List of longest caves

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Mammoth Cave, the world's longest known cave system

This List of longest caves includes caves in which the combined length of documented passageways exceeds 100 km. In some of these caves, passageways are still being discovered.[1][2]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Caves are found around the world. The largest form in areas of karst landforms whose rocks erode easily. Preferable conditions for karst cave formation are adequate precipitation, enough plants and animals to produce ample carbon dioxide, and a landscape of gentle hills which drains slowly. The highest concentrations of long caves in the world are found in the Pennyroyal Plateau of southern Kentucky, United States, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, United States, and in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

List[edit]

System Length Location Discovery Associated parks,
protected areas
Mammoth Cave 663 km (412.0 mi)[1][3] near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 1791 Mammoth Cave National Park, also a World Heritage Site and International Biosphere Reserve
Sistema Sac Actun / Sistema Dos Ojos 371.9 km (231.1 mi)[1][2] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 1987 none
Jewel Cave 335.5 km (208.5 mi)[1][4] near Custer, South Dakota, United States 1900 Jewel Cave National Monument
Sistema Ox Bel Ha 284.6 km (176.8 mi)[1][2][5] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 1996 southern parts in Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve
Shuanghedong Cave Network 283.2 km (176.0 mi)[6]

[7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Guizhou, China 1988 Suiyang Shuanghedong National Geopark
Optymistychna Cave 257.0 km (159.7 mi)[1][12] near Korolivka, Ukraine 1966 Dnistrovskyy Canion
Wind Cave 248.1 km (154.2 mi)[1][13] near Hot Springs, South Dakota, United States 1881 Wind Cave National Park
Lechuguilla Cave 242.0 km (150.4 mi)[1][14] near Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States 1900 Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Clearwater Cave System 238 km (147.9 mi)[15][16] near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia 1978 Gunung Mulu National Park, also a World Heritage Site
Fisher Ridge Cave System 209.2 km (130.0 mi)[1] near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 1981 partly within Mammoth Cave National Park
Hölloch 208.0 km (129.2 mi)[17][18] Muotathal, Switzerland 1875 none
Sistema del Alto Tejuelo 173 km (107.5 mi)[19] Cantabria, Spain 1965 none
Siebenhengste-Hohgant-Höhle 164.5 km (102.2 mi)[20] Switzerland 1966 none
Schönberg-Höhlensystem [de] 151.2 km (93.95 mi)[21] Austria 1976 none
Sistema del Mortillano [es] 146.5 km (91.03 mi)[22] Cantabria, Spain 1960 none
Priest's Grotto 140.4 km (87.24 mi)[1] Ukraine 1940 none
Steinbrücken Cave 136 km (84.51 mi)[21] Austria 1929 none
Bullita Cave 120.4 km (74.81 mi)[1] Australia 1990 Gregory National Park
Réseau Félix Trombe [fr] 117.2 km (72.82 mi)[23] France 1908 none
Sistema del Gandara 116.7 km (72.51 mi)[24] Cantabria, Spain 2005 none
Toca da Boa Vista 114 km (70.84 mi)[25] Brazil 1987 none
Réseau Marosakabe 113 km (70.21 mi)[26] Madagascar 2006 Tsingy de Namoroka Strict Nature Reserve
Hirlatzhöhle [de] 113 km (70.21 mi)[21] Austria 1949 none
Ojo Guareña 110 km (68.35 mi)[1][27] Spain 1956 none
Sistema K'oox Baal 102.3 km (63.57 mi)[1][2][28] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 1987 none

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gulden, Bob (2020-01-22). "Worlds longest caves". Geo2 Committee on Long and Deep Caves. National Speleological Society (NSS). Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  2. ^ a b c d "List of Long Underwater Caves in Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
  3. ^ "Exploration in the World's Longest Cave" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-03..
  4. ^ "Jewel Cave Reaches 200 Miles". National Park Service (NPS). December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  5. ^ Bill Mixon. Mexico news (PDF). AMCS Activities Newletter. 34. p. 22. Retrieved 2014-06-01..
  6. ^ "Grottes et karsts de Chine-Sur les traces de Xu Xiake-Shuanghedongqun - 双河洞". Retrieved 2021-05-20..
  7. ^ Keju, Wang; Jun, Yang (2018-03-27). "Asia's longest cave has many wonders". China Daily. Archived from the original on 2018-10-22.
  8. ^ Hong'e, Mo, ed. (2018-03-25). "Shuanghe Cave in SW China's Guizhou named longest cave in Asia". China News Service. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11.
  9. ^ Xuequan, Mu, ed. (2018-03-24). "Guizhou's Shuanghe Cave named longest cave in Asia". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11.
  10. ^ "贵州绥阳双河洞探测长度超238公里 成亚洲第一长洞".
  11. ^ "贵州双河溶洞长度已达238公里".
  12. ^ "optymistychna is the longest cave in ukraine". ukrainegoodnews.com. 2014-06-04.
  13. ^ "150 miles and counting: Wind Cave celebrates significant milestone". National Park Service (NPS). October 18, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  14. ^ "Lechuguilla Cave". National Park Service (NPS). July 17, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  15. ^ Eavis, Rob (April–May 2016). "What a Rollercoaster". Descent (249): 24–29.
  16. ^ "The Clearwater Cave System". mulucaves.org. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
  17. ^ Arbeitsgemeinschaft Höllochforschung AGH. "Forschungsobjekte der AGH". hoellochforschung.ch (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  18. ^ "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Hoellochforschung AGH" (in German). Archived from the original on 2019-01-19. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  19. ^ David García. "Alto del Tejuelo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  20. ^ Anonyme. "Grandes cavités suisses" (in French). Retrieved 2020-02-20..
  21. ^ a b c Theo Pfarr, Robert Seebacher & Lukas Plan (2019-09-12). "Die tiefsten Höhlen Österreichs" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 2020-02-08.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  22. ^ "Mortillano !!!! 146,5 Km.!!!!" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-13..
  23. ^ "Le réseau Félix Trombe Henne Morte" (in French). Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  24. ^ "Classement des plus grandes cavités" (in French). Retrieved 2018-12-03..
  25. ^ Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia. "As maiores cavernas do Brasil" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-12-08..
  26. ^ "Expédition Malagasy 2018" (in French). Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  27. ^ Ana I. Ortega and M. Martín. "Complejo Kárstico de Ojo Guareña. Endokarst" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  28. ^ Zdeněk Motyčka. K'oox baall, the fourth-longest underwater cave system in the world (PDF). AMCS Activities Newletter. 37. p. 149-155. Retrieved 2014-05-01..