وَاجِب wājib: duty
waktu time وَقْت waqt
waris to inherit وارِث wārith
wilayah region, area وِلاية wilāya
yakin confidence, sureness, belief يَقين yaqīn
zaitun olive زَيْتون zaytūn
zakar male genitalia ذَكَر dhakar
zakat alms زَكاة zakāh
zaman era زَمَن zaman
zamrud emerald زُمُرُّد zumurrud
ziarah pilgrimage زيارة ziyāra: visit
zinah adultery زِناء zināʼ

From Persian[edit]

Persian is an Indo-European language under the Indo-Iranian branch, wherein Sanskrit and Hindi belongs.

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
anggur grape, wine انگور an-gūr
baju shirt بازو bāzū (arm)
bandar port بندر bandar
cadar veil چادر chādar
dewan assembly, meeting دیوان divan (administration)
firdaus eden, bountiful garden فردوس firdaus
gandum wheat گندم gandum
juang battle جنگ jang
kaisar emperor قیصر qeysar
kismis raisin کشمش kishmish
kurma date خرما khurmā
medan area, field, square میدان meidan
nakhoda captain of a ship ناخدا nākhodā
pahlawan hero پ‍ﮩ‍لوان pahlwān
pasar market/bazaar بازار bāzār
pesona charm افسون afsūn
piala cup, trophy پیاله pyāla (cup, bowl)
pirus turquoise سنگ فیروزه firuze
rubah fox روباه rubah
salam hello/regards سلام salam (a is pronounced like in autograph)
sihir magic سِحْر sihr
syahbandar portmaster شاهِ بندر shah-e bandar (lit. "king of the port")
takhta throne تخت takht
taufan typhoon تافون taufan
ustad teacher (religious, Islam) اُستَاذ ustad
Yunani Greece يونان yūnān
zirah armor زره zirah

From Hebrew[edit]

Note Ref
bethel 1. holy place,
2. a Christian denomination
בֵּיתאֵל beth.el house of God usually loan rendered as bait Allah (bait is a loanword from the cognate word بَيْت (bayt) in Arabic).
haleluya alleluia, hallelujah הַלְּלוּיָהּ halleluya alleluia, hallelujah
kibbutz kibbutz קִבּוּץ kibútz kibbutz
mazmur psalms מזמור mizmor a lyric ode, or a song set to music see psalms.
onani masturbation, to masturbate אוננות onanút masturbation after the Biblical figure: Onan, Genesis: 38:9 [5][6][7][8]
rabi rabbi רַבִּי rab.bi rabbi
sabat shabbat שַׁבָּת shab.bat shabbat 1. see Shabbat and Sabbath.
2. see also sabtu, loanword from Arabic.
Yahwe Yahweh יהוה *see note Yahweh 1. see Yahweh, Judeo-Christian-Islamic God.
2. see also tetragrammaton.

From East Asian languages[edit]

From Chinese[edit]

Chinese loanwords into Indonesian often involve cuisine, trade, or Chinese culture. According to the 2000 census, the relative number of people of Chinese descent in Indonesia (termed the peranakan) is almost 1% (totaling to about 3 million people, although this may likely be an underestimate due to an anti-Chinese sentiment that exists in some circles of the population), yet the peranakan are the most successful when it comes to business, trade, and cuisine.[citation needed] Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu – knife), mie (T:麵, S:面, Hokkien mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), teko (T:茶壺, S:茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (bitter) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you'). Almost all loanwords in Indonesian of Chinese origin come from Hokkien (福建) or Hakka (客家).

From Japanese[edit]

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the official language and national language. The influx of Japanese loanword can be classified into two periods, Japanese colonial administration period (1942–1945) and globalisation of Japanese popular culture (1980-now). As Indonesian is written using Latin script, Japanese romanisation systems influence the spelling in Indonesian.

From Korean[edit]

In contrast with Chinese and Japanese, Korean loanwords are mostly related to Korean culture. These loanword is attributed to increasing popularity of South Korean culture. Since the turn of the 21st century, South Korea has emerged as a major exporter of popular culture and tourism, aspects which have become a significant part of its burgeoning economy. This phenomenon is called Korean Wave.

Note Ref
bibimbap bibimbap 비빔밥 bi-bim-bap bibimbap Korean rice dish with meat, vegetables, egg and spices that are eaten by mixing all these ingredients. [9]
bulgogi bulgogi 불고기 bul-go-gi bulgogi Korean dish made from seasoned meat, processed by grilling or frying. [10]
kimci kimchi 김치 kim-chi kimchi traditional side dishmade from salted and fermented vegetables. [11]
mukbang mukbang 먹방 먹放 muk-bang mukbang Broadcast that shows people eating a lot of food. [12]
taekwondo taekwondo 태권도 跆拳道 taekwondo taekwondo Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
won won won 1. won, the currencies
2. circle
Won are currencies of South and North Korea.

From European languages[edit]

The European influence on Indonesian is largely related to European intervention and colonialism. The most significant consequence is the continued use of the Latin alphabet instead of various local scripts.

The Portuguese arrived first in the archipelago and influenced the original Malay language after their conquest of Malacca. Portuguese dominance over trade in the region and control of the spice islands of Moluccas significantly increased Portuguese influence, as did the introduction of Christianity in the region.

However, Dutch has had the most influence on the language, as a result of the Dutch having controlled Indonesia for 300 years after eliminating Portuguese influence in the archipelago. The Dutch language itself was not introduced into the archipelago before 1799, when the Dutch government took over the colony from the already bankrupt VOC (Dutch East India company). Previously, the Malay language had adopted by the VOC due to its trade and diplomatic benefit, which led to large numbers of loanwords being introduced into the language.

English has also exerted a certain influence on the archipelago's language, being the third most favored foreign language by the educated in colonial days. More recently, English has played an increasingly large role in the nation's official language as a result of globalization.

From Portuguese[edit]

Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail east to the "Spice Islands". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.[13]

Word Meaning Original word
akta certificate, act (law) acta (Dutch: akte)
algojo executioner algoz
armada fleet armada
babu servant babo
bangku chair banco: bench (Dutch: bank)
baret barrette barrete
batako brick pataco
Belanda Dutch, Holland Holanda
bendéra flag bandeira
beranda verandah, porch varanda
biola violin viola
bola ball bola
bolu (kué) (a type of) cake bolo
bonéka doll boneca
cerutu cigar charuto
dansa dance (not including traditional dance) dança
dadu dice dado
gagu mute gago: stutterer, stuttering
ganco hook gancho
garpu fork garfo
geréja church igreja
gratis free (not having to pay) gratis (Dutch: gratis)
jendéla window janela
Jepang Japan Japão
kaldu broth caldo
kanal channel canal (Dutch: kanaal)
kéju cheese queijo
keméja shirt camisa
keréta chariot/cart carreta
kertas paper cartas (papel)
kredo creed credo
lelang auction leilão
lemari closet armário
meja table mesa
mentéga butter manteiga
Minggu Sunday domingo
misa mass missa
mitos myth mitos
nanas pineapple ananás
natal Christmas natal
noda stain nódoa
nona young woman dona
pabrik factory fábrica
palsu fake, false falso
pasta paste pasta
perdu shrub pardo: brown
pesiar cruise, excursion passear
pesta party festa
pigura/figura picture, figure figura
pita ribbon fita
pompa pump bomba hidráulica, (Dutch: pomp)
pribadi personal, private privado
roda wheel roda
sabun soap sabão
saku pocket, bag saco (Dutch: zak)
santo/santa saint santo
sekolah school escola (Latin: schola)
sepatu shoe sapato
serdadu soldier soldado
témpo time tempo
tenda tent tenda
terigu wheat trigo
tinta ink tinta
tolol fool tolo
tukar exchange trocar

From Dutch[edit]

The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left an extensive imprint on Indonesian vocabulary. These Dutch loanwords, as well as other non Italo-Iberian European language loanwords which were introduced via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords possessing clusters of multiple consonants pose difficulties for speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by the insertion of the schwa. For example, Dutch schroef [ˈsxruf]sekrup [səˈkrup]. The months from January (Januari) to December (Desember) used in Indonesian are also derived from Dutch. Although Dutch loanwords are normally no longer newly-developed, there is some sort of derivation using Dutch-loaned suffixes, like -si "-tion" ← Dutch -tie, -ase "-age" ← -age, and -is "-ic, -ish" ← -isch.

It is estimated that 10,000 words in the Indonesian language can be traced back to the Dutch language.[14]

From English[edit]

Many English words are adopted in Indonesian through globalization, due to this however many Indonesians mistake words that were originally adopted from Dutch with English due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages (both are Indo-European Germanic languages from the same branch, the West Germanic). However, many English words in Indonesian too are borrowed via Malay (such as: sains (science), enjin (engine), botol (bottle), gaun (gown), etc.).

Word Meaning Original word
akses access access
akting acting (for drama, etc.) acting
aktris actress actress
aktual actual actual (displacing Dutch actueel)
akuntabel accountable accountable
aset asset asset
astronot astronaut astronaut
bisnis business business
blender blender blender
botol bottle bottle (via Malay botol)
cas to charge (of electrical power) charge (via Malay cas)
dasbor dashboard dashboard
desain design design
diskon discount discount
displai display display
domain domain domain (displacing Dutch domein)
draf draft draft
edit edit edit
eksis exist exist
eksperimental experimental experimental (displacing Dutch experimenteel)
elektronik electronic electronic
enjin engine engine (via Malay enjin)
entri entry (as in "data entry") entry
fesyen fashion fashion (via Malay fesyen)
fondasi foundation foundation (influenced by Dutch suffix -ie for -ion)
forensik forensics forensic
fotokopi photocopy photocopy
frontal frontal frontal
gaun dress gown (via Malay gaun)
gim game game
gitar guitar guitar (via Malay)
gosip gossip gossip
independen independent independent
instan instant instant
intelijen intelligence intelligence
isu issue issue
jus juice juice
kalem calm calm
kampus campus campus
karteker caretaker caretaker
kartun cartoon cartoon
kaset cassette cassette
katering catering service catering
katrij ink cartridge cartridge (via Malay katrij)
kibor keyboard (computer or piano) keyboard
kiper goal keeper keeper
klaim claim claim
klakson horn klaxon (Dutch: claxon)
kliring clearing (banking) clearing
koboi cowboy cowboy
koin coin coin
kokpit cockpit cockpit
komersial commercial commercial (displacing Dutch commercieel)
komitmen commitment commitment
kompatibel compatible compatible
komputer computer computer
komplit complete complete (Dutch: Compleet)
kondom condom condom
konteks context context
konten content content
konter counter counter (Germans: konter)
kontroversi controversy controversy
krim cream cream
kriminal crime criminal (displacing Dutch crimineel)
kukis cookies cookies
kustodian custodian bank custodian
lobi lobby lobby
losion lotion lotion
manajemen management management
matriks matrix matrix
mikroskop microscope microscope
modem modem modem
modern modern modern (Dutch: moderne)
modul module module
monitor monitor monitor
opsional optional optional
panelis panelist panelist
parsel parcel parcel
partner partner partner
personal personal personal
pilot pilot pilot (Dutch: Piloot)
read:Ha-Pé (shortened word from Hand Phone)
cell phone hand phone (used in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and South Korea)
problem problem problem
proktor proctor proctor
prosiding proceedings proceeding
prosesor processor (computing) processor
radar radar radar
reviu review review
rileks relax relax
riset research research
roket rocket rocket
sampel sample sample
sains science science (via Malay sains)
skandal scandal scandal
skor score score
skrining screening (in the sense of "examination") screening
siber cyber cyber
sistem system system (displacing Dutch systeem)
sponsor sponsor sponsor
stop stop stop
stres stress stress
stroberi strawberry strawberry
suplai supply supply
survei survey survey
target target target
templat template template
tiket ticket ticket
tisu tissue tissue (via Malay)
transfer transfer transfer
tren trend trend
trik trick trick
unit unit unit
virtual virtual virtual
voli volleyball volley

From Greek[edit]

Note Ref
agape agape ἀγάπη agápē agape
apokrifa 1. uncertain source.
2. biblical apocrypha
ἀπόκρυφος apókruphos hidden
apologi 1. remorse.
2. defense
ᾰ̓πολογῐ́ᾱ apologíā (Ancient) defense
asbes, asbestos asbestos ἄσβεστος ásbestos unquenchable, inextinguishable asbest asbestos Dutch Dutch asbest (asbestos) is based on Latin asbestos (asbestos).
askese rigorous self-denial ἀσκητής askētḗs monk, hermit
autopsi, otopsi autopsy αὐτοψῐ́ᾱ autopsíā seeing with one's own eyes autopsie autopsy Dutch Dutch autopsie (autopsy) is based on Neo-Latin autopsia (autopsy).
demokrasi democracy δημοκρατία dēmokratía democracy democratie democracy Dutch
diaken deacon διάκονος diákonos servant, messenger diaken deacon Dutch
diakonia diaconia δῐᾱκονῐ́ᾱ diākoníā service
ekaristi eucharist εὐχᾰρῐστῐ́ᾱ eukharistíā 1. thanks, gratitude.
2. giving of thanks.
3. eucharist
eucharistie eucharist Dutch
evangeli Gospel εὐάγγελος euángelos good news ēvangelium good news, Gospel Latin
filsafat philosophy φιλοσοφία philasophia philosophy فَلْسَفَة falsafa philosophy Arabic
hipokrit hypocrite ῠ̔ποκρῐτής hupokritḗs 1. interpreter.
2. actor.
hypocrita 1. mimic (mime artist).
2. hypocrite
Latin 1. The Greek word is υποκριτής (ypokritís).
idola idol εἴδωλον eídōlon 1. phantom, ghost quotations.
2. shape, figure, image.
3. image of the mind: idea, fancy.
4. representation, statue, idol
idolum, idola 1. image, form, especially a spectre, apparition or ghost.
2. idol
idool, idoolen idol Dutch
idol, idolum idol English
mitos myth μῦθος mythos 1. word, speech, conversation.
2. tale, story, narrative.
mitos myth (pl.) Portuguese
oikumene, ekumene ecumene οἰκουμένη oikouménē 1. inhabited.
2. civilised world.
porno pornography, lewd πόρνη pórnē harlot 1. From contraction of Indonesian pornografi (pornographic), from Dutch pornografie or English pornography, from French pornographie.
2. Pornografi is a formal word in Indonesia, while porno is informal.
sinagogê synagogue, συναγωγή synagogē assembly synagoge synagogue Dutch Synagogue is Judaism prayer house.
stadion stadium στάδιον stadion (Ancient) 600-foot stadion stadium Dutch The Greek word is στάδιο (stadio).
teater theatre θέᾱτρον théātron (Ancient) theatre, play theater theatre Dutch 1. The Greek word is θέατρο (théatro).
2. Dutch theater (theatre) is based from Old French theatre, from Latin theatrum.

From Latin[edit]

It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g. aktiviti (Malaysian) vs. aktivitas (Indonesian), universiti (Malaysian) vs. universitas (Indonesian)).

Meaning Note Ref
ad interim temporarily ad interim
aktivitas activity activitas
almamater alma mater alma māter alma mater
alter ego accompanying person alter ego another self
devosi devotion dēvōtiō devotion
èkskomunikasi excommunication excommūnicātiō excommunication excommunicatie Dutch excommunication
fakultas faculty facultas faculty The Dutch loanword faculteit was used before.
forum forum forum public place, marketplace, forum forum Portuguese
hosti sacramental bread hostia sacramental bread hostie Dutch sacramental bread
humaniora humanities hūmāniōra humaniora Dutch
intērnuntius Papal internuntius internuntius intermediary, messenger
kanonis canonical canonicus canonical
kantata song cantata cantada Portuguese
kardinal cardinal, an official of Catholic Church cardinālis hinge kardinaal Dutch cardinal, an official of Catholic Church
kongrégasi Congregation congregātiō Congregation congregatie Dutch Congregation
konkordat concordat concordatum concordat concordaat Dutch concordat
konsèkrasi consecration cōnsecrātiō consecration consecratie Dutch consecration
konsistori consistory consistorium consistory consistorie Dutch consistory
kualitas quality qualitas Dutch-influenced informal spelling kwalitas is used sometimes. The Dutch word is kwaliteit.
kuria curia curia curia curia Dutch curia
légio Legion of Mary legio legion
nihil nil, nothing, zero nihil
nimbus nimbus nimbus nimbus, dark cloud
nota bene actually, after look carefully, also nota bene examine closely
novèna novena novēna novena
oblasi the offering of worship, thanks etc. to a deity. oblātiō offering, gift
oratorium 1. chapel,
2. oratorio, a musical composition
ōrātōrium place of prayer, oratory oratorium Dutch 1. chapel,
2. oratorio, a musical composition
ordo 1. Catholics religious group,
2. a biological taxonomy level
ōrdō series, class, group
pater priest pater father pater Dutch father (priest)
pidato speech pedātō पदार्थ (padārtha) Sanskrit meaning of a word
primas primate prīmus first
rékolèksi a spiritual retreat recollectus to collect again
rèktor rector rēctor leader, director, tutor rector Dutch rector
rosario prayer beads, especially rosary rosarium a rose garden, rosary rosário Portuguese rosary
sakramèn sacrament sacrāmentum sacrament sacrament Dutch sacrament
sakriilegi sacrilege sacrilegium sacrilege
sakristi sacristy sacristia vestry sacristie Dutch sacristy
santa saint (female) sāncta saint (female) santa Portuguese saint (female)
santo saint (male) sānctus saint (male) santo Portuguese saint (male)
sēkulir secular clergy saecularis of the age
sivitas akademika academic community cīvitās acadēmica city's academic
stipèndium alms (Church) stīpendium stipend
tabērnakēl tabernacle tabernaculum tent tabernakel Dutch tabernacle
universitas university universitas The Dutch loanword universiteit was used before.
vigili vigil vigil wake, watching, alert
vikaris vicar vicar vicar

From French[edit]

Note Ref
akur agree, get along well accord akkoord Dutch
ala in style of à la
angkét inquiry enquête enquête Dutch
apanasē apanage apanage apanage
argot argot, secret language argot argot
arsip archives archives archief Dutch
atasé attaché attaché attaché attaché attaché Dutch
avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde Dutch
brevet certificate, patent brevet certificate, patent
bugénfil bougainvillea bougainville bougainvillea bougainvillea bougainvillea Dutch
bulat round boulette round
chauvinisme chauvinism chauvinisme chauvinism
didong, didon French dis donc!
doblé, dublé gold-plated work doublé to double, duplicate
domisili domicile domicile domicile
drèsoar buffet dressoir dresser, sideboard
entrepeneur entrepreneur entrepreneur entrepreneur entrepreneur entrepreneur English
gala 1. first,
2. festive
galer (Old) to have fun; to enjoy oneself gala ball (formal dance) Dutch
garnisun garrison garnison garrison garnisoen garrison Dutch
guillotine guillotine guillotine guillotine
impromptu improvised action impromptu improvised action
intrik intrigue intrigue intrigue intrige intrigue Dutch
kulot shorts culotte panties, shorts
kado gift cadeau gift cadeau, kado gift Dutch
kampanye campaign campagne campaign campagne campaign Dutch
karantina quarantine quarantine quarantine quarantaine quarantine Dutch
karoseri the body of vehicle, car, coach, or bus carrosserie bodywork, body (of car) carrosserie body, bodywork of a motorized vehicle. Dutch
klise cliche cliché cliche cliché cliche Dutch
kondèktur conductor (ticket-related) conducteur driver conducteur conductor (ticket-related) Dutch
kornet cornet, a brass instrument cornet à pistons cornet, a brass instrument
kudeta coup d'état coup d'état coup d'état
kupe train seat coupé car
legiun legion légion legion legioen legion Dutch
letnan lieutenant lieutenant lieutenant luitenant lieutenant Dutch
libur free (from activities) libre
manuver maneuver manœuvre maneuver manoeuvre maneuver Dutch
mayones mayonnaise mayonnaise mayonnaise
mèmoar memoirs mémoire memoirs
milieu milieu milieu milieu milieu milieu Dutch
monseigneur monsignor monseigneur monsignor monseigneur monsignor Dutch
première premiere première first première premiere Dutch,
pual voile voile 1. veil.
2. sail
restan remnant, remainder restant remnant, remainder restant remnant, remainder Dutch
restoran restaurant restaurant restaurant restaurant restaurant Dutch
sabotase sabotage sabotage sabotage sabotage sabotage Dutch
sepeda bicycle vélocipède bicycle
supir driver chauffeur driver chauffeur driver Dutch
tante aunt tante aunt
tiras circulation, of newspaper or magazine tirage
trotoar sidewalk trottoir sidewalk troittoir

From North Germanic[edit]

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is sometimes referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Swedish, Icelandic and Norwegian scholars and laypeople.

North Germanic
North Germanic
North Germanic
Notes Ref
fjord fjord fjord Danish fjord [1]
kjökkenmodding(er) midden kjøkkenmødding Norwegian midden [1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka: 1999, halaman 1185 s.d. 1188 berisikan Pendahuluan buku Senarai Kata Serapan dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 1996.
  2. ^ a b C. D. Grijns et al. (eds). "Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay" (PDF). KITLV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  3. ^ Nurlela Adan, Ermitati, Rosnida M. Nur (2001). Kamus Bahasa Indonesia-Minangkabau. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Becoming Indian: The Unfinished Revolution of Culture and Identity by Pavan K. Varma p.125
  5. ^ Indonesian – English, English – Indonesian Dictionary, here: http://www.kamus-online.com/?lang=en
  6. ^ "Onani".
  7. ^ "Definisi onani - Kamus Bahasa Indonesia".
  8. ^ "Pencarian Kata "onani" | KBBI.co.id".
  9. ^ "Bibimbap meaning on KBBI". KBBI Daring. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Bulgogi meaning on KBBI". KBBI Daring. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  11. ^ "Kimci meaning on KBBI". KBBI Daring. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  12. ^ "Mukbang meaning on KBBI". KBBI Daring. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  13. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)


  • de Vries, Jan W., Grijns, C.D. and Santa Maria, L. 1983 Indonesian : a check-list of words of European origin in Bahasa Indonesia and traditional Malay Leiden : Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. ISBN 90-6718-004-1.
  • Badudu, J.S; Kamus Kata-kata Serapan Asing Dalam Bahasa Indonesia; Kompas, Jakarta, 2003
  • Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka: 1999, halaman 1185 s.d. 1188 berisikan Pendahuluan buku Senarai Kata Serapan dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 1996 (dengan sedikit penyaduran tanpa mengubah maksud dan tujuan seseungguhnya dari buku ini).

External links[edit]