List of loanwords in Indonesian

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The Indonesian language has absorbed many loanwords from other languages, including Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese, Japanese, and other Austronesian languages.

Indonesian differs from the form of Malay used in Malaysia in a number of aspects, primarily due to the different influences both languages experienced and also due to the fact that the majority of Indonesians speak another language as their mother tongue. Indonesia functioning as lingua franca for speakers of 200 various languages across the archipelago.

Conversely, many words of Malay-Indonesian origin have also been borrowed into English. Words borrowed into English (e.g., bamboo, orangutan, dugong, amok, and even "cooties") generally entered through Malay language by way of British colonial presence in Malaysia and Singapore, similar to the way the Dutch have been borrowing words from the various native Indonesian languages. One exception is "bantam", derived from the name of the Indonesian province Banten in Western Java (see Oxford American Dictionary, 2005 edition). Another is "lahar" which is Javanese for a volcanic mudflow. Still other words taken into modern English from Malay/Indonesian probably have other origins (e.g., "satay" from Tamil, or "ketchup" from Chinese).

During development, various native terms (mostly Javanese) from all over the archipelago made their way into the language. The Dutch adaptation of the Malay language during the colonial period resulted in the incorporation of a significant number of Dutch loanwords and vocabulary. This event significantly affected the original Malay language, which gradually developed into modern Indonesian. Most terms are documented in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.[1]

Chronology[edit]

The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reflects its historical and social context. Examples include the early Sanskrit borrowings, probably during the Srivijaya period, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian, especially during the time of the establishment of Islam, and words borrowed from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.[2]

  • Early Hindu and Buddhist influence from India results in many Sanskrit words in Indonesian (and especially adopted through Javanese influence). Indian traders may have contributed words as well, in Tamil and Sanskrit-related languages.
  • Indonesian has envolved through trade with China since ancient times, including through significant numbers of Chinese immigrants migrating to Indonesia. As a result, some of the Chinese language, especially the Hokkien dialect, has been incorporated into Indonesian.
  • Muslim influence, originally through Arabic and Persian traders over a number of centuries, resulted in an extensive influence from the Arabic and Persian.
  • Portuguese contact, trade and colonization in the 16th century was the first contact between Indonesia and European culture, and had an influence that remains today, in spite of the relatively short time period of that influence.
  • Dutch colonization and administration, lasting from the 17th century to the 20th, extensively affected the vocabulary. As Dutch-trained linguists determined the rules for the official Indonesian language, Dutch thus affected the structure of the language as well. For example, suffixes such as "-asi" (e.g., administrasi = administratie) and "-if" (e.g., fiktif = fictief) were applied with consistency. Some loan words are still intensively used today, although Indonesian equivalents exist.
  • Modern Indonesian regularly adopts new words from other languages, particularly English. In contrast to the large number of mechanical terms borrowed from Dutch (e.g., automotive parts), hi-tech words are typically taken from English (e.g., internet).

But the processes may also be ‘out of period’; for example, Indonesian words are still being concocted from Sanskrit, and the influence of the Dutch language certainly continued after the Dutch themselves left.[2]

Indonesian has also generalized brand names into common (lower-case) nouns as generic name. For example, "sanyo" refers to any electrical well pump, regardless of manufacturer or "odol" as all of toothpastes. This is similar to the type of generalization that occurs in English words like "xerox" or "tampax" or "polaroid".

List of loanwords[edit]

From Austronesian languages[edit]

From Minangkabau[edit]

Most of Indonesian's vocabulary is natively derived from Malay, but some might ultimately be loanwords from Minang language. Yet it is unclear, since Malay and Minang are closely related, and some might consider Minang to have been an ancestral dialect of Malay.[3]

Word Meaning Original word
acuh careful acuah
anjungan pavilion anjuang
awak you (regional), crew, member awak
bantah denies bantah
baruh lowland baruah
bernas spirited boneh
bunda mother bundo
buyung sonny buyuang
cabul lewd cabua
cakak fight cakak
campin skilled campin
cegak vigorous cegak
celoteh babble ciloteh
cemeeh jeer cemeeh
cengang amazed cangang
dara girl, virgin, dove daro
dadih buttermilk dadiah
dendang sing dendang
gadang large gadang
gadis girl, virgin gadih
gaek aged gaek
galau confusion galau
gelimang mixed galimang
gengsi prestige gengsi
heboh commotion, fuss heboh: noisy
himbau call imbau
jangat skin jangek
jenjang ladder janjang
jerang boiled jarang
jinjing pick-up jinjiang
junjung respectful junjuang
kelok meanders kelok
lamban slow lamban
lancang sassy lancang
nan which, who (connecting word) nan
ngarai canyon ngarai
nian very, really, truly nian
pencak art (martial art) pancak
penghulu chief of family panghulu
ranah realm, domain ranah: land
rancak beautiful rancak
rantau foreign country rantau
rendang rendang randang
sanak family sanak
semarak splendor semarak
silat silat (martial art) silek
surau mosque surau
tandas demolished tandeh
teroka open up new areas taruko
terompah sandals tarompah
tuah good luck tuah
tungkai leg tungkai
usang obsolete usang

From Javanese[edit]

Compared to the Malay language spoken as the native regional language in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula or the standardized version of Malaysian, Indonesian differs profoundly by the large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into their already rich vocabulary. This is mostly contributed by Java's position as the center of Indonesian politics, education, and culture, since the capital is located in Jakarta on Java island, albeit in the area where the Javanese are not the majority. The disproportionate number of Javanese that dominate Indonesian politics is reflected by the fact that six out of seven Indonesian presidents have been ethnic Javanese. The result is that the Javanese began to pour their own vocabulary into Indonesian to describes terms and words that do not have exact counterparts in the Malay language. It is also important to note that most of Indonesian's Sanskrit loanwords have been transmitted through Old Javanese, a language whose Sanskrit borrowings number almost 50% of the total vocabulary.

Word Meaning Original word
adem cool temperature adhem
adiluhung/adiluhur refined, highly sophisticated taste adiluhung
amblas vanish amblas
ambruk collapse ambruk
among nurture among
ampuh potent ampuh
anggun graceful anggun
angker haunted angker
anjlok dropped anjlok
antek stooge antek
anyar new anyar
apik neat, nice apik
asri beautiful (scenery/nature), neat, clean, nice asri
ayu beautiful (women), pretty, gorgeous, graceful, elegant ayu
ayom give shade, foster, protect ayom, hangayomi
baluwarti palace fortified wall baluwerti (ultimately from Spanish 'baluarte via Filipino languages)
bangsal hall bangsal, ultimately from Sanskrit: sala (room)
batik batik mbatik, from: amba-nitik
bejat depraved bejat
beres completed beres
betot pull suddenly betot
bopong carry bopong
brandal thugs brandalan
bromocorah criminal bromocorah
buron/buronan runaway or fugitive buron: from buru-an (to be hunted)
candi temple candhi
canggih sophisticated canggih
cebol midget cebol
celingukan look around celingukan
ceplas ceplos speak out frankly ceplas ceplos
copet pickpocket copet
dengkul knee dengkul
doyan be fond doyan
edan crazy edhan
empu maestro, master craftsman mpu
ganteng handsome ngganteng
gebrakan blow gebrakan
gede big gede
gembok padlock gembok
gendong piggyback gendong
gerebek raid grebeg: traditional ceremony involving mass competing to grab sacred objects
gilas run over giles
gosong scorched gosong
irit frugal irit
jagal butcher jagal
jago skillful, expert jago: rooster
jagoan tough guy, hero jago: rooster
jajan snack jajan
kedut twitching kedutan
kemben torso wrap kembhen
kesurupan possessed surup: fit, enter
konde bulbous hairdo or hair extension on the back of the head kondhe
lara sadness (poetic) lara: sickness
larung intentionally swept or send away through water (river/sea) larung
lapik base lapik
luhur noble, high dhuwur, luhur
manut obedient manut
melengos looked away melengos
minggat flee minggat
mumpuni accomplished mumpuni
nganggur idle, jobless nganggur
nusantara Indonesian archipelago, archipelago nusantara
pagar langkan balustrade pagar langkan
pamrih intention pamrih
pemirsa viewers pemirsa
pendopo roofed front open hall pendhopo, ultimately from Sanskrit: mandapa (front hall as part of temple)
pilek flu pilek
resik clean, well maintained resik
sedot suck sedot
selaras harmonious slaras
selingkuh affair selingkuh
semberono careless sembrono
semrawut complicated mess, out of order semrawut
sungkan shy sungkan
tembang song tembang
tentram peaceful tentrem
titisan reincarnated nitis
tuntas complete tuntas
undakan stages undhak
unduh download unduh
unggah upload munggah
umpak base umpak

From Sundanese[edit]

Besides Javanese, Sundanese is another local language that has influenced Indonesian's vocabulary, albeit to a lesser extent. This can be attributed to the fact that the capital, Jakarta, was formerly a part of West Java, a province which, together with Banten, before it too was divided, constituted the Pasundan (Sundanese world), the most significant non-Javanese region in an otherwise Javanese-dominated Java island. Some of the most populous cities in Indonesia are also located in the Pasundan, including West Java's capital, Bandung, and Jakarta's four satellite cities (Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, and Tangerang).

Word Meaning Original word
aci tapioca flour aci sampeu
amburadul mess, something out of order amburadul
anjangsana high official visiting anjangsana
balairung hall bale riung: traditional building for meeting
belagu ostentatious balagu
bloon (spelled blo-'on) stupid blo'on/o'on
getol active getol
hatur to express, to send (polite) haturkeun
jangkung tall jangkung
juara champion, winner jawara: tough guy, fighter, hero
kedap proof as in "kedap air" (waterproof) kedap
kesima awe, amaze kesima
kesohor famous kasohor
kolot old fashioned kolot: old
lalap raw vegetable, consumed lalab
majikan boss majikan
menyaru pretending, camouflaging verbal form of saru: undistinguishable
patungan chip in, joint-venture, collecting money to buy something for common use patungan
pemulung waste picker noun of the verb pulung: pick
pengaruh influence pangaruh
pepes cooking method using banana leaf wrapping papais: plural form of pais
risih uneasy, uncomfortable risih
siksa torture siksa: education
songong no self-awareness songong
uwa uncle or aunty older than parent uwa

From Betawi[edit]

Betawi is a Malay-based creole that arose from influences by foreign traders who stopped at the capital, Jakarta, including those from China and Arabia. Most of its speakers are inhabitants of Jakarta, and its influence upon Indonesian is attributed to its frequent usage in Indonesian mass media, including radio and television. Its status as a "hip" language by other portions of Indonesian society is another contributing factor as well.

Word Meaning Original word
abal-abal fake, false abal-abal
bangkotan aged bangkotan
begah replete begah
butut old-fashioned butut
cebur splash cebur
entot copulate entot
gelandang football midfielder, bringer gelandang
gelandangan homeless gelandangan
mampus dead mampus
ngamen street performance ngamen
ribet complicated, hard, not easy ribet
rombeng rags rombeng
timpuk throw timpuk
udak chase udak

From Nias[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Nias
Word
Nias
Meaning
Note Meaning
aboa backward (body)
anda you (respectful) anda
araro palate araro palate
mado Nias' clan system mado

From Batak[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
molek voluptuous molek

From Maluku[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
beta I, me, myself béta

From Manado[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
pasti surely so pasti

From Balinese[edit]

Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000) on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Balinese
Word
Balinese
Transliteration
Balinese
Meaning
Note Ref
arja a Balinese opera ᬳᬭ᭄ᬚ arja a Balinese opera
awatara avatar ᬅᬯᬢᬭ awatara avatar 1. see also avatar.
2. Loanword from Sanskrit अवतार (IAST: avatāra, avatar)
awig-awig ᬳᬯᬶᬕ᭄ᬳᬯᬶᬕ᭄ awig-awig Awig-awig is Balinese adat (customary) law.
babarangan bonang ᬩᬩᬭᬗᬦ᭄ babarangan bonang
bade ᬩᬤᬾ bade Bade is tower for Balinese Hinduism cremation ceremony.
bakaran ᬩᬓᬭᬦ᭄ bakaran
bancingah ᬩᬜ᭄ᬘᬶᬗᬄ bancingah
bandrang spear ᬩᬦ᭄ᬤ᭄ᬭᬂ bandrang spear
bangkung sow (pig) ᬩᬗ᭄ᬓᬸᬂ bangkung sow (pig)
banjar ᬩᬜ᭄ᬚᬃ banjar Banjar is administrative division below the village in Bali.
bantên offering ᬩᬦ᭄ᬢᭂᬦ᭄ banten offering
barong barong ᬩᬭᭀᬂ barong barong
bêbali ᬩᭂᬩᬮᬶ bebali Bebali is a sacred dance in Bali.
bêbangkit ᬩᭂᬩᬗ᭄ᬓᬶᬢ᭄ bebangkit Bebangkit is a offering for Durga.
bêbarongan ᬩᭂᬩᬭᭀᬗᬦ᭄ bebarongan Bebarongan is a type of roofing in Bali.
bebekel ᬩᭂᬩᭂᬓᭂᬮ᭄ bebekel
bêli Beli is older brother in Balinese.
bendésa ᬩᭂᬦ᭄ᬤᬾᬰ bendésa Bendesa is Balinese adat village head.
caturjalma
Cokorda
Dewa ᬤᬾᬯ dewa 1. Dewa is a title for Brahmin caste in Bali.
2. Loanword of Sanskrit देव ((IAST: deva)).

From Indian languages[edit]

From Sanskrit[edit]

Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit, the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem, and its status is comparable with that of Latin in English and other Western European languages. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms; these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. For example, the name of Jayapura city (former Hollandia) and Jayawijaya Mountains (former Orange Range) in the Indonesian province of Papua were coined in the 1960s; both are Sanskrit origin name to replace its Dutch colonial names. Some Indonesian contemporary medals of honor and awards, such as Bintang Mahaputra medal, Kalpataru award and Adipura award, are also Sanskrit derived names.

The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India long ago before the 1st century.[4] The words are either directly borrowed from India or through the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English dictionary by Prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries. Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

From Pali[edit]

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language and belongs to the Indo-European language family together with Sanskrit. As Sanskrit is the language vehicle of Hinduism, Pali is the language vehicle for Buddhism, especially the Theravada tradition which is mainly adhered to by Buddhists within Indosphere Southeast Asia. Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the Prakrits. The relationship to Vedic Sanskrit is less direct and more complicated; the Prakrits were descended from Old Indo-Aryan vernaculars.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Pali Word Pali Transcription Pali Meaning Note
belanja shopping, expense वलञ्ज valañja that which is spent or secreted
biku bhikkhu (classical) भिक्खु bhikkhu beggar, bhikkhu see also biksu from Sanskrit.
bikuni bhikkhuni (classical) भिक्खुणी bhikkhuṇī beggar, bhikkhuni see also biksuni from Sanskrit.
dana allocated money धन dhana treasure
dana donation, funds दान dāna giving, liberality; offering, alms cognate of Sanskrit दान (dāna).
duka sadness दुक्ख dukkha stress; suffering; pain; distress; discontent
mara calamity मार māra mara (demon) cognate of Sanskrit मार (māra).
merana sick, sadness मारण māraṇa killing, slaughter, murder cognate of Sanskrit मारण (māraṇa).
loba greed लोभ lobha greed; passion; unskillful desire.
percaya believe परिचय paricaya familiarity cognate of Sanskrit प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ)
raga (physical) body राग rāga lust; greed

From Hindi[edit]

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi is an Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language. It is descended from Sanskrit and is considered part of the New Indo-Aryan subgroup.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Hindi
Word
Hindi
Transcription
Hindi
Meaning
Note
abaimana anus, genital अपमान्य apamānya disreputable, dishonourable
acar pickles अचार achaar pickles
antari cloth अंतरीय antarīya under garment
gari, argari handcuffs हाथकड़ी hath-kaṛī hand+link
ayah (Malaysia) Indian female housemaid आया āyā ayah, nanny
bahana 1. loud sound (n.),
2. great, bright (adj.)
भनक bhanak a low or distant sound, hum, buzz, ring
हनना hannā to speak, to break silence
bakdul rein बागडोर bāgḍor rein
banglo perforated crates to keep the fish in the dam area banglā
bangsal ward, shed, public building भनसाल bhansāl storehouse, magazine, granary see भण्डसाल (bhanḍsāl) < भण्डसार (bhaṇḍasāra) storehouse, magazine, granary
barua procuress bhaṛuā
basi stale, spoilt बासी bāsī stale, rancid
bel bell bel
belati dagger विलायती vilāyatī foreign
bendahari, bendari female trasurer भंडारी bhaṇḍārī store keeper
bendi two-wheeled cart bhinḍī
benian बनियान baniyān under garment, vest
beta I (first-person pronoun) (classical, Moluccas) बेटा beṭā son
bêti proof beṭī
bi aunt
cacar pox (disease) चेचक cecak pox (disease)
cakela brothel, whorehouse (archaic) चकला caklā brothel, whorehouse
candu opium चण्डू caṇḍū opium from Sanskrit चण्ड+उकः
cap stamp ?
छापा
chāp
ṭhappā
?
stamp
capal leather sandal चप्पल cappal slipper
celana pants, trousers चोलना ćolnā short breeches, reaching half-way down the thighs
cempa campā
ceri cherry (Muntingia calabura) curī
ceteri tent (in boat) (arch.) छत्री ćhatrī covering, canopy Sanskrit tadbhava word छत्रिका
cindai flowery silk cunrī
coli (arch.) colī
culim smoking pipe चिलम cilam smoking pipe see also chillum
cura funny churā
curi steal चूरी
चोरी
ćūrī
corī
steal
cuti leave छुट्टी chuṭṭī leave
dal bean दाल dāl dried, split pulses see dal.
dam check (pattern) दाम dām net, snare
dandi a kind of musical instrument डोंडी ḍoṅḍī small kettle-drum Sanskrit tadbahva दुन्दुभी
dera lash durrā to whip
dian small lamp दिया dīyā light, lamp, lantern
dobi laundry worker धोबी dhobī laundry worker (male)
dol 1. indian drum,
2. mast
ढोल ḍhol dhol
डोल ḍol mast probably from Arabic دلو (dalw)
duhai an interjection word दुहाई duhāī cry for help
duli dust; foot; honorary word for official, nobility, or king डोली ḍolī a kind of sedan see also paduka.
dura far दूर dūr far
gajus cashew (Anacardium occidentale) दूर kājū cashew (Anacardium occidentale) possibly from Tupian acajú through Portuguese caju
gala-gala small bee gūgal
ganda small bee gāna
ganja Cannabis sativa गांझा gāṅjhā Cannabis sativa probably from Sanskrit गृञ्ज+कः, or गृञ्जनकः
gap 1. sound of slapping on a table.
2 sound of heartbeat.
gap the sound made by a blow, or in swallowing
geleca cake (arch.) gālīcā
guli marbles गोली golī ball from Sanskrit गोल+इका
gusar angry g̠uṣṣa choking, anger from Arabic غصة, from. غصّ 'to be choked'

From Tamil[edit]

Loanwords from Tamil, while also an Indian language (though not Indo-European like Sanskrit), mainly exist in cuisine, like Chinese and unlike Sanskrit. It is a Dravidian language and not an Indo-Aryan language. However, Hinduism had great impact in Tamil, there are several Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil and they are possibility to list them in Indo-Aryan loanwords, such as Sanskrit.

Interaction between Tamil speakers and Malay speakers has been established from ancient time. Tamil influence has been around such as Palava usage as ancient script in Indonesia (Palava dynasty was existed on 275 CE–897 CE) and Chola invasion of Srivijaya in 1025. It mainly entered the lexicon of Malay (and by extension, Indonesian) with the immigration of South Indian traders who settled around the Strait of Malacca.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Tamil Word Tamil Transliteration Tamil Meaning Note
acaram 1. ring,
2. earnest money
அச்சகாரம் accāram earnest money
acu mould, model அச்சு accu mould
andai if, suppose அண்டை aṇṭai near, support
apam kind of cake அப்பம் appam appam, rice cake, bread pastry
badai storm வாடை vāṭai wind, north wind
bagai sort of வகை vakai kind, sort
baji wedge வசி vaci cleft, point, edge
banci adze வாய்ச்சி vāycci adze, instrument for cutting the surface of bricks
banian, benian jewelry box வணிகம் vaṇikaṃ trademan, merchant
basi 1. commission, fee
2. overtime or extra pay
3. reduction (in price), discount
வாசி vāci 1. difference
2. rate, as of interest; portion
3. discount, in changing money
batil copper bowl, plate, tray வட்டில் vaṭṭil a brass tray, a platter; basket
bedil gun, rifle வெடி veṭi explosion, as of gun via Javanese bedhil
belaka entirely, only, merely வணிகம் vilaku to deviate from; to go astray; to err; ?
belenggu fetters, handcuffs, thumbcuffs விலாங்கு vilāṅku eel ?
benara laundryman வண்ணான் vaṇṇāṉ washerman
bicu lever வீச்சு vīccu blow, stroke
biram 1. elephant,
2. double-headed snake,
3. red
வேழம் vēḻam elephant
canai grindstone சாணை cāṇai-k-kal grindstone
cemeti whip சம்மட்டி cammaṭṭi 1. (horse-)whip,
2. large hammer
cerpelai mongoose (Herpestes sp.) கீரிப்பிள்ளை kīri-p-piḷḷai common Indian mungoose, Indian ichneumon, Herpestes mungo
cerpu leather sandals (terompah-like) செருப்பு ceruppu leather sandals, slippers, shoes
cerutu, serutu cigar சுருட்டு curuṭṭu 1. curling, coiling;
2. cigar
ceti money lender செட்டி ceṭṭi mercantile caste, traders from Prakrit sēṭṭišrēṣṭhin
cukai excise tax, custom சுங்கம் cuṅkam duty on goods, customs, tolls from Prakrit šuṅkašulka
cuku dried gambier roots சுக்கு cukku dried ginger
culiah specific customer சோழியன் cōḻiyaṉ title of certain sub-castes of Brahmins, Vēḷāḷas, etc.
cuma only, no others சும்மா cummā leisurely, without any occupation or work ?
dendam revenge, grudge, resentment தெண்டம் teṇṭam punishment, penalty
gembala shepherd gō-pālan *?
gudang warehouse கிடங்கு kiṭaṅku warehouse, storehouse loanword from Malay gaḍong.
gula sugar குளம் kuḷam sugar *?
gulai kind of curry குலை gulai *?
gundu marbles குண்டு kuṇṭu ball; anything globular and heavy
gurindam two lines rhyme கிரந்தம் kirantam 1. book, treatise
2. A verse or prose containing 32 syllables, šlōka
from grantha.
helai sheet இலை ilai leaf, petal
idam craving, desire இட்டம் iṭṭam 1. desire, wish, inclination of mind, will
2. love, attachment
ikat to tie கட்டு kaṭṭu to tie, bind, fasten, shackle
jodoh, joli mate, partner சோடி cōṭi couple, pair loanword from Hind. jōḍi.
joli royal sedan டோலி ṭōli a kind of sedan loanword from Hind. ḍōlā.
kalam writing tool கலம் kalam Vessel; hollow utensil; Bottle-shaped vessel; Document written on palm-leaf
kambi wooden frames to strengthen the edges of doors கம்பி kampi wall plate
kapal boat கப்பல் kappal ship, sailing vessel
kari curry கறி kaṟi curry
karpai bullet container கரி kari the hard part of timber
kata to say, word காதை kaṭai 1. (to tell) story, narrative
2. word, term
3. to speak
katai, katik small, short கடை kaṭṭai short, low, dwarfish
defect, deficiency
katelum bastion கொத்தளம் kottalam part of a rampart, bastion, defensive erection on the top of a rampart from Pāli koṭṭhaka
kati a measure of weight = 6¼ ons கட்டி kaṭṭi a measure of weight = 25 palams
katik 1. Paspalum scrobiculatum,
2. Treron curvirostra,
3. area measurement (of land or field)
கட்டை kaṭṭai mile
katil bed கட்டில் kaṭṭil 1. cot, bedstead, couch, sofa,
2. Throne
kawal guard, escourt காவல் kāval defence, protection, watchman, guard
kedai foodstall கடை kaṭai bazaar, shop, market
kedelai Glycine max கடலை kaṭalai Cicer arietinum, Melastoma malabaricum Kanarese, Travancore usage kaḍale, Malayalam kaḍala
kelam dark களம் kaḷam blackness, dark colour; cloud
keledai Equus asinus கழுதை kaḻutai Equus asinus
ketumbar Coriandrum sativum கொத்தமல்லி kottamalli Coriandrum sativum from Sanskrit कुस्तुम्बुरु (kustumburu)
kodi twenty units கோடி kōṭi 1. Crore, ten millions,
2. large number
kolam pool, pond, basin, tank குளம் kuḷam tank, pond, reservoir, lake
konde, kundai dressing of hair in large coil on the head கொண்டை koṇṭai tuft, dressing of hair in large coil on the head related to Telugu koṇḍe, Kanarese Travancore goṇḍe, Malayalam koṇṭa
korundum natural Aluminum oxide குருந்தம் kuruntam corundum, emery
kota city கோட்டம் kōṭṭam city
kudai basket made of rattan கூடை kūṭai basket made of rattan, ola or bamboo
kuil temple கோயில் kōyil 1. Palace,
2. Temple, Sanctuary
kulai limp குலை kulai to untie, loosen, dishevel
kuli physical worker கூலி kūli 1. wages, pay;
2. fare, hire, freight
kundi clay craftsman kuṉṟi ?
kutu trade union கூட்டாளி kūṭṭāḷi associate, companion (trade) ?
ladam horseshoe லாடம் lāṭam horseshoe
lebai mosque employees லப்பை lappai Tamil-speaking Muhammadans
logam metal உலோகம் ulōkam metal from lōha metal
madali a musical instrument மத்தளம் mattaḷam a kind of drum
malai strands மாலை mālai anything strung together
maligai royal chamber in palace மாளிகை māḷikai top floor of a storied building ?
mamak māmā ?
mami māmi
mangga mango மாங்காய் māṅkāy mango
manik beads maṇi
manikam diamond மாணிக்கம் māṇikkam gem, precious stone
merikan, marikan clothes from America மரிக்கன் marikkaṉ from America
maru disturbing ghost மாற்று māṟṟu to change, alter
to conceal, hide
to shift; to transfer, as from a place
matu grade of gold மாற்று māṟṟu degree of fineness of gold or silver
mempelam mango மாம்பழம் mā-m-paḻam mango fruit
merunggai Moringa oleifera முருங்கை muruṅkai Moringa pterygosperma
metai bed மெத்தை mettai bed, cushion
meterai seal, stamp முத்திரை muttirai 1. impress, mark
2. seal, signet
3. stamp, as for postage, for court fees
misai mustache மீசை mīcai 1. upper part,
2. cf. šmašru. moustache
modal capital, stock முதல் mutal 1. beginning
2. principal, fund, capital, money yielding interest
3. stock, store
mundam large tub for royal bathing முந்தை muntai small vessel
mutu 1. quality, purity of gold
2. sad
3. In pinch (chess)
முட்டு muttu difficulty, as in passing,
hindrance, obstacle, impediment
nali volume unit =16 gantang =1/50 koyan நாழி nāḻi tubularity; tube,
a measure of capacity, =8 ollocks
related to nāḍi
nelayan fisherman ?
நுளையன், கரையான், வலையன், வலைஞன்
neḻiyaṉ,
nuḷaiyaṉ, karaiyāṉ, valaiyaṉ, valaiñaṉ,
fisher(man)
nila indigo நீல nila blue, black, common indigo, blue nelumbo
nilai value நிலை nilai standing
character, quality, temper, nature
nilakandi indigo (color, stone): blue vitriol நீலகண்டன் nīla-kaṇṭaṉ blue vitriol
nilam Pycnonotus aurigaster
Pogostemon cablin
நீலம் nīlam blue, azure or purple colour
ondé-ondé jian dui உண்டை uṇṭai ball, globe, sphere; anything round or globular
panai wooden tray பானை pāṉai 1. large earthen pot or vessel
2. measure of capacity
3. oil measure = 4 cempu
pancalogam mixture of five (many) metals பஞ்சலோகம் pañcalōkam 1. The five kinds of metal, poṉ, irumpu, cempu, īyam, veḷḷi;
2. Amalgam of the five metals
pandam resin (in the grip of keris) பண்டம் pantam 1. substance, material, utensils.
2. belly, body
from bhāṇḍa
pandu guide பந்து pantu relation, kinsman from bandhu.
patam, petam ornament, jewelry பட்டம் paṭṭam plate of gold worn on the forehead, as an ornament or badge of distinction
petaram, pateram small keris used by women பத்திரம் pattiram beauty, grace
caution, carefulness
safety, security
pawai 1. parade, procession
2. royal equipments
பவனி pavaṉi parade
pelbagai various 1. பல
2. வகை
1. pala
2. vakai
1. many
2. division, class, manner, way, nature, goods, places, detail
perisai shield பரிசை paricai 1. shield, buckler (come from phara)
2. large umbrella, as a badge of honour
perli satire, mockery புரளி puraḷi 1. Lying, falsehood;
2. Mischief, waggishness;
3. Quarrel, wrangle, broil;
peti chest, box பெட்டி peṭṭi chest, trunk, coffer, box
pitam headache, dizziness பித்தம்
பித்தம்
pittam
pitta
lunacy, madness
dizziness
puadai red carpet பாவாடை pāvāṭai red carpet
pualam marble பவளம் pavaḷam red coral
pudi small diamond பொடி poṭi small gem
putu kue putu புட்டு puṭṭu puttu
ragam various ராகம் (i)rākam desire, color, redness, music
roti bread ரொட்டி roṭṭi bread, wheaten cake
sambal sambal சம்பாரம் campāram spicy condiments, curry stuff 1. from Sanskrit सम्बार (sambāra) 'spices'.
2. related to sambar (சாம்பார் cāmpār)
satai, saté satay சதை catai flesh
sedelinggam red paint material சாதிலிங்கம் cātiliṅkam cermilion, red sulphurate of mercury
sekutu alliance கூட்டுறவு kūṭṭuṟavu friendship, alliance prefix se- means one
senam calisthenics சானம்
சனம்
cāṇam
caṉam
meditation (dhyāna)
people, crowd, herd
sengketa to dispute ஸங்கடம் saṅkaṭam trouble
senar string நார் nār string, cord prefix se- means one
talam tray without feet தாலம் tālam 1. eating- plate, porringer, usually of metal.
2. Salver
tatak tray தட்டு, தட்டல் taṭṭu, taṭṭal tray
tali rope தளை taḷai cord, rope
tambi 1. younger brother (Indian)
2. helper
தம்பி tampi younger brother (Indian)
tandil overseer தண்டல் taṇṭal tax-collector
tandu palanquin தண்டு taṇṭu pole of a palanquin or other vehicle
tembaga copper செம்பு cempu copper, gold, metal vessel
teman friend தமன் tamaṉ friend (male)
terusi, tursi blue vitriol துருசு turucu blue vitriol
tirai curtain திரை tirai curtain
tolan friend தோழன் tōlan friend (male)
topi hat தொப்பி toppi cap
tunai cash துணை tuṇai measure, extent, degree, quantity, number ?
Wéda Vēdas வேதம் vētam Vēdas

From Middle Eastern languages[edit]

From Arabic[edit]

The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam. Allah is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations, this practice has been discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew word. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa, but is now spelt as Yesus. Psalms used to be translated as Zabur, the Arabic name, but now it is called Mazmur which corresponds more with Hebrew.

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
abdi servant عَبْد ʻabd
adab civilize, proper أَدَب adab
adat custom عادة ʻāda
ahad Sunday (Islamic) الأحد al-ahad
ajaib magical عجائب ʻajāʼīb
akad contract, promise عَقْد ʻaqd
akal reason عَقْل ʻaql
akhir end آخِر ʼākhir
akhirat hereafter آخِرة ākhira
akhlak character, nature (of person) أَخْلاق akhlāq
alam nature عالَم ʻālam: world, earth
alami natural عالَميّ ʻālamiyy
aljabar algebra الجَبْر al-jabr
amal alms giving, good deed عَمَل ʻamal: work
aman safe, secure أمان ʼamān
anda you (formal) أَنْتَ anta
asal origin أَصْل ʼaṣl
asas foundation, basis أَساس ʼasās
asasi foundational, basic أَساسيّ ʼasāsiyy
asli real, original أَصْليّ ʼaṣliyy
awal beginning أَوَّل ʼawwal
badan body بَدَن badan
bahari maritime, naval, of the sea بَحْريّ baḥriyy
batin inner self بَطْن baṭn: stomach
berkah, berkat blessing بَرَكة baraka
daftar list دَفْتَر daftar: notebook
dakwah sermon دَعْوة da'wa
dunia world دُنْيا dunyā
fakir poor person, pauper فَقير faqīr
hadiah gift, present هدية hadiyyah
halal religiously lawful حَلال ḥalāl
hak right حَقّ ḥaqq
hakikat truth, base حَقيقة ḥaqīqa
hakiki true, real حَقيقيّ ḥaqīqiyy
hakim judge (in court of law) حاكِم ḥākim
haram religiously unlawful حَرام ḥarām
harfiah literal حِرَفيّ ḥirafiyy
hayati living حَياتيّ ḥayātiyy
hewan animal حَيَوان ḥayawān
hikmah wisdom, deeper meaning حِكْمة ḥikma
hukum law حُكْم ḥukm
huruf letter (of an alphabet) حُروف ḥurūf
ijazah diploma إجازة ʼijāza: license
ikhlas sincere مخلَص mukhlāṣ
ikrar pledge, declaration إقْرار ʼiqrār
ilmiah scientific عِلْميّ ʻilmiyy
ilmu knowledge, science عِلْم ʻilm
istirahat rest, break, pause, recess اسْتَراحة istarāḥa
izin permission, to permit إذْن ʼidhn
jadwal schedule جَدْوَل jadwal
jahanam cursed, damned جَهَنَّم jahannam: hell
jahil prank, practical joke جاهِل jāhil: ignorant, uninformed
jawab answer جَواب jawāb
jenazah corpse جَنازة janāza: funeral
jilbab hijab, head covering جلباب jilbāb: loose coat
Jumat Friday الجُمْعة al-jumʻa
kabar news خَبَر khabar
kafan white shroud (to cover the dead) كَفَن kafan
kafir infidel كافِر kāfir
Kamis Thursday الخَميس al-khamīs
kamus dictionary قاموس qāmūs
kertas paper قِرْطاس qirṭās
khas specialty خاصّ khāṣṣ
khitan circumcision خِتان khitān
khusus special, particular خصوص khuṣūṣ
kitab religious book كِتاب kitāb
korban sacrifice قُرْبان qurbān
kuliah college كُلّيّة kulliyya: faculty
kurma date palm كَرْمة karma: grapevine
kursi chair كُرْسيّ kursiyy
kurun span (of time) قُرون qurūn: centuries
lahir to be born; physical, external, outer ظاهر ẓāhir
laskar soldier العَسْكَر al-ʻaskar
lisan verbally, tongue لِسان lisān
maaf sorry, to apologise ما أَفَّ ma affa
mahkamah court of law مَحْكَمة maḥkama
majelis assembly, board, council مَجْلِس majlis
makna meaning مَعْنًى maʻnan
maksud meaning, purpose مَقْصود maqsūd
maktub written مَكْتوب maktūb
malaikat angel مَلائكة malāʼika
masalah problem مَسْأَلة masʼala
masjid mosque مَسْجِد masjid
maut dead, deadly مَوْت mawt
menara tower مَنارة manāra
Mesir Egypt مِصْر miṣr
miskin poor مِسْكين miskīn
mubazir useless مُبَذِّر mubaḏḏir
muflis bankrupt مُفْلِس muflis
mungkin maybe مُمْكِن mumkin
munafik hypocrite مُنافِق munāfiq
murtad apostate مُرْتَدّ murtadd
musim season مَوْسِم mawsim
mustahil impossible مُسْتَحيل mustaḥīl
nabi prophet نَبيّ nabiiy
nafsu desire نَفْس nafs: self, soul
najis impure, unclean نَجِس najis
nasihat advice نَصيحة naṣīḥa
nikah to marry نيكَ niika
paham to understand فَهْم fahm
petuah lesson, advice فَتْوى fatwā
pikir to think فِكْر fikr
Rabu Wednesday الأَرْبِعاء al-ʼarbiʻāʼ
rahim uterus, womb رَحِم raḥim
rahmat blessing رَحْمة raḥma
rakyat people, citizen رَعيّة raʻiyya
rasul prophet, apostle رَسول rasūl
rehat, rihat rest راحة rāḥa
saat moment ساعة sāʻa: hour
sabar patient صَبْر ṣabr
Sabtu Saturday السَبْت as-sabt
sabun soap صابون ṣābūn
sahabat close friend صَحابة ṣaḥāba
salat to pray (for Muslims) صَلاة ṣalāh
saleh pious صالِح ṣāliḥ
salju snow ثَلْج thalj
saum fasting صَوْم ṣawm
sebab cause, reason سَبَب sabab
sedekah charitable gift, alms صَدَقة ṣadaqa
sehat healthy صِحّة ṣiḥḥa
selamat safe, well-being سَلامة salāma
Selasa Tuesday الثُلاثاء ath-thulāthāʼ
Senin Monday الإثْنَيْن al-ithnayn
serikat company, federation شَرِكَة syarika
siasat strategy, trick سِياسة siyāsa: policy, strategy
sifat characteristic, trait, quality صِفة ṣifa
soal question, problem سُؤال suʼāl
subuh early morning صباح ṣabāḥ
sultan king سلطان sultan
syariat Islamic law شَريعة sharīʻa
syukur gratitude شُكْر shukr
taat obedient طاعة ṭāʿa
tabib traditional healer طَبيب ṭabīb
terjemah to translate تَرْجَمة tarjama
tertib orderly تَرْتيب tartīb
umum common, public عُموم ʻumūm
umur age عُمْر ʻumr
unsur element عُنْصُر ʻunṣur
wahid one, the only واحِد wāḥid
wajah face وَجْه wajh
waktu time وَقْت waqt
waris to inherit وارِث wārith
wilayah region, area وِلاية wilāya
yakin confidence, sureness, belief يَقين yaqīn
zaitun olive زَيْتون zaytūn
zakar male genitalia ذَكَر dhakar
zakat alms زَكاة zakāh
zaman era زَمَن zaman
zamrud emerald زُمُرُّد zumurrud
ziarah pilgrimage زيارة ziyāra: visit
zinah adultery زِناء zināʼ

From Persian[edit]

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
anggur grape انگور an-gur
bandar port بندر bandar
cadar veil چادر chādar
dewan assembly, meeting دیوان divan (administration)
firdaus eden, bountiful garden فردوس firdaus
gandum wheat گندم gandum
juang battle جنگ jang
kaisar emperor قیصر qeysar
kismis raisin کشمش kishmish
kurma date خرما khurmā
medan area, field, square میدان meidan
nakhoda captain of a ship ناخدا nākhodā
pahlawan hero پ‍ﮩ‍لوان pahlwān
pasar market/bazaar بازار bāzār
pesona charm افسون afsūn
piala cup, trophy پیاله pyāla (cup, bowl)
pirus turquoise سنگ فیروزه firuze
rubah fox روباه rubah
sihir magic سِحْر sihr
syahbandar portmaster شاهِ بندر shah-e bandar (lit. "king of the port")
takhta throne تخت takht
ustad teacher (religious, Islam) اُستَاذ ustad
yunani Greece يونان yūnān
zirah armor زره zirah

From Hebrew[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Hebrew
Word
Hebrew
Transliteration
Hebrew
Meaning
Note Ref
bethel 1. holy place,
2. a Christian denomination
בֵּיתאֵל beth.el house of God usually loan rendered as bait Allah (bait is a loanword from the cognate word بَيْت (bayt) in Arabic).
haleluya alleluia, hallelujah הַלְּלוּיָהּ halleluya alleluia, hallelujah
kibbutz kibbutz קִבּוּץ kibútz kibbutz
mazmur psalms מזמור mizmor a lyric ode, or a song set to music see psalms.
rabi rabbi רַבִּי rab.bi rabbi
sabat shabbat שַׁבָּת shab.bat shabbat 1. see Shabbat and Sabbath.
2. see also sabtu, loanword from Arabic.
Yahwe Yahweh יהוה *see note Yahweh 1. see Yahweh, Judeo-Christian God.
2. see also tetragrammaton.

From East Asian languages[edit]

From Chinese[edit]

The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just exclusively things Chinese. According to the 2000 census, the relative number of people of Chinese descent in Indonesia (termed the peranakan) is almost 1% (totaling to about 3 million people, although this may likely be an underestimate due to an anti-Chinese sentiment that exists in some circles of the population), yet the peranakan are the most successful when it comes to business, trade, and cuisine.[citation needed] Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu – knife), mie (T:麵, S:面, Hokkien mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), teko (T:茶壺, S:茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (bitter) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you'). Almost all loanwords in Indonesian of Chinese origin come from Hokkien (福建) or Hakka (客家).

From Japanese[edit]

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the official language and national language. The influx of Japanese loanword can be classified into two periods, Japanese colonial administration period (1942–1945) and globalisation of Japanese popular culture (1980-now). As Indonesian is written using Latin script, Japanese romanisation systems influence the spelling in Indonesian.

From Korean[edit]

In contrast with Chinese and Japanese, Korean loanword mostly related to Korean culture. These loanword is attributed to increasing popularity of South Korean culture. Since the turn of the 21st century, South Korea has emerged as a major exporter of popular culture and tourism, aspects which have become a significant part of its burgeoning economy. This phenomenon is called Korean Wave.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Korean
Hangul
Korean
Hanja
Korean
Transliteration
Korean
Meaning
Note Ref
gochujang gochujang 고추장 고추醬 gochu-jang gochujang gochujang is a savory, sweet, and spicy fermented condiment made from chili powder, glutinous rice, meju (fermented soybean) powder, yeotgireum (barley malt powder), and salt.
hotteok hotteok 호떡 胡떡 hotteok hotteok Hotteok is a variety of filled Korean pancake.
jjajangmyeon jajangmyeon 자장면 炸醬麵 jajangmyeon jajangmyeon Jajangmyeon is a Korean Chinese noodle dish topped with a thick sauce made of chunjang, diced pork and vegetables.
japchae japchae 잡채 雜菜 japchae japchae Japchae is a sweet and savory dish of stir-fried glass noodles and vegetables that is popular in Korean cuisine.
taekwondo taekwondo 태권도 跆拳道 taekwondo taekwondo Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
tteok-bokki tteok-bokki 떡볶이 떡볶이 tteok-bokki tteok-bokki Tteok-bokki is a popular Korean food made from small-sized garae-tteok (long, white, cylinder-shaped rice cakes) called tteokmyeon (떡면; "rice cake noodles") or commonly tteok-bokki-tteok (떡볶이 떡; "tteok-bokki rice cakes").
won won won 1. won, the currencies
2. circle
Won are currencies of South and North Korea.

From European languages[edit]

The European influence on Indonesian is largely related to European intervention and colonialism. The most significant consequence is the continued use of the Latin alphabet instead of various local scripts.

The Portuguese arrived first in the archipelago and influenced the original Malay language after their conquest of Malacca. Portuguese dominance over trade in the region and control of the spice islands of Moluccas significantly increased Portuguese influence, as did the introduction of Christianity in the region.

However, Dutch has had the most influence on the language, as a result of the Dutch having controlled Indonesia for 300 years after eliminating the Portuguese as a player in the archipelago. The Dutch language itself wasn't properly introduced into the archipelago before 1799, when the Netherlands' crown took over the colony from the already bankrupt VOC (Dutch East India company). Previously, the Malay language had adopted by the VOC due to its trade and diplomatic benefit, which led to large numbers of loanwords being introduced into the language.

English has also exerted a certain influence on the archipelago's language, being the third most favored foreign language by the educated in colonial days. More recently, English has played an increasingly large role in the nation's official language as a result of globalization.

From Portuguese[edit]

Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail east to the "Spice Islands". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.[5]

Word Meaning Original word
akta act (law) acta
algojo executioner algoz
armada fleet armada
bangku chair banco: bench
baret barrette barrete
Belanda Dutch, Holland Holanda
bendéra flag bandeira
beranda verandah, porch varanda
biola violin viola
bola ball bola
(kué) bolu (a type of) cake bolo
bonéka doll boneca
cerutu cigar charuto
dansa dance (not including traditional dance) dança
dadu dice dado
gagu mute gago: stutterer, stuttering
ganco hook gancho
garpu fork garfo
geréja church igreja
gratis free (not having to pay) gratis (Dutch: gratis)
jendéla window janela
kaldu broth caldo
kanal channel canal (Dutch: kanaal)
kéju cheese queijo
keméja shirt camisa
keréta chariot/cart carreta
kertas paper cartas (papel)
kredo creed credo
lelang auction leilão
lemari closet armário
meja table mesa
mentéga butter manteiga
Minggu Sunday domingo
misa mass missa
mitos myth mitos
nanas pineapple ananas
natal Christmas natal
noda stain nodoa
nona young woman dona
pasta paste pasta
pesiar cruise, excursion passear
pesta party festa
pigura picture, figure figura
pita ribbon fita
pompa pump bomba hidráulica, (Dutch: pomp)
roda wheel roda
saku pocket, bag saco
santo saint santo
sekolah school escola (Latin: schola)
sepatu shoe sapato
serdadu soldier soldado
témpo time tempo
tenda tent tenda
terigu wheat trigo
tinta ink tinta
tolol fool tolo
tukar exchange trocar

From Spanish[edit]

As Portuguese, Spanish loan word come from colonialism in East Indies. In 1606, the Spaniards established some form of trade links with the Maluku Islands. In 1529, Charles I of Spain relinquished all claims to the Spice Islands to Portugal in the treaty of Zaragoza. Thus, there are fewer loanwords from Spanish than Portuguese or Dutch.[6]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Spanish
Word
Spanish
Meaning
Note Ref
adios good bye, farewell adiós good bye, farewell
bonanza wealth, good fortune, or profits source bonanza fair weather, prosperity
canasta canasta canasta canasta
caudillo caudillo caudillo caudillo
cedilla cedilla cedilla cedilla
conquistador conquistador, Spanish conqueror in America conquistadores conquerors
*dona doña title of respect for a woman Not available in isolated form in Indonesian. Compound words with -dona in Indonesian are madona and primadona.
entrenador trainer, coach entrenador trainer, coach
fandango fandango fandango fandango Fandango is a lively couples dance from Spain, usually in triple metre, traditionally accompanied by guitars, castanets, or hand-clapping.
hailai jai alai jai alai jai alai lit. happy party
havana Cuban cigar habana Habanos, producer Cuban cigars lit. (something) from Havana
kamisa shirt camisa shirt see also kemeja, from Portuguese
matador bullfighter matador killer Based on English usage, matador used in the English language as title for a bullfighter, which come from shortening of matador de toros (lit. "killer of bulls").
mestizo mestizo mestizo mestizo Mestizo is a person of combined European and Amerindian or Pacific Islander descent.
plaza 1. plaza, town square
2. shopping mall with parking lot
plaza plaza
ponco poncho poncho poncho originally loan word from Quechua punchu
retenidos remand (pre-trial detention) retenidos hold prisoner
señor mister, sir, (title conferred on an adult male) señor mister, sir, (title conferred on an adult male)
señora missus, Mrs (title given to a married woman) señora missus, Mrs (title given to a married woman)
señorita young woman, Miss (used as a title) señorita young woman, Miss (used as a title)
sista nap sista nap Sista is nap, especially an afternoon one taken after lunch.
sombrero sombrero sombrero hat
toreador bullfighter toreador bullfighter

From Dutch[edit]

The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left an extensive imprint on Indonesian vocabulary. These Dutch loanwords, as well as other non Italo-Iberian European language loanwords which were introduced via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords possessing clusters of multiple consonants pose difficulties for speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by the insertion of the schwa. For example, Dutch schroef [ˈsxruf]sekrup [səˈkrup]. Many Indonesian vocabulary ending "-i" (e.g.:administras-i) can also be traced to the influence of Dutch vocabulary "-ie" (e.g.:administrat-ie). The months from January (Januari) to December (Desember) used in Indonesian are also derived from Dutch. It is estimated that 10,000 words in the Indonesian language can be traced back to the Dutch language.[7]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Dutch
Word
Dutch
Meaning
Note Ref
abolisi abolition abolitie abolition
abonemen subscription abonnement subscription
accoord agreement, accord accoord agreement, accord 1. clipped as acc.
2. Loan word borrowed from French from Vulgar Latin *accordō, accordāre (“to be heart to heart with”), formed from Latin ad + cor (“heart”).
adempauze breather adempauze breather
administrasi administration administratie administration
advokat lawyer advocaat lawyer
afdeling division, section afdeling division, section
afdeeling pre-1934 spelling, obsolete
afspraak verbal promise afspraak arrangement, agreement, understanding
Agustus August August August
aktual current, present actueel current, present
aliansi alliance alliantie alliance
ambah handicraft (archaic) ambacht 1. handicraft.
2. (historical) legal district
amnesti amnesty, state-granted pardon amnestie amnesty, state-granted pardon
amprah demand, request aanvraag application
andil 1. contribution, part.
2. (finance) a share, stock
aandeel 1. contribution, part.
2. (finance) a share, stock
angker, angkar anchor anker anchor
antik antique antiek antique
antusias enthusiastic enthousiast enthusiastic
apatis apathetic apathisch apathetic
apartemen apartment appartement apartment
apartheid apartheid apartheid 1. separateness, separating characteristics.
2. apartheid
From Afrikaans, a Dutch-related language, apartheid ("apartheid").
aplaus applause applaus applause
apotek, apotik pharmacy apotheek pharmacy
apoteker pharmacist apotheker pharmacist
April April April April
arbéi strawberry aardbei strawberry
arde ground (electricity) aarde earth, soil, ground
areal area areaal area
arloji watch horloge watch
artikel article artikel article
as axis, axle as axis, axle
asbak ashtray asbak ashtray From as ("ash") + bak ("container").
asosial antisocial asociaal antisocial
atret backwards achteruit backwards From achter ("behind") + uit ("out").
bak container bak container
bal ball bal ball
ban tyre, belt band tyre, belt
barikade barricade barricades barricade
baskom washbasin waskom washbasin From was ("wash") + kom ("bowel", "basin").
baterai, batere, baterei battery batterij battery
baut bolt bout bolt
bêdindê servant bediende servant (sing.)
begroting budget begroting budget
belek, blek can, tin blik can, tin
behel dental braces beugel 1. dental braces.
2. hinged clamp
beken famous, notorious bekend 1. (well-)known.
2. familiar, trusted.
bekleding upholstering bekleding upholstering
belasting tax, excise, duty belasting 1. strain, burden, load.
2. tax, levy by public authorities.
beleid policy beleid 1. policy.
2. care.
béngkél workshop (industrial) winkel shop From Middle Dutch winkel (“corner”).
berurte fit, stroke or seizure beroerte fit, stroke or seizure
beslit letter of appointment besluit decision, determination
bêstèl delivery place bestellen 1. to order, demand delivery.
2. to deliver
bestir management board bestuur 1. management.
2. governing board.
3. reign
bêsèt excoriation bezetten to occupy, to fill
besuk to visit sick persons bezoeken to visit
BH, beha brassiere bustehouder brassiere
binnen 1. in (preposition, adverb).
2. set for life
binnen 1. in (preposition, adverb).
2. set for life
bioskop cinema bioscoop cinema
bistik beefsteak biefstuk beefsteak
bus, bis bus bus bus
bon receipt bon receipt, ticket (e.g. for speeding), voucher
boomzaken harbour administration boomzaken harbour administration
boorwater boric acid solution boorwater boric acid solution
brankas, brangkas safe brandkast safe
branwir firefighter squad brandweer fire department
bruder friar (notably Catholic) broeder friar (notably Catholic) 1. cognate with brother in English.
2. the meaning as brother is dated and translated as broer in Dutch.
buku book boek book In Indonesian, buku is used for book (for specific for secular books). For religious and poetic book, Indonesian uses kitab (an Arabic loanword) and pustaka (a Sanskrit loanword) respectively.
buncis green beans boontjes beans (plural diminutive)
cako headgear
cokelat chocolate chocolade chocolate
cultuurstelsel cultivation system cultuurstelsel cultivation system
curatele guardianship curatele guardianship
dah/dadah good-bye dag: (good) day
dak roof dak
dasi necktie das(je)
debat debate debat
departemen department departement
Desember December december
dinas administration dienst
diskusi discussion discussie
dokter medical doctor dokter
dosis dose dosis
duit money duit: a copper Dutch coin
egois selfish egoïst: egoist
émbér bucket emmer
éngsél hinges hengsel
Eropa Europe Europa
faktur invoice factuur
fantastis fantastic fantastisch
Februari February februari
frambus raspberry framboos
gaji wages gage
gang alley gang
gardu to guard, watch post garde
gerilya guerrilla guerrilla
gorden curtain gordijn
gubernur governor gouverneur
halo hello hallo
handuk towel handdoek
hanger hanger hanger
halte bus bus stop bushalte
helm helmet helm
hipotek mortgage hypotheek
ide idea idee
identik identical identiek
ilusi ilussion ilusie
imun immune immuun
indehoy forbidden sexual intercourse inhethooi:[8] in the hay
Indo Eurasian, mestizo abbreviation of Indo-European
infanteri infantry infanterie
insinyur engineer ingenieur
institut institute instituut
intim intimate intiem
Januari January januari
jas coat jas
Juli July juli
Juni June juni
jus juice jus
kabel cable kabel
kaisar emperor keizer
kakus toilet verb: kakken/noun: kakhuis
kalem calm kalm
kalkun turkey kalkoen
kamar room kamer
kantor office kantoor
karakter character karakter
karcis ticket kaartjes: plural for diminutive of kaart, card or ticket
kartu card kaart
kastanye chestnut kastanje
katun cotton katoen
kavaleri cavalry cavalerie
kelar ready, finished klaar
kelas class klas
keran faucet, tap kraan
knalpot (or kenalpot) muffler (on a motor vehicle) knalpot
kol cabbages kool
kolega colleague collega
komandan commander commandant
komentar comment commentaar
komersil commercial commercieel
komisaris commissioner commissaris
kondisi condition conditie
kongres congress congres
kopi coffee koffie
kopling clutch koppeling
kopor suitcase koffer
kor/koor choir koor
korsleting/konslet short circuit kortsluiting
korting/diskon discount korting/disconteren
korup corrupt corrupt
korupsi corruption corruptie
kos/indekos room rental kost:[8] cost; board
kuitansi receipt kwitantie
kulkas ice box or refrigerator koelkast
kursus course cursus
kusén window frame kozijn
laci deskdrawer laatje: diminutive form of la(de)
lampu lamp lamp
limun lemonade limoen: lemon
lisensi license licentie
listrik electric elektrisch
loket pay box loket
makelar broker makelaar
mantel coat mantel
Maret March maart
maskapai airline maatschappij: company
massa mass (bulk, load) massa
matras bed matras
mebel furniture meubel
media massa mass media massamedia
Mei May mei
meises sprinkles muisjes
merek brand merk
mesin machine, engine machine
migrasi migration migratie
minder not confident minder
misi mission missie
mobil car, automobile automobiel
montir mechanic monteur
motor motorcycle motorfiets
mur nut (hardware) moer nut (hardware)
nanas pineapple ananas (Portuguese: Ananas, origin South America)
nomer number nummer
nol zero/nil nul
November November november
Oktober October oktober
om uncle oom
oma grandma oma
omzet/omset revenue omzet
onderdil components/spare parts onderdeel
ongkos cost & expenses onkosten
opa granddad opa
oranye orange (colour) oranje
orgel pipe organ orgel
otomatis automatic automatisch
pabrik factory fabriek
parkir parking parkeer
parlemen parliament parlement
paroki parish parochie
pas fit past (third person singular of "passen")
pastor pastor pastoor
paviliun pavilion paviljoen
pelopor frontrunner voorloper
pénsil pencil penseel (brush)
pensiun retirement pensioen
perboden prohibit (mainly used in street signs in Indonesian) verboden
permak alter, transform vermaken
permisi excuse me; permission permissie: permission
peron platform (railway) perron
pers press pers
persik peach perzik
persis precise, exactly the same, look alike precies
persneling gear versnelling
plafon ceiling plafond, from French
polisi police politie
potlot pencil potlood
potret portrait portret
preman gangster vrijman: freeman; outlaw
prestasi performance prestatie
prinsip principle principe
proyek project project
redaksi editorial office redactie
rékening account rekening
reklame advertisement reclame
rem brake rem
resep recipe recept
résléting zipper ritssluiting
resiko risk risico
rok skirt rok
rokok cigarette; smoke roken: to smoke
sakelar switch schakelaar
saldo balance saldo
satelit satellite satelliet
saus sauce saus
segel seal zegel
sekop shovel schop
sekrup screw schroef
seks sex seks
seksi section sektie
selang water hose slang
sempak swim briefs zwempak
senewen jumpy zenuwachtig
September September september
sepur train spoor
serius serious serieus
sertifikat certificate certificaat
setrika clothes iron strijkijzer
setrum current (electricity) stroom
sinterklas Santa Claus sinterklaas
sipir warden cipier
sirkulasi circulation circulatie
solusi solution solutie
spanduk commercial or information banner spandoeken
standar standard standaard
stasiun train station station
stopkontak power socket stopcontact
struktur structure structuur
suster nun, nurse, sister zuster
tang pliers tang
tas bag tas
tégel floor tile tegel
teh tea thee
teknologi technology technologie
telat late te laat (too late)
telefon telephone telefoon
televisi television televisie
tema theme thema
terompet trumpet trompet
teori theory theorie
tinta ink tint
tomat tomato tomaat (Portuguese: tomate, origin Central America)
topik topic topic
toren tower (usually for water tower in Indonesian) toren
traktir treat trakteer
tustel camera tools toestel: device, appliances
variabel variable variabel
vas vase vaas
versi version versie
visi vision visie
voorijder outrider voorrijder
vulkan volcano vulkaan
wastafel sink wastafel
wol wool wol
wortel carrot wortel
yuridis juridical juridisch
yustisi judiciary justitie
langsam slow langzaam
afdruk print afdrukken
kavir piano klavier
WC lavatory WC

From Greek[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Greek
Word
Greek
Transliteration
Greek
Meaning
Source
Word
Source
Meaning
Source
Language
Note Ref
agape agape ἀγάπη agápē agape
apokrifa 1. uncertain source.
2. biblical apocrypha
ἀπόκρυφος apókruphos hidden
apologi 1. remorse.
2. defense
ᾰ̓πολογῐ́ᾱ apologíā (Ancient) defense
asbes, asbestos asbestos ἄσβεστος ásbestos unquenchable, inextinguishable asbest asbestos Dutch Dutch asbest (asbestos) is based on Latin asbestos (asbestos).
askese rigorous self-denial ἀσκητής askētḗs monk, hermit
autopsi, otopsi autopsy αὐτοψῐ́ᾱ autopsíā seeing with one's own eyes autopsie autopsy Dutch Dutch autopsie (autopsy) is based on New Latin autopsia (autopsy).
demokrasi democracy δημοκρατία dēmokratía democracy democratie democracy Dutch
diaken deacon διάκονος diákonos servant, messenger diaken deacon Dutch
diakon
diakonia diaconia δῐᾱκονῐ́ᾱ diākoníā service
ekaristi eucharist εὐχᾰρῐστῐ́ᾱ eukharistíā 1. thanks, gratitude.
2. giving of thanks.
3. eucharist
eucharistie eucharist Dutch
evangeli Gospel εὐάγγελος euángelos good news ēvangelium good news, Gospel Latin
filsafat philosophy φιλοσοφία philasophia philosophy فَلْسَفَة falsafa philosophy Arabic
hipokrit hypocrite ῠ̔ποκρῐτής hupokritḗs 1. interpreter.
2. actor.
hypocrita 1. mimic (mime artist).
2. hypocrite
Latin 1. The Greek word is υποκριτής (ypokritís).
idola idol εἴδωλον eídōlon 1. phantom, ghost quotations.
2. shape, figure, image.
3. image of the mind: idea, fancy.
4. representation, statue, idol
idolum, idola 1. image, form, especially a spectre, apparition or ghost.
2. idol
Latin
idool, idoolen idol Dutch
idol, idolum idol English
mitos myth μῦθος mythos 1. word, speech, conversation.
2. tale, story, narrative.
mitos myth (pl.) Portuguese
oikumene, ekumene ecumene οἰκουμένη oikouménē 1. inhabited.
2. civilised world.
porno pornography, lewd πόρνη pórnē harlot 1. From contraction of Indonesian pornografi (pornographic), from Dutch pornografie or English pornography, from French pornographie.
2. Pornografi is a formal word in Indonesia, while porno is informal.
sinagogê synagogue, συναγωγή synagogē assembly synagoge synagogue Dutch Synagogue is Judaism prayer house.
stadion stadium στάδιον stadion (Ancient) 600-foot stadion stadium Dutch The Greek word is στάδιο (stadio).
teater theatre θέᾱτρον théātron (Ancient) theatre, play theater theatre Dutch 1. The Greek word is θέατρο (théatro).
2. Dutch theater (theatre) is based from Old French theatre, from Latin theatrum.

From Latin[edit]

It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g. aktiviti (Malaysian) vs. aktivitas (Indonesian), universiti (Malaysian) vs. universitas (Indonesian)).

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Latin
word
Latin
meaning
Indirect
Loanword
Indirect
Source
Meaning Note Ref
ad interim temporarily ad interim
aktivitas activity activitas
almamater alma mater alma māter alma mater
devosi devotion dēvōtiō devotion
èkskomunikasi excommunication excommūnicātiō excommunication excommunicatie Dutch excommunication
fakultas faculty facultas faculty The Dutch loanword faculteit was used before.
forum forum forum public place, marketplace, forum forum Portuguese
hosti sacramental bread hostia sacramental bread hostie Dutch sacramental bread
humaniora humanities hūmāniōra humaniora Dutch
intêrnuntius Papal internuntius internuntius intermediary, messenger
kanonis canonical canonicus canonical
kantata song cantata cantada Portuguese
kardinal cardinal, a official of Catholic Church cardinālis hinge kardinaal Dutch cardinal, a official of Catholic Church
kongrégasi Congregation congregātiō Congregation congregatie Dutch Congregation
konkordat concordat concordatum concordat concordaat Dutch concordat
konsèkrasi consecration cōnsecrātiō consecration consecratie Dutch consecration
konsistori consistory consistorium consistory consistorie Dutch consistory
kualitas quality qualitas Dutch-influenced informal spelling kwalitas is used sometimes. The Dutch word is kwaliteit.
kuria curia curia curia curia Dutch curia
légio Legion of Mary legio legion
misa mass missa mass
nihil nil, nothing, zero nihil
nimbus nimbus nimbus nimbus, dark cloud
nota bene actually, after look carefully, also nota bene examine closely
novèna novena novēna novena
oblasi the offering of worship, thanks etc. to a deity. oblātiō offering, gift
oknum authority figure (police, soldier, prosecutor, judge) that perform unlawful or corrupted deed ocnum name personal (acc. form of ocnus "name")
oratorium 1. chapel,
2. oratorio, a musical composition
ōrātōrium place of prayer, oratory oratorium Dutch 1. chapel,
2. oratorio, a musical composition
ordo 1. Catholics religious group,
2. a biological taxonomy level
ōrdō series, class, group
pater priest pater father pater Dutch father (priest)
primas primate prīmus first
rékolèksi a spiritual retreat recollectus to collect again
rèktor rector rēctor leader, director, tutor rector Dutch rector
rosario prayer beads, especially rosary rosarium a rose garden, rosary rosário Portuguese rosary
sakramèn sacrament sacrāmentum sacrament sacrament Dutch sacrament
sakriilegi sacrilege sacrilegium sacrilege
sakristi sacristy sacristia vestry sacristie Dutch sacristy
santa saint (female) sāncta saint (female) santa Portuguese saint (female)
santo saint (male) sānctus saint (male) santo Portuguese saint (male)
sêkulir secular clergy saecularis of the age
status status status
stipèndium alms (Church) stīpendium stipend
tabêrnakêl tabernacle tabernaculum tent tabernakel Dutch tabernacle
universitas university universitas The Dutch loanword universiteit was used before.
vigili vigil vigil wake, watching, alert
vikaris vicar vicar vicar

From French[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
French
Word
French
Meaning
Source
Word
Source
Meaning
Source
Language
Note Ref
akur agree, get along well accord akkoord Dutch
ala in style of à la
angkét inquiry enquête enquête Dutch
apanasê apanage apanage apanage
argot argot, secret language argot argot
arsip archives archives archief Dutch
atasé attaché attaché attaché attaché attaché Dutch
avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde avant-garde Dutch
bugénfil bougainvillea bougainville bougainvillea bougainvillea bougainvillea Dutch
bulat round boulette round
chauvinisme chauvinism chauvinisme chauvinism
didong, didon French dis donc!
doblé, dublé gold-plated work doublé to double, duplicate
domisili domicile domicile domicile
drèsoar buffet dressoir dresser, sideboard
entrepeneur entrepreneur entrepreneur [entrepreneur entrepreneur entrepreneur English
gala 1. first,
2. festive
galer (Old) to have fun; to enjoy oneself gala ball (formal dance) Dutch
garnisun garrison garnison garrison garnisoen garrison Dutch
guillotine guillotine guillotine guillotine
impromptu improvised action impromptu improvised action
intrik intrigue intrigue intrigue intrige intrigue Dutch
kulot shorts culotte panties, shorts
kado gift cadeau gift cadeau, kado gift Dutch
kampanye campaign campagne campaign campagne campaign Dutch
karantina quarantine quarantine quarantine quarantaine quarantine Dutch
karoseri the body of vehicle, car, coach, or bus carrosserie bodywork, body (of car) carrosserie body, bodywork of a motorized vehicle. Dutch
klise cliche cliché cliche cliché cliche Dutch
kondèktur conductor (ticket-related) conducteur driver conducteur conductor (ticket-related) Dutch
kornet cornet, a brass instrument cornet à pistons cornet, a brass instrument
kudeta coup d'état coup d'état coup d'état
kupe train seat coupé car
legiun legion légion legion legioen legion Dutch
letnan lieutenant lieutenant lieutenant luitenant lieutenant Dutch
libur free (from activities) libre
manuver maneuver manœuvre maneuver manoeuvre maneuver Dutch
mayones mayonnaise mayonnaise mayonnaise
mèmoar memoirs mémoire memoirs
milieu milieu milieu milieu milieu milieu Dutch
monseigneur monsignor monseigneur monsignor monseigneur monsignor Dutch
première premiere première first première premiere Dutch,
English
pual voile voile 1. veil.
2. sail
restan remnant, remainder restant remnant, remainder restant remnant, remainder Dutch
sabotase sabotage sabotage sabotage sabotage sabotage Dutch
sepeda bicycle vélocipède bicycle
supir driver chauffeur driver chauffeur driver Dutch
tante aunt tante aunt
tiras circulation, of newspaper or magazine tirage
trotoar sidewalk trottoir sidewalk troittoir

From English[edit]

Many English words are adopted in Indonesian through globalization, due to this however many Indonesians mistake words that were originally adopted from Dutch with English due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages (both are Indo-European Germanic languages from the same branch, the West Germanic).

Word Meaning Original word
astronot astronaut astronaut
bisnis business business
diskon discount discount
elektronik electronic electronic
gosip gossip gossip
isu issue issue
katering catering service catering
komputer computer computer (Dutch: Computer)
komplit complete complete (Dutch: Compleet)
kondom condom condom
konter counter counter (Germans: konter)
modem modem modem
moderen modern modern (Dutch: moderne)
partner partner partner
pilot pilot pilot (Dutch: Piloot)
ponsel / HP read:Ha-Pé (shortened word from Hand Phone) cell phone hand phone (used in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and South Korea)
radar radar radar
roket rocket rocket
sistem system system (Dutch: Systeem)
stroberi strawberry strawberry
target target target

From German[edit]

There is several words come from German language.[9] German language is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
German
Word
German
Meaning
Notes Ref
ablaut apophony ablaut apophony [1]
an sich by itself, per se an sich by itself, per se possible a Dutch loanword. [1]
auf wiedersehen good bye auf wiedersehen good bye lit. until we meet again [1]
Aufklärung Enlightenment Aufklärung Enlightenment The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century. [1]
Ausdauer endurance Ausdauer constancy, endurance, perseverance, persistence, stamina [1]
Autobahn Autobahn, freeway Autobahn Autobahn, freeway [1]
Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg, a World War II German military tactics Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg [1]
das Sein existence das Sein existence [1]
das Sollen to be intended das Sollen should Sollen expresses moral duty or the suggestion that something ought to be done. [1]
Deutschland über alles Germany above all else Deutschland über alles Germany above all else [1]
Dichtung und Wahrheit Poetry and Truth Dichtung und Wahrheit Poetry and Truth [1]
Eisen und Blut Blood and Iron Eisen und Blut Blood and Iron [1]
entweder oder choice entweder oder choice Used only in the pair "entweder ... oder", like either-or in English [1]
eforus leader of Batak Christian Protestant Church Ephorus superintendent, metropolitan [1]
firn firn firn firn [1]
Föhn Foehn wind Föhn Foehn wind Föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range. [1]
Führer Führer, leader Führer Führer, leader [1]
Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. [1]
Gestalt A collection of physical, biological, psychological or symbolic elements that creates a whole, unified concept or pattern which is other than the sum of its parts, due to the relationships between the parts (of a character, personality, entity, or being) Gestalt 1. shape, form,
2. image of some person,
figure, character (person)
[1]
hineininterpretierung subjective interpretation hineininterpretierung subjective interpretation
Hitler-Jugend Hitler Youth Hitler-Jugend Hitler Youth [1]
Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf (literally "culture struggle") refers to power struggles between emerging constitutional and democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns. [1]
Lebensraum 1. living space, habitat
2. lebensraum
Lebensraum 1. living space, habitat
2. lebensraum
[1]
nazi Nazi Party nazi Nazi Party [1]
opelet A sedan car whose seating arrangement is changed and adjusted as a public vehicle Opel Opel [1]
realpolitik realpolitik realpolitik realpolitik [1]
Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel [1]
Sitzkrieg Phoney War, warfare without progress, a stalemate Sitzkrieg Phoney War, warfare without progress, a stalemate [1]
snorkel 1. snorkel (swimming gear, breathing tube)
2. submarine snorkel, snort
Schnorchel 1. snorkel (swimming gear, breathing tube)
2. submarine snorkel, snort
[1]
Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang [1]
überhaupt at all; anyway; in the first place überhaupt at all; anyway; actually; even
Übermensch Übermensch Übermensch Übermensch 1. (in Nietzschean philosophy) An overman (“higher” man) who has overcome (transcended) his (mere) humanity.
2. (Nazism ideology) A member of the proposed Aryan super race.
[1]
umlaut diaeresis (diacritic) umlaut diaeresis (diacritic) [1]
vopo police VoPo volkspolizei Deutsche Volkspolizei (German People's Police) [1]
Zeitgeist spirit of the age Zeitgeist spirit of the age [1]

From North Germanic[edit]

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is sometimes referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Swedish, Icelandic and Norwegian scholars and laypeople.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
North Germanic
Word
North Germanic
Language
North Germanic
Meaning
Notes Ref
fjord fjord fjord Danish fjord 1. fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial erosion.
2. borrowing from Dutch fjord, Norwegian fjord, from Old Norse fjǫrðr.
[1]
kjökkenmodding(-er) midden køkkenmødding Danish midden [1]
kjøkkenmødding Norwegian

From Russian[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Russian
Word
Russian
Transliteration
Russian
Meaning
Note Ref
glasnost glasnost гла́сность glasnost publicity In 1986 the term was used by Mikhail Gorbachev as a political slogan for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopastnosti KGB, Committee for State Security Комитет Государственной Безопасности Komitet Gosudarstvennoj Bezopasnosti KGB, Committee for State Security The KGB, an initialism for Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
perestroika perestroika, restructuring of the political and economic system. перестройка perestroika rebuilding
rayon raion, a type of administrative unit район rajón raion, a type of administrative unit The term is a loanword from French rayon (lit. honeycomb, departement, radius).
rubel ruble, a currency unit рубль rublʹ ruble, a currency unit
samovar samovar, a kind of water boiler самовар samovar samovar, a kind of water boiler
sputnik sputnik Спутник spútnik sputnik, a fellow traveler, satellite

From Italian[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Italian
Word
Italian
Meaning
Note
a prima vista at first sight a prima vista at first sight, (music) Sight-read.
a tempo according to original tempo a tempo time, on time, in time
accelerando A tempo mark directing that a passage is to be played at an increasing speed. accelerando accelerating
aggiornamento bringing up to date, modernization aggiornamento bringing up to date, modernization
allargando (music) decreasing in tempo; getting slower. allargando to broaden
allegretto (music) should be played rather fast and lively allegretto cheerful
arrivederci farewell, goodbye, see you later arrivederci farewell, goodbye, see you later
campanilla bell tower campanilla small bell, handbell
cantabile passage is to be played in a lyrical manner cantabile singable, capable being sung
cavatina an operatic song in slow tempo cavatina an operatic song in slow tempo
(celana) palazo palazo
che sarà, sarà whatever happens, happens che sarà, sarà whatever happens, happens 1. che sarà, sarà is not a grammatically correct Italian phrase, but rather borrowed from English che sara sara, in turn a popular phrase constructed from Italian words. The grammatically correct Italian phrase is quel che sarà, sarà.
con amore con amore
con dolore con dolore
con molta passione con molta passione
cosa nostra cosa nostra, Sicilian Mafia cosa nostra cosa nostra, Sicilian Mafia; lit. our thing
crescendo An instruction to play gradually more loudly crescendo An instruction to play gradually more loudly
da camera da camera
da capo (musical) from the beginning da capo (musical) from the beginning
da capo al fine (musical) from the beginning to the end da capo al end (musical) from the beginning to the end
decrescendo to play gradually more softly. decrescendo to play gradually more softly.
dolce far niente dolce far niente
fortissimo played very loud. fortissimo played very loud.
ghetto concentrations of other ethnicities and then non-ethnic groups ghetto concentrations of other ethnicities and then non-ethnic groups
il duce the Leader il duce the Leader
incognito without being known; in disguise incognito without being known; in disguise
larghetto Slower than adagio but not as slow as largo; nearly andantino. larghetto Slower than adagio but not as slow as largo; nearly andantino.
lento (music) very slow. lento (music) very slow.
lingua franca lingua franca lingua franca lingua franca (“Frankish language”) Lingua franca is a common language used by people of diverse backgrounds to communicate with one another, often a basic form of speech with simplified grammar.
mezzo mezzo
mezzo forte mezzo forte

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka: 1999, halaman 1185 s.d. 1188 berisikan Pendahuluan buku Senarai Kata Serapan dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 1996.
  2. ^ a b C. D. Grijns et al. (eds). "Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay" (PDF). KITLV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  3. ^ Nurlela Adan, Ermitati, Rosnida M. Nur (2001). Kamus Bahasa Indonesia-Minangkabau. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
  4. ^ Becoming Indian: The Unfinished Revolution of Culture and Identity by Pavan K. Varma p.125
  5. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  6. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990), History of the Filipino People (Eighth ed.), University of the Philippines, ISBN 971-8711-06-6
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ a b "KOST (UITGAVE, LEVENSONDERHOUD)".
  9. ^ Jones, R. (2008). Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta.

Bibliography[edit]

  • de Vries, Jan W., Grijns, C.D. and Santa Maria, L. 1983 Indonesian : a check-list of words of European origin in Bahasa Indonesia and traditional Malay Leiden : Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. ISBN 90-6718-004-1.
  • Badudu, J.S; Kamus Kata-kata Serapan Asing Dalam Bahasa Indonesia; Kompas, Jakarta, 2003
  • Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka: 1999, halaman 1185 s.d. 1188 berisikan Pendahuluan buku Senarai Kata Serapan dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 1996 (dengan sedikit penyaduran tanpa mengubah maksud dan tujuan seseungguhnya dari buku ini).

External links[edit]