List of longest rivers of Canada

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 The Finlay River flows into the Peace River, which flows into the Slave River and hence into the Great Slave Lake. The Mackenzie River main stem flows generally northwest from the Great Slave Lake to the Beaufort Sea.
The Mackenzie River is the longest stream in Canada if measured from its mouth on the Beaufort Sea to the headwaters of the Finlay River, a major upstream tributary. The main stem, a much shorter segment of the Mackenzie, is marked in dark blue.

Among the longest rivers of Canada are 47 streams of at least 600 km (370 mi). In the case of some rivers such as the Columbia, the length listed in the table below is solely that of the main stem. In the case of others such as the Mackenzie, it is the combined lengths of the main stem and one or more upstream tributaries, as noted. Excluded from the list are rivers such as the Dauphin, a short connecting link between lakes Manitoba and Winnipeg, with main stems of 100 km (62 mi) or less. Also excluded are rivers such as the Mississippi, the main stems of which do not enter Canada even though some of their tributaries do.

Nine rivers in this list cross international boundaries or form them. Four—the Yukon, Columbia, Porcupine, and Kootenay—begin in Canada and flow into the United States. Five—the Milk, Pend d'Oreille, Saint Lawrence, Red, and Saint John—begin in the United States and flow into Canada. Of these, the Milk and the Kootenay cross the international border twice, the Milk leaving and then re-entering the United States, the Kootenay leaving and then re-entering Canada.[1] The drainage basins of these nine rivers extend into both countries; in addition, the drainage basins of six others—the Fraser, Assiniboine, South Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Nelson, and Winnipeg—extend into the United States even though their main stems flow entirely within Canada.

Sources report hydrological quantities with varied precision. Biologist and author Ruth Patrick, describing a table of high-discharge rivers, wrote that data on discharge, drainage area, and length varied widely among authors whose works she consulted. "It seems," she said, "that the wisest course is to regard data tables such as the present one as showing the general ranks of rivers, and not to place too much importance on minor (10–20%) differences in figures."[2]

Table[edit]

The primary source for data in the table below is The Atlas of Canada; other sources are as noted. Discharge refers to the flow at the mouth except as noted. U.S. states appear in italics. Abbreviations are as follows: "km" for "kilometre", "mi" for "mile", "s" for "second", "m" for "metre", and "ft" for "foot".

Key
River is not entirely within Canada. River is not entirely within Canada.
Watershed is not entirely within Canada. Watershed is not entirely within Canada.
Longest rivers of Canada
# Name Mouth Length[3] Source[n 1] Watershed
area
[3]
Discharge[3][5] Provinces,
states
Image
1 Mackenzie River Beaufort Sea
69°21′59″N 133°54′10″W / 69.36639°N 133.90278°W / 69.36639; -133.90278 (Mackenzie River (mouth))[6]
4,241 km
2,635 mi
[n 2]
Thutade Lake
56°44′00″N 127°31′00″W / 56.73333°N 127.51667°W / 56.73333; -127.51667 (Finlay River (source))
1,805,200 km2
697,000 mi2
9,700 m3/s
340,000 ft3/s
Northwest Territories
A frozen river passes through flat country. Short trees grow on the riverbanks; tall mountains are in the far distance.
2 Yukon River Bering Sea
62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62.59861°N 164.80000°W / 62.59861; -164.80000 (Yukon River (mouth))[8]
3,185 km
1,979 mi
dagger[n 3]
Teslin Lake
59°37′00″N 132°09′00″W / 59.61667°N 132.15000°W / 59.61667; -132.15000 (Yukon River (source))
839,200 km2
324,000 mi2
double-dagger[n 4]
6,340 m3/s
224,000 ft3/s[9]
British Columbia, Yukon, Alaska
Sunset over a large river flowing through mountains.
3 Saint Lawrence River Gulf of Saint Lawrence
49°40′00″N 64°30′00″W / 49.66667°N 64.50000°W / 49.66667; -64.50000 (Saint Lawrence River (mouth))[10]
3,058 km
1,900 mi
dagger[n 5]
Seven Beaver Lake
47°30′04″N 91°49′51″W / 47.50111°N 91.83083°W / 47.50111; -91.83083 (Saint Louis River (source))[11]
1,344,200 km2
519,000 mi2
double-dagger[n 6]
9,850 m3/s
348,000 ft3/s
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ontario, Michigan, Ohio, New York, Quebec
A large ship travels along a large river bordered by vegetation on one bank and urban development on the other.
4 Nelson River Hudson Bay
57°04′05″N 92°30′08″W / 57.06806°N 92.50222°W / 57.06806; -92.50222 (Nelson River (mouth))[12]
2,575 km
1,600 mi
[n 7]
Bow Glacier
51°40′00″N 116°27′00″W / 51.66667°N 116.45000°W / 51.66667; -116.45000 (Bow River (source))
892,300 km2
344,500 mi2
double-dagger[n 8]
2,370 m3/s
84,000 ft3/s
Manitoba
Native people sit in canoes along the shore of a very wide flat river.
5 Slave River Great Slave Lake
61°18′00″N 113°40′04″W / 61.30000°N 113.66778°W / 61.30000; -113.66778 (Slave River (mouth))[13]
2,338 km
1,453 mi
[n 9]
Thutade Lake
56°44′00″N 127°31′00″W / 56.73333°N 127.51667°W / 56.73333; -127.51667 (Finlay River (source))
616,400 km2
238,000 mi2
3,437 m3/s
121,400 ft3/s[14]
Alberta, Northwest Territories
White birds with wide orange beaks swim near a rocky ledge of a swift wide river.
6 Columbia River Pacific Ocean
46°14′39″N 124°03′29″W / 46.24417°N 124.05806°W / 46.24417; -124.05806 (Columbia River (mouth))[15]
2,000 km
1,243 mi
dagger[n 10]
Columbia Lake
50°09′53″N 115°50′19″W / 50.16472°N 115.83861°W / 50.16472; -115.83861 (Columbia River source)
671,300 km2
259,200 mi2
double-dagger[n 11]
7,730 m3/s
273,000 ft3/s[16]
British Columbia, Washington, Oregon
A large river flows through a wooded gorge.
7 Saskatchewan River Lake Winnipeg
53°11′20″N 99°15′18″W / 53.18889°N 99.25500°W / 53.18889; -99.25500 (Saskatchewan River (mouth))[17]
1,939 km
1,205 mi
[n 12]
Bow Glacier
51°40′00″N 116°27′00″W / 51.66667°N 116.45000°W / 51.66667; -116.45000 (Bow River (source))

335,900 km2
129,700 mi2
double-dagger[n 13]
700 m3/s
25,000 ft3/s
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba
A wide river flows under a bridge.
8 Peace River Slave River
59°00′01″N 111°24′47″W / 59.00028°N 111.41306°W / 59.00028; -111.41306 (Peace River (mouth))[18]
1,923 km
1,195 mi
[n 14]
Thutade Lake
56°44′00″N 127°31′00″W / 56.73333°N 127.51667°W / 56.73333; -127.51667 (Finlay River (source))
302,500 km2
116,800 mi2
2,118 m3/s
74,800 ft3/s[19]
British Columbia, Alberta
Brilliant sunset over a wide river flowing through woods
9 Churchill River (Hudson Bay) Hudson Bay
58°47′45″N 94°12′15″W / 58.79583°N 94.20417°W / 58.79583; -94.20417 (Churchill River (mouth))[20]
1,609 km
1,000 mi
[n 15]
Churchill Lake
55°49′02″N 108°22′52″W / 55.81722°N 108.38111°W / 55.81722; -108.38111 (Churchill River (source))
281,300 km2
108,600 mi2
1,200 m3/s
42,000 ft3/s
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba
A medium-sized river rushes through rapids in the woods.
10 South Saskatchewan River Saskatchewan River
53°15′00″N 105°05′02″W / 53.25000°N 105.08389°W / 53.25000; -105.08389 (South Saskatchewan River (mouth))[21]
1,392 km
865 mi
[n 16]
Bow Glacier
51°40′00″N 116°27′00″W / 51.66667°N 116.45000°W / 51.66667; -116.45000 (Bow River (source))
146,100 km2
56,400 mi2
double-dagger[n 17]
280 m3/s
9,900  ft3/s
Alberta, Saskatchewan
The surface of a wide river approaching a city is almost completely frozen.
11 Fraser River Strait of Georgia
49°07′00″N 123°10′59″W / 49.11667°N 123.18306°W / 49.11667; -123.18306 (Fraser River (mouth))[22]
1,370 km
850 mi
Fraser Pass
52°32′01″N 118°19′39″W / 52.53361°N 118.32750°W / 52.53361; -118.32750 (Fraser River (source))
233,100 km2
90,000 mi2
double-dagger[n 18]
3,540 m3/s
125,000 ft3/s
British Columbia
Men in canoes descend wild rapids in a river canyon.
12 North Saskatchewan River Saskatchewan River
53°15′00″N 105°05′02″W / 53.25000°N 105.08389°W / 53.25000; -105.08389 (North Saskatchewan River (mouth))[23]
1,287 km
800 mi
Saskatchewan Glacier
52°14′33″N 117°09′05″W / 52.24250°N 117.15139°W / 52.24250; -117.15139 (North Saskatchewan River (source))
122,800 km2
47,400 mi2
245 m3/s
8,700 ft3/s
Alberta, Saskatchewan
A wide river winds by a fenced overlook opposite a forest. The setting sun illuminates a partly cloudy sky.
13 Ottawa River Saint Lawrence River
45°33′59″N 74°23′11″W / 45.56639°N 74.38639°W / 45.56639; -74.38639 (Ottawa River (mouth))[24]
1,271 km
790 mi
Laurentian Mountains
47°36′00″N 75°43′40″W / 47.60000°N 75.72778°W / 47.60000; -75.72778 (Ottawa River (source))
146,300 km2
56,500 mi2
1,950 m3/s
69,000 ft3/s
Quebec, Ontario
A dock extends from the shore of an extremely wide river.
14 Athabasca River Lake Athabasca
58°59′05″N 110°51′23″W / 58.98472°N 110.85639°W / 58.98472; -110.85639 (Athabasca River (mouth))[25]
1,231 km
765 mi
Columbia Icefield
52°11′14″N 117°28′27″W / 52.18722°N 117.47417°W / 52.18722; -117.47417 (Athabasca River (source))
95,300 km2
36,800 mi2
[n 19]
783 m3/s
27,700 ft3/s[26]
Alberta
A river flows by a cliff and through a snow-covered forest.
15 Liard River MacKenzie River
61°50′55″N 121°18′35″W / 61.84861°N 121.30972°W / 61.84861; -121.30972 (Liard River (mouth))[27]
1,115 km
693 mi[28]
Saint Cyr Range
61°11′08″N 131°45′36″W / 61.18556°N 131.76000°W / 61.18556; -131.76000 (Liard River (source))
277,100 km2
107,000 mi2
2,446 m3/s
86,400 ft3/s[29]
Yukon, British Columbia, Northwest Territories
A wide flat river flows along a rocky shore toward a mountain range in the far distance.
16 Assiniboine River Red River
49°53′09″N 97°07′41″W / 49.88583°N 97.12806°W / 49.88583; -97.12806 (Assiniboine River (mouth))[30]
1,070 km
660 mi
near Hazel Dell
52°15′53″N 103°08′48″W / 52.26472°N 103.14667°W / 52.26472; -103.14667 (Assiniboine River (source))
182,000 km2
70,000 mi2
double-dagger[n 20]
45 m3/s
1,600 ft3/s
Saskatchewan, Manitoba
A muddy river floods a wooded urban area with boat docks and riverside seating.
17 Milk River Missouri River
48°03′26″N 106°19′07″W / 48.05722°N 106.31861°W / 48.05722; -106.31861 (Milk River (mouth))[31]
1,005 km
625 mi
dagger[n 21]
Blackfeet Indian Reservation
48°51′20″N 113°01′10″W / 48.85556°N 113.01944°W / 48.85556; -113.01944 (Milk River (source))[31]
61,200 km2
23,600 mi2
double-dagger[n 22]
18.9 m3/s
670 ft3/s[33]
Alberta, Montana
A small river winds through a rocky, grass-covered plateau. Hills rise in the distance.
18 Albany River James Bay
52°17′00″N 81°30′59″W / 52.28333°N 81.51639°W / 52.28333; -81.51639 (Albany River (mouth))[34]
982 km
610 mi
[n 23]
Cat Lake
51°45′00″N 91°53′00″W / 51.75000°N 91.88333°W / 51.75000; -91.88333 (Cat River (source))
135,200 km2
52,200 mi2
251 m3/s
8,900 ft3/s
[n 24]
Ontario
Large trucks, widely spaced, travel single-file across a frozen river.
19 Severn River Hudson Bay
56°03′22″N 87°34′36″W / 56.05611°N 87.57667°W / 56.05611; -87.57667 (Severn River (mouth))[36]
982 km
610 mi
[n 25]
Deer Lake
52°37′00″N 94°40′00″W / 52.61667°N 94.66667°W / 52.61667; -94.66667 (Black Birch River (source))
102,800 km2
39,700 mi2
645 m3/s
22,800 ft3/s
[n 26]
Ontario
20 Back River Chantrey Inlet
67°16′00″N 95°15′00″W / 67.26667°N 95.25000°W / 67.26667; -95.25000 (Back River (mouth))[39]
974 km
605 mi
[n 27]
near Aylmer Lake
64°25′00″N 108°27′00″W / 64.41667°N 108.45000°W / 64.41667; -108.45000 (Back River (source))
106,500 km2
41,120 mi2
612 m3/s
21,600 ft3/s[40]
Northwest Territories, Nunavut
21 Thelon River Baker Lake
64°16′30″N 96°04′35″W / 64.27500°N 96.07639°W / 64.27500; -96.07639 (Thelon River (mouth))[41]
904 km
562 mi
Lynx Lake
62°20′36″N 106°02′18″W / 62.34333°N 106.03833°W / 62.34333; -106.03833 (Thelon River (source))
142,400 km2
55,000 mi2
840 m3/s
30,000 ft3/s
Northwest Territories, Nunavut
A wide river flows slowly through a forest of short, widely spaced evergreen trees.
22 La Grande River James Bay
53°50′03″N 79°03′20″W / 53.83417°N 79.05556°W / 53.83417; -79.05556 (La Grande River (mouth))[42]
893 km
555 mi
Lac Nichicun
53°12′30″N 70°56′00″W / 53.20833°N 70.93333°W / 53.20833; -70.93333 (La Grande River (source))
97,600 km2
37,700 mi2
1,690 m3/s
60,000 ft3/s
Quebec
Sunset over a river winding through thick evergreen forests.
23 Red River Lake Winnipeg
50°23′47″N 96°48′39″W / 50.39639°N 96.81083°W / 50.39639; -96.81083 (Red River (mouth))[43]
890 km
545 mi
dagger[n 28]
Wahpeton and Breckinridge
46°15′52″N 96°35′55″W / 46.26444°N 96.59861°W / 46.26444; -96.59861[45]
287,500 km2
111,000 mi2
double-dagger[n 29]
236 m3/s
8,300 ft3/s[46]
North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba
A small river flows through a prairie landscape; brown grasses and leafless trees line the banks.
24 Koksoak River Ungava Bay
58°32′11″N 68°09′29″W / 58.53639°N 68.15806°W / 58.53639; -68.15806 (Koksoak River (mouth))[47]
874 km
543 mi
[n 30]
Lake Sevestre
52°32′23″N 68°01′15″W / 52.53972°N 68.02083°W / 52.53972; -68.02083 (Caniapiscau River (source))
133,400 km2
51,500 mi2
2,800 m3/s
99,000 ft3/s
Quebec
25 Churchill River (Atlantic) Atlantic Ocean
53°20′58″N 60°10′39″W / 53.34944°N 60.17750°W / 53.34944; -60.17750 (Churchill River (mouth))[48]
856 km
532 mi
[n 31]
Ashuanipi Lake
52°59′20″N 66°14′28″W / 52.98889°N 66.24111°W / 52.98889; -66.24111 (Ashuanipi River (source))
79,800 km2
30,800 mi2
1,580 m3/s
56,000 ft3/s
Labrador
26 Coppermine River Coronation Gulf
67°49′09″N 115°03′50″W / 67.81917°N 115.06389°W / 67.81917; -115.06389 (Coppermine River (mouth))[49]
845 km
525 mi
Lac de Gras
64°35′02″N 111°11′24″W / 64.58389°N 111.19000°W / 64.58389; -111.19000 (Coppermine River (source))
50,800 km2
19,600 mi2[50]
262 m3/s
9,300 ft3/s
[n 32]
Northwest Territories, Nunavut
Canoes and tents rest on a sandy spit along a river.
27 Dubawnt River Thelon River
64°32′59″N 100°06′00″W / 64.54972°N 100.10000°W / 64.54972; -100.10000 (Dubawnt River (mouth))[51]
842 km
523 mi
Abitau Lake
60°21′00″N 107°09′00″W / 60.35000°N 107.15000°W / 60.35000; -107.15000 (Dubawnt River (source))
57,500 km2
22,200 mi2
366 m3/s
12,900 ft3/s
[n 33]
Northwest Territories, Nunavut
28 Winnipeg River Lake Winnipeg
50°37′54″N 96°19′13″W / 50.63167°N 96.32028°W / 50.63167; -96.32028 (Winnipeg River (mouth))[53]
813 km
505 mi
[n 34]
Trap Lake
49°12′42″N 90°26′58″W / 49.21167°N 90.44944°W / 49.21167; -90.44944 (Winnipeg River (source))
135,800 km2
52,400 mi2
double-dagger[n 35]
850 m3/s
30,000 ft3/s[54]
Ontario, Manitoba
 Men in canoes approach a tent encampment along a wide river.
29 Kootenay River Columbia River
49°19′0″N 117°39′0″W / 49.31667°N 117.65000°W / 49.31667; -117.65000[55]
780 km
485 mi
dagger
Beaverfoot Range
51°03′21″N 116°21′55″W / 51.05583°N 116.36528°W / 51.05583; -116.36528 (Kootenay River (source))
50,300 km2
19,400 mi2
double-dagger[n 36]
850 m3/s
30,000 ft3/s
British Columbia, Montana, Idaho
A river flows through forested hills.
30 Nottaway River James Bay
51°22′33″N 78°55′45″W / 51.37583°N 78.92917°W / 51.37583; -78.92917 (Nottaway River (mouth))
776 km
482 mi
[n 37]

Lake Gilles
48°07′00″N 75°38′00″W / 48.11667°N 75.63333°W / 48.11667; -75.63333 (Megiscane River (source))
65,800 km2
25,400 mi2
1,190 m3/s
42000 ft3/s
Quebec
31 Rupert River James Bay
51°29′35″N 78°45′01″W / 51.49306°N 78.75028°W / 51.49306; -78.75028 (Rupert River (mouth))[56]
763 km
474 mi
[n 38]
north of Lake Mistassini
52°13′11″N 71°32′19″W / 52.21972°N 71.53861°W / 52.21972; -71.53861 (Temiscamie River (source))
43,400 km2
16,800 mi2
900 m3/s
32,000 ft3/s
Quebec
A medium-sized river plunges down rapids surrounded by forests.
32 Eastmain River James Bay
52°14′30″N 78°33′38″W / 52.24167°N 78.56056°W / 52.24167; -78.56056 (Eastmain River (mouth))[57]
756 km
470 mi
Lac Bréhat
52°31′30″N 70°52′00″W / 52.52500°N 70.86667°W / 52.52500; -70.86667 (Eastmain River (source))
46,400 km2
17,900 mi2
930 m3/s
33,000 ft3/s
Quebec
A frozen river winds through a snowy forest.
33 Attawapiskat River James Bay
52°57′12″N 82°17′43″W / 52.95333°N 82.29528°W / 52.95333; -82.29528 (Attawapiskat River (mouth))[58]
748 km
465 mi
[n 39]
Attawapiskat Lake
52°10′00″N 87°37′00″W / 52.16667°N 87.61667°W / 52.16667; -87.61667 (Attawapiskat River (source))
50,500 km2
19,500 mi2
263 m3/s
9,300 ft3/s
[n 40]
Ontario
34 Kazan River Thelon River
64°02′30″N 95°29′04″W / 64.04167°N 95.48444°W / 64.04167; -95.48444 (Kazan River (mouth))[60]
732 km
455 mi
[n 41]
Ennadai Lake
60°55′00″N 101°20′00″W / 60.91667°N 101.33333°W / 60.91667; -101.33333 (Kazan River (source))
71,500 km2
27,600 mi2
540 m3/s
19,000 ft3/s
Nunavut
35 Red Deer River South Saskatchewan River
50°58′05″N 110°00′00″W / 50.96806°N 110.00000°W / 50.96806; -110.00000 (Red Deer River (mouth))[61]
724 km
450 mi
Sawback Range
51°32′19″N 116°02′46″W / 51.53861°N 116.04611°W / 51.53861; -116.04611 (Red Deer River (source))
45,100 km2
17,400 mi2
70 m3/s
2,500 ft3/s
Alberta
A suspension bridge crosses a wide river.
36 Great Whale River Hudson Bay
55°15′58″N 77°47′04″W / 55.26611°N 77.78444°W / 55.26611; -77.78444 (Great Whale River (mouth))[62]
724 km
450 mi
Lake Saint-Lusson
54°49′30″N 70°32′17″W / 54.82500°N 70.53806°W / 54.82500; -70.53806 (Great Whale River (source))
42,700 km2
16,500 mi2
680 m3/s
24,000 ft3/s
Quebec
37 Porcupine River Yukon River
66°35′42″N 145°18′32″W / 66.59500°N 145.30889°W / 66.59500; -145.30889 (Porcupine River (mouth))[8]
721 km
448 mi
dagger
Ogilvie Mountains
66°32′10″N 138°22′16″W / 66.53611°N 138.37111°W / 66.53611; -138.37111 (Porcupine River (source))
117,900 km2
45,500 mi2
double-dagger[n 42]
414 m3/s
14,600 ft3/s[63]
Yukon, Alaska
A wide river curves by a rocky shore and across a flat plain.
38 Pend d'Oreille River Columbia River
48°59′59″N 117°37′00″W / 48.99972°N 117.61667°W / 48.99972; -117.61667 (Pend d'Oreille River (mouth))[64]
703 km
437 mi
dagger[n 43]
near Butte
46°04′32″N 112°27′56″W / 46.07556°N 112.46556°W / 46.07556; -112.46556 (Silver Bow Creek (source))[68]
66,900 km2
25,800 mi2
double-dagger[n 44]
820 m3/s
29,000 ft3/s[69]
Idaho, Washington, British Columbia
A two-part dam, connected in the middle by an island, blocks a large river downstream of a railroad bridge.
39 Hay River Great Slave Lake
60°51′50″N 115°44′04″W / 60.86389°N 115.73444°W / 60.86389; -115.73444 (Hay River (mouth))[70]
702 km
436 mi
near Zama Lake
58°14′14″N 118°51′34″W / 58.23722°N 118.85944°W / 58.23722; -118.85944 (Hay River (source))
48,200 km2
18,600 mi2
113 m3/s
4,000 ft3/s[71]
Alberta, Northwest Territories
A medium-sized river flows in bright sunlight through a forest.
40 Saguenay River Saint Lawrence River
48°07′59″N 69°43′59″W / 48.13306°N 69.73306°W / 48.13306; -69.73306 (Saguenay River (mouth))[72]
698 km
434 mi
[n 45]
near Otish Mountains
52°16′17″N 70°48′38″W / 52.27139°N 70.81056°W / 52.27139; -70.81056 (Saguenay River (source))
88,000 km2
34,000 mi2
1,750 m3/s
62,000 ft3/s
Quebec
A very wide river flows between low lines of hills.
41 Anderson River Beaufort Sea
69°43′00″N 129°00′09″W / 69.71667°N 129.00250°W / 69.71667; -129.00250 (Anderson River (mouth))[73]
692 km
430 mi
northwest of Great Bear Lake
66°57′00″N 124°36′00″W / 66.95000°N 124.60000°W / 66.95000; -124.60000 (Anderson River (source))
142 m3/s
5,000 ft3/s
[n 46]
Northwest Territories
42 Peel River Mackenzie River
67°41′49″N 134°31′58″W / 67.69694°N 134.53278°W / 67.69694; -134.53278 (Peel River (mouth))[74]
684 km
425 mi
[n 47]
Gill Lake
65°19′00″N 139°49′00″W / 65.31667°N 139.81667°W / 65.31667; -139.81667 (Ogilvie River (source))
73,600 km2
28,400 mi2
103 m3/s
3,600 ft3/s[75]
Yukon, Northwest Territories
43 Saint John River Bay of Fundy
45°16′00″N 66°04′00″W / 45.26667°N 66.06667°W / 45.26667; -66.06667 (Saint John River (mouth))
673 km
418 mi
dagger
Somerset County
46°33′47″N 69°53′05″W / 46.56306°N 69.88472°W / 46.56306; -69.88472 (Saint John River (source))
55,200 km2
21,300 mi2
double-dagger[n 48]
1,130 m3/s
40,000 ft3/s
Maine, New Brunswick
A flooding river has inundated roads, trees, and an elegant building.
44 Stewart River Yukon River
63°17′30″N 139°24′42″W / 63.29167°N 139.41167°W / 63.29167; -139.41167 (Stewart River (mouth))[76]
644 km
400 mi
Selwyn Mountains
64°06′35″N 131°42′25″W / 64.10972°N 131.70694°W / 64.10972; -131.70694 (Stewart River (source))
51,000 km2
20,000 mi2
675 m3/s
23,800 ft3/s[77]
Yukon
A wide river flows through hills. A sign in the foreground says "Stewart River".
45 Horton River Franklin Bay
69°56′00″N 126°48′09″W / 69.93333°N 126.80250°W / 69.93333; -126.80250 (Horton River (mouth))[78]
618 km
384 mi
Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut
67°51′00″N 120°33′00″W / 67.85000°N 120.55000°W / 67.85000; -120.55000 (Horton River (source))
26,680 km2
10,300 mi2[79]
Nunavut, Northwest Territories
A big river winds across a plain near a bluff.
46 English River Winnipeg River
50°12′04″N 95°00′12″W / 50.20111°N 95.00333°W / 50.20111; -95.00333 (English River (mouth))[80]
615 km
382 mi
near Marmion Lake
49°06′00″N 91°16′00″W / 49.10000°N 91.26667°W / 49.10000; -91.26667 (English River (source))
52,300 km2
20,200 mi2
Ontario
47 Pelly River Yukon River
62°46′46″N 137°20′13″W / 62.77944°N 137.33694°W / 62.77944; -137.33694 (Pelly River (mouth))[81]
608 km
378 mi
Mackenzie Mountains
62°49′00″N 129°53′00″W / 62.81667°N 129.88333°W / 62.81667; -129.88333 (Pelly River (source))
51,000 km2
20,000 mi2
410 m3/s
14,000 ft3/s
Yukon
A wide river winds through a forest and by a town.

Map[edit]

Map showing the location of the rivers on the list
Rivers on this list shown on a map of Canada

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Except as noted, source coordinates were derived via a topographic map search engine embedded in The Atlas of Canada.[4]
  2. ^ To the head of the Finlay River.[7]
  3. ^ To the head of the Nisutlin River. Of the total length of 3,185 km (1,979 mi), 1,149 km (714 mi) (about 36 percent) are in Canada.[7]
  4. ^ Split between 323,800 km2 (125,000 mi2), about 39 percent, in Canada and 515,400 km2 (199,000 mi2), about 61 percent, in the United States.[7]
  5. ^ To the head of the Saint Louis River in Minnesota.[7]
  6. ^ Split between 839,200 km2 (324,000 mi2) (about 62 percent) in Canada and 505,000 km2 (195,000 mi2) (about 38 percent) in the United States.[7]
  7. ^ To the head of the Bow River.[7]
  8. ^ Split between 690,900 square kilometres (266,800 sq mi), about 77 percent, in Canada and 201,400 square kilometres (77,800 sq mi), about 23 percent, in the United States. The totals for the two countries were derived by adding the U.S. watershed subtotals for the Assiniboine, Red, Winnipeg, and Saskatchewan rivers, which feed into the Nelson.[7]
  9. ^ Derived by adding the length of the Peace River (measured from its mouth to the headwaters of the Finlay River) to the length of the main stem of the Slave River.[7]
  10. ^ About 801 km (498 mi), 40 percent of the total, are in Canada.[7]
  11. ^ Split between 102,800 km2 (39,700 mi2) (about 15 percent) in Canada and 568,500 km2 (219,500 mi2) (about 85 percent) in the United States.[7]
  12. ^ To the head of the Bow River.[7]
  13. ^ Split between 334,100 km2 (129,000 sq mi) (about 99.5 percent) in Canada and 1,800 km2 (690 sq mi) (about 0.5 percent) in the United States.[7]
  14. ^ To the head of the Finlay River.[7]
  15. ^ To the head of Churchill Lake.[7]
  16. ^ To the head of the Bow River.[7]
  17. ^ Split between 144,300 km2 (55,700 sq mi) (about 99 percent) in Canada and 1,800 km2 (690 sq mi) (about 1 percent) in the United States.[7]
  18. ^ Split between 232,300 km2 (89,700 sq mi) (about 99.7 percent) in Canada and 800 km2 (310 sq mi) (about 0.3 percent) in the United States.[7]
  19. ^ Rivers of North America lists a basin size of 154,880 square kilometres (59,800 sq mi), but this includes Lake Athabasca, the Peace–Athabasca Delta, and the basins of the Fond du Lac River and some of the other streams flowing into the lake.[26]
  20. ^ Split between 160,600 km2 (62,000 mi2) (about 88 percent) in Canada and 21,400 km2 (8,300 mi2) (about 12 percent) in the United States.[7]
  21. ^ According to the Milk River Watershed Council, a 180-km (110 mi) stretch of the river flows through Canada. This amounts to about 18 percent of the river's total length.[32]
  22. ^ Split between 21,600 km2 (8,300 mi2) (about 35 percent) in Canada and 39,600 km2 (15,300 mi2) (about 65 percent) in the United States.[7]
  23. ^ To the head of the Cat River.[7]
  24. ^ Based on data from the years 1968–69, 73, and 75–84 at Hat Island,[35] about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the mouth. Distance from mouth estimated with a measurement tool embedded in The Atlas of Canada topographic maps.[4]
  25. ^ To the head of the Black Birch River.[7]
  26. ^ Based on data from the years 1973–74, 77–79, and 83–84 at Limestone Rapids,[37] about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the mouth.[38]
  27. ^ To the head of Muskox Lake.[7]
  28. ^ Split between 255 kilometres (158 mi) or about 29 percent in Canada and 635 kilometres (395 mi) or about 71 percent in the United States.[44]
  29. ^ Split between 138,600 km2 (53,500 sq mi) (about 48 percent) in Canada and 148,900 km2 (57,500 sq mi) (about 52 percent) in the United States.[7]
  30. ^ To the head of the Caniapiscau River.[7]
  31. ^ To the head of the Ashuanipi River.[7]
  32. ^ This is the mean discharge for a point about 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the mouth rather than at the mouth.[50]
  33. ^ Measured by a gauge at the outlet of Marjorie Lake, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the mouth. Flow derived by converting km3/yr to m3/s.[52] Distance from mouth estimated with a measurement tool embedded in The Atlas of Canada topographic maps.[4]
  34. ^ To the head of the Firesteel River.[7]
  35. ^ Split between 106,500 square kilometres (41,100 sq mi) in Canada, about 78 percent, and 29,300 square kilometres (11,300 sq mi), about 22 percent, in the United States.[7]
  36. ^ Split between 37,700 square kilometres (14,600 sq mi), about 52 percent, in Canada and 12,600 square kilometres (4,900 sq mi), about 48 percent, in the United States.
  37. ^ To the head of the Megiscane River.[7]
  38. ^ To the head of the Temiscamie River.[7]
  39. ^ To the head of Attawapiskat Lake.[7]
  40. ^ Based on data from the years 1967–80 and 82–84 at the source, Attawpiskat Lake, rather than at the mouth.[59]
  41. ^ To the head of Ennadai Lake.[7]
  42. ^ Split between 61,400 square kilometres (23,700 sq mi) in Canada, about 52 percent, and 56,500 square kilometres (21,800 sq mi), about 48 percent, in the United States.[7]
  43. ^ To the head of the Silver Bow Creek. Length derived by adding the distance from the mouth to the head of Pend Oreille Lake, shown on topo maps as about 220 kilometres (140 mi)[65] to the length (about 480 kilometres (300 mi) of the Clark Fork River and its headwater tributary, Silver Bow Creek.[66] Of this total, only 22 km (14 mi), about 3 percent, are in Canada.[67]
  44. ^ Split between 1,600 square kilometres (620 sq mi) in Canada, about 2 percent, and 65,000 square kilometres (25,000 sq mi), about 98 percent, in the United States.[67]
  45. ^ To the head of the Peribonka River.[7]
  46. ^ Measured by a gauge below the Carnwath River, about 150 kilometres (93 mi) from the Anderson River mouth. Flow derived by converting km3/yr to m3/s.[52] Distance from mouth estimated with a measurement tool embedded in The Atlas of Canada topographic maps.[4]
  47. ^ To the head of the Ogilvie River.[7]
  48. ^ Split between 35,000 square kilometres (14,000 sq mi) (about 63 percent) in Canada and 19,700 square kilometres (7,600 sq mi) (about 37 percent) in the United States.[7]
References
  1. ^ The Road Atlas. Chicago, Illinois: Rand McNally & Company. 2008. ISBN 0-528-93961-0. 
  2. ^ Patrick, Ruth (1995). Rivers of the United States: Volume II: Chemical and Physical Characteristics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 0-471-10752-2. 
  3. ^ a b c From The Atlas of Canada unless otherwise noted
  4. ^ a b c d "The Atlas of Canada, Advanced Search". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 18, 2011. 
  5. ^ Measured at the mouth unless otherwise noted
  6. ^ "Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 18, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Rivers". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "Yukon River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. March 31, 1981. Retrieved February 4, 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "GNIS" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  9. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 796
  10. ^ "Saint Lawrence River". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Saint Louis River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 11, 1980. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Nelson River, Manitoba". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Slave River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  14. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 843
  15. ^ "Columbia River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  16. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 646
  17. ^ "Saskatchewan River, Manitoba". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Peace River, Alberta". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  19. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 844
  20. ^ "Churchill River, Manitoba". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  21. ^ "South Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Fraser River, British Columbia". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  23. ^ "North Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Ottawa River, Ontario". Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Athabasca River, Alberta". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Benke and Cushing, p. 845
  27. ^ "Liard River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  28. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 815
  29. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 842
  30. ^ "Assiniboine River, Manitoba". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 
  31. ^ a b "Milk River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). April 4, 1980. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Milk River State of the Watershed Report, Part 3" (PDF). Milk River Watershed Council. 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  33. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 475
  34. ^ "Albany River, Ontario". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  35. ^ SAGE: Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (February 13, 2010). "Severn". River Discharge Database. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Severn River, Ontario". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  37. ^ SAGE: Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (February 13, 2010). "Severn". River Discharge Database. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  38. ^ Dymond, J.R.; Scott, W.B. (November 21, 1941). "Fishes of the Patricia Portion of the Kenora District, Ontario". Copeia. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 1941 (4): 243. doi:10.2307/1437471. 
  39. ^ "Back River, Nunavut". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  40. ^ Marsh, James. "Back River". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Dominion Institute. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Thelon River, Nunavut". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  42. ^ "La Grande Rivière" (in French). Gouvernement du Québec. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Red River". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Red River of the North: A Water Trail Guide" (PDF). Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2010. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  45. ^ "Red River of the North". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 1, 2000. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  46. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 896
  47. ^ "Rivière Koksoak" (in French). Gouvernement du Québec. Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Churchill River, Newfoundland and Labrador". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 13, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Coppermine River, Nunavut". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  50. ^ a b "Coppermine River: Overview of the Hydrology and Water Quality" (PDF). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. July 13, 2010. pp. 1–5. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Dubawnt River, Nunavut". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "List of Arctic RIMS Discharge Stations". University of New Hampshire. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Winnipeg River, Manitoba". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  54. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 898
  55. ^ "Kootenay River, British Columbia". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 
  56. ^ "Rivière Rupert". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Rivière Eastmain". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Attawapiskat River, Ontario". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 
  59. ^ SAGE: Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (February 13, 2010). "Attawapiskat". River Discharge Database. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  60. ^ "Kazan River, Nunavut". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 
  61. ^ "Red Deer River, Alberta". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2011. 
  62. ^ "Grande rivière de la Baleine, Quebec". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2011. 
  63. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 802
  64. ^ "Pend-d'Oreille River, British Columbia". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  65. ^ United States Geological Survey. "Hope, Idaho, quadrangle". TopoQuest. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  66. ^ Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Inc. 1998. p. 258. ISBN 0-87779-546-0. 
  67. ^ a b Swain, L.G. (August 2007). "Canada–British Columbia Water Quality Monitoring Agreement: Water Quality Assessment of Pend d'Oreille River at Waneta (1980–2006)" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Environment. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Silver Bow Creek". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. April 4, 1980. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Waneta Hydroelectric Expansion Project EAC Application" (PDF). Government of British Columbia. May 2006. p. 12. Retrieved June 8, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Hay River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  71. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 848
  72. ^ "Saguenay River, Quebec". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Anderson River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Peel River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 
  75. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 850
  76. ^ "Stewart River, Yukon". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  77. ^ Benke and Cushing, p. 800
  78. ^ "Horton River, Northwest Territories". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  79. ^ Giberson, Donna J.; Shaverdo, Helena V. (Fall 2003). "Update on the survey of aquatic insects from Keewatin and Mackenzie project: The predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae)". Newsletter of the Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods). University of Alberta. 22 (2). Retrieved May 27, 2011. 
  80. ^ "English River, Ontario". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  81. ^ "Pelly River, Yukon". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. April 2, 2004. Retrieved May 18, 2011. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Benke, Arthur C., ed., and Cushing, Colbert E., ed. Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1.