List of longest-reigning monarchs

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This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign.

Currently reigning monarchs are highlighted in green colour.

Monarchs of sovereign states with verifiable reigns by exact date[edit]

The table below contains monarchs of states that were internationally sovereign for most or all of their reign.

Monarchs by length of reign
No. Name State Born Reign Duration  
From To (days) (years, days) Ref.
1 Louis XIV  France 5 September 1638 14 May 1643 1 September 1715 26,407 72 years, 110 days [1]
2 Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX)  Thailand 5 December 1927 9 June 1946 13 October 2016 25,694 70 years, 126 days [2]
3 Johann II  Liechtenstein 5 October 1840 12 November 1858 11 February 1929 25,658 70 years, 91 days [3]
4 Elizabeth II  United Kingdom,
 Canada,
 Australia and
 New Zealand[4][a]
21 April 1926 6 February 1952[4] Incumbent 25,067 68 years, 230 days [5]
5 Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I Palenque 23 March 603 29 July 615[b] 31 August 683 24,870 68 years, 33 days [6]
6 Franz Joseph I  Austria/ Austria-Hungary 18 August 1830 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 24,825 67 years, 355 days [7]
7 Constantine VIII[c]  Byzantine Empire 960 30 March 962 11 November 1028 24,332 66 years, 226 days [8]
8 Basil II[d] 957/958 22 April 960 15 December 1025 23,977 65 years, 237 days [9]
9 Ferdinand III  Sicily 12 January 1751 6 October 1759 4 January 1825 23,831 65 years, 90 days [10]
10 Victoria  United Kingdom 24 May 1819 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days [11]
11 James I Aragon 2 February 1208 12 September 1213 27 July 1276 22,964 62 years, 319 days [12]
12 Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa)[e]  Japan 29 April 1901 25 December 1926 7 January 1989 22,659 62 years, 13 days [14]
13 Kangxi Emperor[f]  China (Qing dynasty) 5 May 1654 5 February 1661 20 December 1722 22,597 61 years, 318 days [15]
14 Qianlong Emperor[g] 25 September 1711 18 October 1735 9 February 1796 22,029 60 years, 114 days [16]
15 Friedrich Günther Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 6 November 1793 28 April 1807 28 June 1867 21,976 60 years, 61 days [17]
16 Christian IV  Denmark-Norway 12 April 1577 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 21,879 59 years, 330 days [18]
17 George III  Great Britain and  Ireland
 United Kingdom,  Hanover[h]
4 June 1738 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days [19]
18 Honoré III  Monaco 10 November 1720 7 November 1733 19 January 1793 21,623 59 years, 73 days [20]
19 Louis XV  France 15 February 1710 1 September 1715 10 May 1774 21,436 58 years, 251 days [21]
20 Pedro II  Brazil 2 December 1825 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 21,407 58 years, 222 days [22]
21 Nicholas I  Montenegro 7 October 1841 13 August 1860 26 November 1918 21,288 58 years, 105 days [23]
22 Elizabeth II  Jamaica 21 April 1926 6 August 1962 Incumbent 21,233 58 years, 48 days [24]
23 Honoré I  Monaco 16 December 1522 22 August 1523 7 October 1581 21,231 58 years, 46 days [25]
24 Wilhelmina  Netherlands 31 August 1880 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 21,104 57 years, 286 days [26]
25 James VI  Scotland 19 June 1566 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days [27]
Updated daily according to UTC.

Monarchs of dependent or constituent states with verifiable reigns by exact date[edit]

The table below contains monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign.

  • Note: "(HRE)" indicates a semi-sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. (HRE*) indicates a reign that began when the state was within the Empire and continued after its dissolution.
No. Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Sobhuza II[i] Swaziland (British protectorate until 1968) 10 December 1899 21 August 1982 30,204 82 years, 254 days
2 Bernhard VII Lippe (HRE) 12 August 1429 2 April 1511 29,818 81 years, 234 days
3 William IV Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 26 May 1480 24 January 1559 28,731 78 years, 243 days
4 Karansinhji[29] Lakhtar State (part of British Raj from 1858) 15 June 1846 8 August 1924 28,543 78 years, 54 days
5 Heinrich XI[j][30][31] Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE) 17 March 1723 28 June 1800 28,227 77 years, 103 days
6 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri,[32] Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) (part of British Malaya until 1957) 3 December 1929 26 December 2005 27,782 76 years, 23 days
7 Christian August Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE) 14 August 1632 23 April 1708 27,645 75 years, 253 days
8 Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar Phaltan (part of British Raj from 1858) 7 December 1841 17 October 1916 27,342 74 years, 315 days
9 Bhagvatsingh Sahib Gondal state (British Raj) 14 December 1869 10 March 1944 27,114 74 years, 87 days
10 George William Schaumburg-Lippe (HRE*) 13 February 1787 21 November 1860 26,944 73 years, 282 days
11 Charles Frederick Baden (HRE*) 12 May 1738 10 June 1811 26,691 73 years, 29 days
12 John Louis Nassau-Saarbrücken (HRE) 19 October 1472 4 June 1545 26,525 72 years, 228 days[k]
13 Henry Frederick Hohenlohe-Langenburg (HRE) 29 January 1628 5 August 1699 26,121 71 years, 188 days
14 Jagatjit Singh Kapurthala (British Raj) 3 September 1877 20 August 1948 25,918 70 years, 352 days[l]
15 Parashuramrao Shrinivas Aundh (India) 30 August 1777 11 June 1848 25,852 70 years, 286 days
16 Franz Karl Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (HRE) 15 November 1627 19 July 1698 25,814 70 years, 246 days
17 Karl August Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (HRE*) 28 May 1758 14 June 1828 25,584 70 years, 17 days
18 Alberico I Cybo-Malaspina Massa and Carrara (HRE) 6 June 1553 18 January 1623 25,428 69 years, 226 days
19 Werner Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (HRE) 31 October 1559 16 February 1629 25,311 69 years, 108 days
20 Heinrich Joseph Johann Auersperg (HRE) 6 November 1713 9 February 1783 25,297 69 years, 95 days
21 Frederick III[m] Inner Austria (HRE) 10 June 1424 19 August 1493 25,272 69 years, 70 days
22 George William Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (HRE) 16 December 1600 25 December 1669 25,211 69 years, 9 days
23 Frederick V Hesse-Homburg (HRE*) 7 February 1751 20 January 1820 25,183 68 years, 347 days
24 Vikramatji Khimojiraj[citation needed] Porbandar (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 20 June 1831 21 April 1900 25,142 68 years, 305 days
25 Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Mysore (British Subsidiary alliance, then part of British Raj from 1858) 30 June 1799 27 March 1868 25,107 68 years, 271 days
26 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II Kedah Sultanate 15 February 1710 23 September 1778 25,057 68 years, 220 days
27 Johann Friedrich Castell-Rüdenhausen (HRE) 10 January 1681 23 June 1749 25,000 68 years, 164 days
28 Sawant Singh[citation needed] Pratapgarh (India) 26 October 1775 5 January 1844 24,907 68 years, 71 days
29 Christian Karl Reinhard Leiningen-Dagsburg (HRE) 3 November 1698 17 November 1766 24,850 68 years, 14 days
30 Ram Singh Bundi State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858)[citation needed] 14 May 1821 28 March 1889 24,790 67 years, 318 days
31 Malietoa Tanumafili II Samoa 7 January 1940 11 May 2007 24,596 67 years, 124 days
32 Henry III Meissen (HRE) 18 January 1221 15 February 1288 24,499 67 years, 28 days
33 Eleanor[n] Aquitaine (France) 9 April 1137 1 April 1204 24,464 66 years, 358 days
34 Amarsinhji Banesinhji[o] Wankaner (British Raj) 12 June 1881 15 February 1948 24,353 66 years, 248 days
35 Khengarji III Cutch (British Raj) 19 December 1875 15 January 1942 24,133 66 years, 27 days
36 Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah Sultanate of Serdang (Indonesia) 20 December 1879 4 December 1945 24,090 65 years, 349 days
37 Leopold III Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 16 December 1751 9 August 1817 23,977 65 years, 236 days
38 John I Brittany (France) 21 October 1221 8 October 1286 23,728 64 years, 352 days
39 Frederick William Hohenzollern-Hechingen (HRE) 13 January 1671 14 November 1735 23,680 64 years, 305 days
40 Ibrahim Johor, Malaysia (part of British Malaya until 1957) 4 June 1895 8 May 1959 23,348 63 years, 338 days
41 Sayajirao Gaekwad III Baroda State (British Raj) 27 May 1875 6 February 1939 23,265 63 years, 256 days
42 Albert Anton Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (HRE) 4 November 1646 24 June 1710 23,242 63 years, 232 days
43 Anton Günther Oldenburg (HRE) 12 November 1603 19 June 1667 23,230 63 years, 219 days
44 Frederick Augustus I[p] Saxony (HRE*) 17 December 1763 5 May 1827 23,149 63 years, 139 days
45 Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa Bahrain (British protectorate from 1880) 1 December 1869 9 December 1932 23,018 63 years, 8 days
46 Charles III Upper Lorraine (HRE) 12 June 1545 14 May 1608 22,982 62 years, 337 days
47 Johann Friedrich II Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 17 October 1702 24 August 1765 22,957 62 years, 311 days
48 Bernhard II Saxe-Meiningen (HRE*) 24 December 1803 20 September 1866 22,916 62 years, 270 days
49 Philip II Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 2 July 1429 19 March 1492 22,906 62 years, 261 days[q]
50 Nicolas Leopold I Salm-Hoogstraat (HRE) 6 June 1707 4 February 1770 22,889 62 years, 243 days
51 Léopold Philippe Arenberg (HRE) 19 August 1691 4 March 1754 22,842 62 years, 197 days
52 Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan[citation needed] Tonk (British Raj) 20 December 1867 23 June 1930 22,830 62 years, 185 days
53 Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi Ras Al Khaimah (part of the British Protectorate of Trucial states until 1971, then the United Arab Emirates) 17 July 1948 27 October 2010 22,747 62 years, 102 days
54 Nahar Singh Shahpura (British Raj) 21 April 1870 24 June 1932 22,709 62 years, 64 days[citation needed]
55 Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah Kedah Sultanate (British Malaya) 22 September 1881 13 May 1943 22,512 61 years, 233 days
56 Philip IV Waldeck-Wildungen (HRE) 28 May 1513 30 November 1574 22,466 61 years, 186 days
57 Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh Lunavada (British Raj) 31 October 1867 27 April 1929 22,458 61 years, 178 days
58 Paku Alam VIII Pakualaman (Indonesia) 12 April 1937 11 September 1998 22,432 61 years, 152 days
59 Victor Amadeus Anhalt-Bernburg (HRE) 22 September 1656 14 February 1718 22,424 61 years, 145 days
60 Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara Banswara State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 2 February 1844 29 April 1905 22,366 61 years, 86 days[citation needed]
61 Ulrich V Württemberg-Stuttgart (HRE) 2 July 1419 1 September 1480 22,342 61 years, 61 days[r]
62 Ranbir Singh Jind (British Raj) 7 March 1887 31 March 1948 22,304 61 years, 24 days[s][citation needed]
63 Ernst Ludwig Hesse-Darmstadt (HRE) 31 August 1678 12 September 1739 22,291 61 years, 12 days
64 Johann Friedrich I Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 11 October 1641 17 October 1702 22,285 61 years, 6 days
65 Wilhelm Moritz II Isenburg-Philippseich (HRE) 8 March 1711 7 March 1772 22,280 60 years, 365 days
66 Christian Ernest Stolberg-Wernigerode (HRE) 9 November 1710 25 October 1771 22,265 60 years, 350 days
67 Adolf III Schauenburg and Holstein (HRE) 6 July 1164 3 January 1225 22,096 60 years, 181 days
68 Leopold Louis Palatinate-Veldenz (HRE) 3 June 1634 29 September 1694 22,033 60 years, 118 days
69 Johann Jakob I Waldburg-Zeil (HRE) 4 May 1614[t] 18 April 1674 21,899 59 years, 349 days
70 Gustav Adolph Mecklenburg-Güstrow (HRE) 23 April 1636 6 October 1695 21,715 59 years, 166 days
71 George Frederick I Brandenburg-Ansbach (HRE) 27 December 1543 25 April 1603 21,669 59 years, 119 days
72 Charles I Hesse-Kassel (HRE) 1 December 1670 23 March 1730 21,661 59 years, 112 days
73 Abdul Halim Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia) 14 July 1958 11 September 2017 21,609 59 years, 59 days
74 Pakubuwono XII Surakarta (Indonesia) 11 June 1945 11 June 2004 21,550 59 years, 0 days[33]
75 Barnim I Pomerania-Stettin (HRE) 23 January 1220 13 December 1278 21,509 58 years, 324 days
76 Ludovico I Saluzzo (HRE) October 1416 8 April 1475 21,373 58 years, 189 days
77 Philip Hesse-Philippsthal (HRE) 16 July 1663 18 June 1721 21,156 57 years, 337 days
78 Philipp I Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 20 September 1371 2 July 1429 21,104 57 years, 285 days
79 Philipp I Hesse (HRE) 11 July 1509 31 March 1567 21,082 57 years, 263 days
80 Albrecht I Hohenlohe-Weikersheim (HRE) 16 November 1371 15 June 1429 21,030 57 years, 211 days

Monarchs whose exact dates of rule are unknown[edit]

These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a pure ranking of monarchs. The list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the table above.

Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, ruled for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have ruled for about 101 years. These figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars.

No. Name Country Reign Duration (approx. years)
from to
1 Pepi II Neferkare[u] Ancient Egypt 2278 BC 2184 BC 94 years94 years (disputed)
2 Taejo Goguryeo 53 146 93 years93 years (disputed)
3 Ermanaric the Ostrogoth Oium 296 (disputed) 376 80 years (disputed)
4 Mahanyod Hariphunchai (Thailand) 670 750 80 years
5 Raja Sawai Basavalinga I Sundem (India) 1763 1843
6 Jangsu Goguryeo 413 491 78 years
7 Mirian III Kingdom of Iberia 268 or 284 345 or 361 77 years
8 Raisingh Deo Patna (India) 1685 1762
9 Mohan Singh Rajgarha (India) 1638 14 April 1714 76 years
10 Tai Wu Shang (China) 1486 BC 1411 BC 75 years
11 Vakhtang Gorgasali Kingdom of Iberia 447 522
12 Johann Philipp[v] Stadion (HRE) 1666 1741
13 Sukhachain Jind (India) 1676 1751
14 Yo-Tha Hariphunchai (Thailand) 1197 1271 74 years
15 Wilhelm I Sayn-Wittgenstein (HRE) 1494 1568
16 Fazl Ali Khan II Bahadur Banganapalle 1686 1759 73 years
17 Tezozomoc Azcapotzalco 1353, 1367, or 1370 1426 73–56 years
18 Zhao Tuo Nanyue 208 BC 137 BC 71 years
19 Simon I Lippe (HRE) 1273 1344
20 Heinrich VIII Fürstenberg-Wolfach (HRE) 1419 30 November 1490
21 Pandukabhaya Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 437 BC 367 BC 70 years
22 Ponhea Yat Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1393 1463
23 Johann Ulrich Stadion (HRE) 1530 1600
24 Muhtarram Shah Kator The First Chitral (India) 1585 1655
25 Shapur II[w] Sasanian Empire (Persia) March 310 379 69 years
26 Huan Qi (China) 636 BC 567 BC
27 Tshudpud Namgyal Sikkim (part of British Raj from 1858) 1793 1863
28 Alberto Azzo II Este and Milan 1029 20 August 1097 68 years
29 Louis XIII Oettingen-Wallerstein (HRE) 1449 1517
30 Malojirao III Mudhol (India) 1737 1805
31 Sultan Mahmud Shah II Perak (Malaysia) 1653 1720 67 years
32 Johann III Sponheim-Starkenburg (HRE) 1331 1398
33 Ramesses II Ancient Egypt 1279 BC 1213 BC 66 years
34 Pharnavaz I Kingdom of Iberia 302 BC 237 BC 65 years
35 Nandivarman II Pallava Empire (India) 731 796
36 Sagramji I Kumbhoji Gondal (India) 1648 1713
37 Zhao Song (China) 468 BC 404 BC 64 years
38 Khuman III Udaipur (India) 878 942
39 Amoghavarsha Rashtrakuta Empire (India) 814 878
40 Friedrich IV Castell (HRE) 1285 1349
41 Zhuang I Qi (China) 794 BC 731 BC
42 Mahmud III Mansa (Empire of Mali) 1496 1559 63 years
43 Friedrich II Salm-Neuweiler (HRE) 1610 1673
44 Jayavarman VIII Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1243 1295
45 Philipp Ernst Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (HRE) 1697 1759 62 years
46 Karl Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (HRE) 1741 1803
47 Franz Wilhelm Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim (HRE) 1673 1734 61 years
48 Bhavsinhji I Ratanji Bhavnagar (India) 1703 1764
49 Cynan Garwyn Kingdom of Powys (Wales) 550 610 60c. 60 years
50 Aescwine Kingdom of Essex 527 587
51 Pawl Glywysing (Wales) 480 540
52 Mutasiva Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 367 BC 307 BC 60 years
53 Adesida I Akure (Nigeria) June 1897 1957
54 Sophie Bar (HRE) 1033 1093
55 Friedrich I Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1210 1270
56 Heinrich III Henneberg-Aschach-Römhild (HRE) 1292 1352
57 Heinrich II Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1301 1361
58 Otto I Solms-Braunfels (HRE) 1349 1409
59 Ludwig Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1443 1503
60 Mayadunne Sitawaka (Sri Lanka) 1521 1581
61 Vanghoji II Jagpalrao Nimbalkar Phaltan (India) 1570 1630
62 Hu Chen (China) 1045 BC 986 BC 59 years
63 Guilhem III Toulouse 978 1037
64 Otto I Salm-Kyrburg (HRE) October 1548 7 June 1607
65 Nan China (Zhou) 314 BC 256 BC 58 years
66 Harald I Norway 872 930 58 years c. 58 years
67 Henry II Baden-Hachberg (HRE) 1231 1289 58 years
68 Jayaba Mukne Jawhar (India) 1342 1400
69 Heinrich V Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 1347 1405
70 Nikolaus III Tecklenburg (HRE) 1450 1508
71 Mulraj II Jaisalmer State (India) 1762 1820
72 Muhammad Shafi ud-din II Sambas (Borneo) 1866 1924
73 Maredydd ap Rhain Kingdom of Dyfed (Wales) 740 797 57 years
74 Jing Qi (China) 547 BC 490 BC
75 Mithridates VI Pontus 120 BC 63 BC
76 Vseslav of Polotsk Polotsk 1044 1101
77 Roger II Foix (France) 1067 1124
78 Kori Oyo 1300 1357
79 Bernhard I Bentheim-Bentheim (HRE) 1364 1421
80 Yi Hham Hka Kengtung (Burma) 1403 1460
81 Ernst II Oettingen-Wallerstein (HRE) 1613[x] 3 March 1670
82 Johannes Waldburg-Waldsee (HRE) 1667 1724
83 Adolf Ludwig Wilhelm Sayn-Wittgenstein-Karlsburg (HRE) 1749 1806

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This length of reign applies only to the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, as all of the other countries of which Elizabeth II is at present queen had not yet gained independence at the time of her accession.
  2. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.9.2.4.8, 5 Lamat 1 Mol; died 9.12.11.5.18, 6 Etz'nab 11 Yax. Long Count dates are converted using the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation.
  3. ^ Junior co-emperor to Romanos II (962–963), Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969), John I Tzimiskes (969–976) and Basil II (976–1025).
  4. ^ Junior co-emperor to Romanos II (960–963), Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969) and John I Tzimiskes (969–976).
  5. ^ Served as Regent for his father Emperor Taishō, from 29 November 1921 until his formal accession. Status as head of state not formally defined in the 1947 constitution of Japan, but the emperor of Japan can act as a head of state, whenever needed.[13]
  6. ^ Longest de jure ruler of China, although the Qianlong Emperor held longer de facto power.
  7. ^ Longest de facto ruler of China, although the Kangxi Emperor held longer de jure power.
  8. ^ Elector of Hanover (intermittently) from 1760. Proclaimed King of Hanover in 1814. Great Britain and Ireland were joined as the United Kingdom in 1801.
  9. ^ He was proclaimed king at the age of four months, and his grandmother, Labotsibeni Mdluli, acted as regent until 22 December 1921 and then formally transferred all monarchial power to Sobhuza II.[28] Some sources take the date of succession as the date on which his grandmother handed over the royal duties to him, not when he was proclaimed king. Swaziland became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968.
  10. ^ Heinrich XI succeeded to the throne as Count of Reuss-Obergreiz in 1723 on the death of his brother, Heinrich IX (all male members of the family were named Heinrich in order of birth, even across cousins). In 1778 he became the first Prince of Reuss Elder Line.
  11. ^ Count Johann Ludwig was born posthumously, after the death of his father Count Johann II on 25 July 1472; he succeeded to the throne at birth.
  12. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 15 August 1947. Merged Kapurthala into the Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union (PEPSU) on 5 May 1948, relinquished his sovereign powers with effect from 20 August. Rajpramukh of the PEPSU from 5 May 1948 until his death on 17 June 1949
  13. ^ Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III 1452–1493.
  14. ^ Eleanor was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, although medieval law dictated that her various husbands (Louis VII of France, Henry II of England) and sons (Richard I and John of England) reign with her jointly.
  15. ^ Merged his state into the United State of Kathiawad on 15 February 1948, but lived until 28 June 1954.
  16. ^ Frederick Augustus I was known as Frederick Augustus III before 1806.
  17. ^ Philipp II ruled as co-ruler with his brother till 1442 when they divided their inheritances.
  18. ^ Ulrich V was Count of all Württemberg until its partition between Württemberg-Urach and Württemberg-Stuttgart in 1442. He continued as Count of the latter branch until his death in 1480.
  19. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 14 August 1947, but retained sovereignty over his state until his death on 31 March 1948
  20. ^ Johann Jakob I succeeded as Truchsess (Archsteward), and was raised to the rank of Graf (Count) in 1628.
  21. ^ Pepi II's figure has been disputed by some Egyptologists who favour a shorter reign length of 64 years, given the absence of attested dates known for Pepi after his 31st Count, which would equate to 62 years assuming the count to be biennial. Others point, however, to the consistency between the existing historical sources all crediting Pepi with over 90 years of reign. Finally, the lack of evidence beyond his 62nd year does not preclude a much longer reign, especially in view of the decay of the Egyptian state into the chaos of the First Intermediate Period at the end of Pepi's reign.
  22. ^ Johann Philipp succeeded to the Lordship of Stadion at age 14 in 1666, was raised to Baron in 1686 and Reichsgraf (Count) in 1704.
  23. ^ Shapur II was crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates.
  24. ^ Ernst II ruled jointly with Friedrich VIII in the years 1602–13, but then ruled for 57 years as sole monarch.

References[edit]

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  10. ^ "Term details". British Museum. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
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  13. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (12 November 1995). "Japan's State Symbols: Now You See Them … ". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
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  16. ^ "Qianlong | emperor of Qing dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  17. ^ "These Royals Held Their Titles Longer Than Anyone Else in History". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Christian IV | Scandinavian king". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
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  20. ^ "Prince Honore III: one of the longest reigns in European history". HelloMonaco. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Louis XV". Biography. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Pedro II | emperor of Brazil". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Nicholas I | Facts & Biography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  24. ^ "Independence". Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
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  26. ^ "Wilhelmina | queen of the Netherlands". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  27. ^ "James I | Biography, Religion, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  28. ^ Swaziland National Trust Commission: "Cultural Resources: King Sobhuza II", retrieved 29 August 2008.
  29. ^ "Lakhtar – Indian Princely States". Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  30. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Trebge, Spuren im Land, Hohenleuben, 2005.
  31. ^ Thomas Gehrlein, Das Haus Reuß: Älterer und Jüngerer Linie, Börde Verlag 2006, ISBN 978-3-9810315-3-9
  32. ^ "Rulers of Malaysian States".
  33. ^ Indonesian wikipedia: Pakubuwana_XII