List of longest wooden ships

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The American six-masted schooner Wyoming, the longest confirmed wooden ship in history.

This is a list of the world's longest wooden ships. The vessels are sorted by ship length including bowsprit, if known.

Finding the world's longest wooden ship is not straightforward since there are several contenders, depending on which definitions are used. For example, some of these ships benefited from substantial iron or even steel components since the flexing of wood members can lead to significant leaking as the wood members become longer. Some of these ships were not very seaworthy, and a few sank either immediately after launch or soon thereafter. Some of the more recent large ships were never able or intended to leave their berths, and function as floating museums. Finally, not all of the claims to the title of the world's longest wooden ship are credible or verifiable.

A further problem is that especially wooden ships have more than one "length". The most used measure in length for registering a ship is the "length of the topmost deck" – the "length on deck" (LOD) – 'measured from leading edge of stem post to trailing edge of stern post on deck level' or the "length between perpendiculars" (LPP, LBP) – 'measured from leading edge of stem post to trailing edge of stern post in the construction waterline (CWL)'. In this method of measuring bowsprit including jibboom and out-board part of spanker boom if any have both no effect on the ship's length. The longest length for comparing ships, the total "overall" length (LOA) based on sparred length, should be given if known.

The longest wooden ship ever built, the six-masted New England gaff schooner Wyoming, had a "total length" of 137 metres (449 ft) (measured from tip of jib boom (30 metres) to tip of spanker boom (27 metres) and a "length on deck" of 107 m (351 ft). The 30 m (98 ft)-difference is due to her extremely long jib boom of 30 m (98 ft) her out-board length being 27 m (89 ft).

Longest known wooden ships[edit]

Over 100 meters (328 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
140 m
(450 ft)
15.3 m
(50 ft 1 in)
United States Wyoming 1909–1924 sunk This ship had a tendency to flex in heavy seas, causing the planks to twist and buckle due to their extreme length despite being fitted with metal bracing. Water was evacuated nearly constantly by steam pumps. It foundered in heavy seas with loss of all hands.
130 m
(425 ft)
35 m
(116 ft)
United States Solano 1878–1931 scuttled A paddle steamer used to ferry passengers and trains across the Carquinez Strait between Benicia and Port Costa, California. At the time of its construction, it was the largest ferryboat ever built. Unlike its later sister, the Contra Costa which had a steel hull, the wooden-hulled Solano had tall masts in the center of mass ("hogposts") anchoring several wires ("guys") that strengthened the hull against the weight of the trains.[1] The ferries were scuttled after the completion of the Benicia-Martinez railroad bridge.
124.05 m
(407 ft 4)
18.1 m
(59 ft 6 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Minotaur-class 1863–1960 all scrapped Three sister armoured frigates built for the Royal Navy's Channel Squadron in the 1860s.
120 m
(393.7 ft)
18.08 m
(59 ft 1 in)
France Bretagne 1855–1879 broken up Largest wooden ship of the line ever launched, with 120 guns. It was not considered a successful design, as she failed to match the performance of the Napoléon class two-deckers, and was almost immediately obsoleted by the introduction of the ironclad. In 1864, she had her steam engines removed and was relegated to training duties.
115.0 m
(377.3 ft)
22.2 m
(72.8 ft)
US Naval Jack 36 stars.svg USS Dunderberg
(later France Rochambeau)
1865–1874 broken up Ironclad built in New York City, originally intended for the United States Navy during the American Civil War, but eventually sold to the French Navy. About 50 feet (15 m) of her length was a ram. She was not particularly stable or seaworthy and only made one oceanic voyage to reach her new owners.
108 m
(356 ft)
15.4 m
(50 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Columbus 1824–1825 sunk First timber ship or disposable ship[2] with a four-masted barque rigging. Built in Quebec to avoid taxes on timber, her cargo and components were intended to be sold after the ship's arrival in London; however, the owner had only the cargo sold and ordered the ship back for a second voyage with a timber cargo, and the ship broke apart and sunk in the English Channel.
104c. 104 m (341 feet) 20.3 m
(66 ft)
Roman Empire Caligula's Giant Ship c. 37 AD reused as foundation of lighthouse Traces of this Roman barge were found during the construction of Leonardo da Vinci International Airport at Fiumicino, Italy, just north of the ancient port of Ostia. According to Pliny, this or a similar ship was used to transport the obelisk in St. Peter's Square from Egypt on the orders of Emperor Caligula.[3]
103 m
(338 ft)
13.4 m
(44 ft)
United States Pretoria 1900–1905 sunk A barge built for use on the Great Lakes. To strengthen the wooden frame and hull, steel keelson plates, chords, and arches were included, and was also diagonally strapped with steel. A donkey engine powered a pump to keep the interior dry.[4]
102.1 m
(335 ft)[5]
16.2 m
(53 ft)
United States Great Republic
(later Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Denmark)
1853–1872 sunk The largest wooden clipper ship ever built. It used iron bolts and was reinforced with steel, including ninety 36-foot (11 m) 4x1-inch cross braces, and metal keelsons.[6] The MIT Museum noted that "With this behemoth, McKay had pushed wooden ship construction to its practical limits."[7] The ship was abandoned leaking after encountering a hurricane near Bermuda.
102.1 m
(335 ft)
18.3 m
(60 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Orlando
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Mersey
1858–1871, 1858–1875 respectively broken up Sister British warships that suffered structural problems due to their length despite having internal iron strapping to support the hull.
102.1 m
(335 ft)
17.7 m
(58 ft 1 in)
France Trident 1878–1909 scrapped The largest Colbert-class ironclad of the French Navy's Mediterranean Squadron. It saw action at the French conquest of Tunisia
102 m
(335 ft)
15 m Canada William D. Lawrence
(later Norge-Unionsflagg-1844.svg Kommander Svend Foyn)
1874–1891 sunk Largest wooden cargo ship ever built in Canada. It passed to Norwegian ownership in 1883 and was converted into a barge in 1891. Sank while under tow at Dakar.[8]
101.7 m
(333 ft 8 in)
17.4 m
(57 ft 1 in)
France Richelieu 1873–1911 scrapped A wooden-hulled central battery ironclad that served in the French Navy's Mediterranean Squadron.
101.1 m
(331 ft 8 in)
17.4 m
(57 ft 1 in)
France Colbert 1877–1909 scrapped Lead ship of the Colbert-class ironclads and part of the French Navy's Mediterranean Squadron. It saw action at the French conquest of Tunisia.

100-90 meters (328-295 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
100 m
(328.084 ft)
6 m
(50 ft 1 in)
Russia Belyana type ships 19th century disassembled Belyanas were Russian freshwater ships used for log driving on the Volga and Vetluga rivers. Their bottom was made from fir and sidings from pine and featured a complement of 60 to 80 workers. The largest Belyanas could transport up to 13,000,000 kilograms (29,000,000 lb) of logs all stacked on their deck in the form of an inverted pyramid.[9]
98.8 m
(324 ft)
14.0 m
(46 ft)
United States Santiago 1899–1918 sunk A schooner-barge on the Great Lakes, towed by Appomattox until 1905 and then the steamer John F. Morrow until 1918.[10]
97.84 m
(311 ft)
15.0 m
(49 ft)
United States Roanoke 1892–1905 burned, then sunk A huge four-masted barque with skysails of a total length of 360 ft (110 m) and 3,539 GRT. In 1905 she was under the command of Captain Jabez A. Amesbury when she caught fire while loading at the anchorage of Noumea and burned to the waterline. This ship used iron bolts and steel reinforcements.[11][12]
97.2 m
(319 ft)
12.8 m
(42 ft)
United States Appomattox 1896–1905 run aground and sunk A Great Lakes steamship capable of carrying 3,000 tons of bulk cargo. Built with metallic cross bracing, keelson plates, and multiple arches because of her extreme length. Several syphons and steam-driven pumps were required to keep her afloat. Towed the steamer barge Santiago.[13]
94.8 m
(311 ft)
unknown Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Derzhava 1871–1905 decommissioned A steam-propelled yacht for personal use of the Russian Imperial Family in the Baltic Sea.
92.7 m
(304 ft)
18.6 m
(61 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Baron of Renfrew 1825 stranded and broken apart This unseaworthy[14] British ship was a disposable ship. Created to avoid taxes on timber, the components were intended to be sold after the ship's arrival from Quebec to London. The ship stranded on the Goodwin Sands and broke apart while being towed with a pilot aboard. Parts of her timber were found on the French coast. The ship had 5,294 GRT and an overall length of 362 ft / 110 metres.
91.7 m
(301 ft)
13.0 m
(42.5 ft)
United States Frank O'Connor[15] 1892–1919 burned A steam screw operating on the Great Lakes, it required an innovative iron and steel-reinforced hull to be a viable vessel.[16]
91.3 m
(300 ft)
15.0 m
(49 ft)
United States Shenandoah 1890–1915 accidentally rammed and sunk Another huge four-masted barque of the fleet of Arthur Sewell & Co. of Bath, Maine, with double top-sails, single topgallant sails, royal and sky sails of a total length of 360 ft (110 m) and 3,406.78 GRT.[17] It was rammed by the steamer Powhattan near Fire Island, Long Island, New York in 1915.
91.1 m
(299 ft)
23.7 m
(78 ft)[18]
United States Eureka 1890–1957 museum ship A steamboat with twin, 27-foot paddlewheels that carried railcars, cars and passengers across San Francisco Bay. Currently a National Historic Landmark at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, and the longest wooden ship that is still afloat.
95 m
(312 ft)
12 m
(41 ft)
United States Iosco 1891–1905 sunk A lake freighter that sank on September 2, 1905, on Lake Superior with the loss of all hands.
95 m
(312 ft)
12 m
(41 ft)
United States L.R. Doty 1893–1898 wrecked A lake freighter that sank on Lake Michigan with the loss of all hands. Her wreck was located in 2010.
91.4 m
(300 ft 4 in)
17.1 m
(56 ft 5)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Bellerophon 1865–1923 sold for scrap A Royal Navy central battery ironclad. It served in the Channel Fleet and North America.
91 m
(300 ft)
13 m
(42 ft)
Qing dynasty Haian
Qing dynasty Yuyuen
1872–?
1873–1885
(respectively)
hulked and scrapped
sunk
(respectively)
Twin steam-powered frigates of the Imperial Chinese Navy, and the largest vessels built in China until the 1930s. Yuyuen was sunk in action during the Sino-French War; Haian survived, but was hulked after being used as a blockship in the same war, and was scrapped years later.

89-80 meters (291-262 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
87 m
(285 ft)
12 m
(29 ft)
United States Australasia 1884–1896 burned A steamship that burned down on Lake Michigan.
87 m

(284 ft)

13 m

(42 ft)

Portugal Dom Fernando II e Glória 1845–1940 museum ship A 50-gun frigate of the Portuguese Navy. It became a training ship in 1865 and was permanently moored at Lisbon after 1878. Despite this, it was named the flagship of Portugal's European squadron in 1938. Two years later it became a naval school and museum ship. It is currently displayed in Almada.
86.8 m
(287 ft)
15.0 m
(49 ft)
United States Rappahannock 1889–1891 burned A three-masted wooden full-rigged ship of 3,054 GRT, built and owned by Arthur Sewall & Co., with double top-sails and topgallant sails, royal and sky sails of a total length of 347 ft (106 m). The ship burned down near Juan Fernández while transporting soft charcoal from Liverpool to San Francisco, but everyone aboard reached Robinson Crusoe island, where they were rescued.[19]
85.34 m
(280 ft)
10.97 m
36 ft
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Cutty Sark[20] 1869–1954 museum ship Built as one of the last and fastest clippers for the tea trade with China, it switched to transporting wool from Australia after the Suez Canal was built. It was sold to a Portuguese company and used as a cargo ship between 1895 and 1922, when it was reacquired by British citizens and eventually restored for exhibition.
85.3 m
(280 ft)
18 m
(58 ft 11 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Lord Clyde
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Lord Warden
1864–1875
1865–1889
(respectively)
run aground and sold for scrap
broken up
(respectively)
Sister ships reputed at once to be the heaviest wooden ships ever built, the fastest steaming wooden ships, and the slowest-sailing ironclads in the Royal Navy. Both served in the Channel Fleet and the Mediterranean Squadron. Lord Clyde was plagued with engineering problems and was sold for scrap after it run aground and its hull was found to be rotten. Lord Warden had a more distinguished career, serving in the Reserve at the Firth of Forth after leaving the Mediterranean.
85.3 m
(280 ft)
15.2 m
(50 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Galatea 1859–1883 broken up A 26-gun sixth-rate screw frigate of the Royal Navy's North America and West Indies Station.
83.7 m
(274.6 ft)
18.5 m
(60.7 ft)
Kuwait Al-Hashemi-II 2001– museum and restaurant A Kuwaiti non-seagoing model of a dhow, reputed to be the largest ever built.[21]
83.4 m
(274 ft)
13.7 m
(45 ft)
United States Susquehanna 1891–1905 sunk The third hugest four-masted wooden barque of the fleet of Arthur Sewell & Co. with double top-sails, single topgallant sails, royal and sky sails of 2,745 GRT. Lost in a heavy storm three days after leaving Noumea, New Caledonia, for Delaware with a cargo of 3,558 tons of nickel ore. This ship used also iron bolts and steel reinforcements.[22]
81.2 m 10.9 m Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Livadia 1873–1878 run aground and sunk A steam-propelled yacht for personal use of the Russian Imperial Family in the Black Sea. It sunk at night, due to unruly weather, but without loss of life or cargo.
81.0 m
(266 ft)
18.08 m
(59.3 ft)
France Bretagne 1855–1880 broken up A 130-gun three-decker ship of the line, built as an improvement over the successful Océan class. It was equipped with a 8-boiler steam engine and a propeller that could be retracted to streamline the hull when sailing under sail only. It saw action during the Crimean War, and was used as a school ship after 1866.
80.9 m
(265.3 ft)
13.4 m
(44.1 ft)
Canada Morning Light
(later German Empire Jacob Fritz)
1856–1889 wrecked Largest vessel in British North America at the time of its construction. Sold to a German company in 1881, and found wrecked and abandoned north of New Jersey, in 1889.

79-70 meters (259-230 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
79.2 m
(260 ft)
18.3 m
(60 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Victoria
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Howe
1859–1893
1860–1921
(respectively)
both scrapped Sister 121-gun ships that were the last commissioned three-deckers ships of the line of the Royal Navy. The hulls were strapped with diagonal iron riders for extra stability, and they combined sail propulsion with a two-funnel marine steam engine that made them among the fastest ships of the line ever built.
78.3 m
(256.9 ft)
14.5 m
(47.6 ft)
Hanse Lübeck.svg Adler von Lübeck 1567–1588 disassembled Built in Lübeck to serve as the main fighting ship of the Hanseatic League. This galleon featured 138 guns, and space for 650 marines and a 350-man-strong crew. She was the largest ship of her time.[23]
78.22 m
(256 ft 8 in)
17 m
(55 ft 9 in)
France Gloire 1859–1883 scrapped First ocean-going ironclad, developed in response to the use of explosive shells in the Crimean War.
78 m
(257 ft)
14 m
(45 ft)
Canada Canada 1891–1926 broken up A full rigged ship intended to be the largest wooden ship built in Canada, but the hull had to be shortened after the keel's timber was damaged during construction. It transported cargo between South America and Australia, and between the United States and Canada, during her career.
77.9 m
(255 ft 6 in)
18.3 m
(60 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Algiers 1854-1870 broken up A screw-propelled, 91-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched after several changes in design since first conceived in 1839. Saw action at the Crimean War before being transferred to Malta and British home waters.
77.8 m
(255 ft 3 in)
17 m
(55 ft 9 in)
France Napoléon 1850–1876 struck A 90-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, the first purpose-built steam battleship in the world, and the first screw battleship. Its design was used as a basis for the slightly smaller Algésiras and Ville de Nantes classes.
76.8 m
(252 ft)
13.9 m
45.6 ft
United States Sovereign of the Seas 1852–1859 wrecked This clipper is the fastest sailing ship ever built, recording an unbeaten 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) in 1854. It wrecked on the Strait of Malacca while covering the route between Hamburg and China.
76.15 m
(249.8 ft)
21.22 (69.6 ft) Ottoman Empire Mahmudiye 1829–1874 disassembled Ordered by Sultan Mahmud II and built by the Ottoman Imperial Naval Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople. It the largest warship in the world for several years. The ship-of-the-line that was 76 m (249 ft) long with a beam of 21 m (69 ft), was armed with 128 cannon on three decks with complement of 1,280. She participated in many naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.
76 m
(249.3 ft)
11 m
(36 ft)
English White Ensign 1620.svg HMS Sovereign of the Seas 1637–1696 burned One of the first three-decker warships, the ship was built as a deliberate attempt to bolster the reputation of the English crown. It took part in many battles after the upper deck had been removed for reasons of balance.
75 m
(245 ft)
12 m
(40 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg SS British Queen
(later Belgium British Queen)
1839–1844 scrapped A paddle steamer that was the second steamship built for the trans-Atlantic route and the largest passenger liner at the time it was built. It passed to Belgian ownership after the British and American Steam Navigation Company collapsed on the wake of the loss of SS President.
74.68 m
(245 ft)
unknown Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Atlas
(later Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Atlas)
1860-1904 broken up A 91-gun second rate ship of the line that was never completed and spent her entire career in reserve and later, as a civilian-owned hospital ship.
74.4 m
(244 ft 1 in)
10.15 m
(33.3 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg City of Adelaide[24] 1864–1948 museum ship A clipper ship built to transport passengers and goods between Britain and Australia. In 1893 she became a floating hospital, and between 1923 and 1948 she served in the Royal Navy as a school ship, HMS Carrick. After being displayed in Scotland for decades, it was moved to its namesake Port Adelaide in 2014.
74 m
(242 ft 9 in)
14.7 m (48 ft 3 in) France Audacieuse 1856–1879 decommissioned A mixed frigate of the French Navy active in the Second Opium War.
74 m
(243 ft)
13.6 m
(44.5 ft)
Canada County of Yarmouth 1884–? unknown A full rigged ship built for trade with South America. It was dismasted and set to be broken up in 1895, but it was purchased in the last moment by the Argentinian Navy. Its later fate is unknown.
74 m
(243 ft)
12 m
(41 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg SS President 1840–1841 lost at sea The largest passenger liner in the world, and the first steamship lost on the trans-Atlantic route when it disappeared on its third voyage with all 136 people on board. Although one meter shorter than British Queen overall, it had 25% more capacity and an additional deck that made it top heavy, slow, and under-powered in rough weather.
74 m
(242 ft)
11 m (37 ft) United States George Spencer 1884–1905 wrecked A lake freighter built to carry iron ore on the Great Lakes. She wrecked in the infamous Mataafa Storm of 1905.
73.6 m
(241.5 ft)
8.8 m
(29 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Keangsoo
(later Naval Ensign of Japan.svg Kasuga)
1862–1902 scrapped A paddle steamer commissioned in the Isle of Wight by Prince Gong of the Qing Dynasty for use in the Taiping Rebellion, but never delivered as the British crew refused to take orders from Chinese officers. It was subsequently sold to the Satsuma Domain and joined the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Boshin War.
73.2 m
(240 ft)
16.9 m
(55 ft 4 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Conqueror
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Donegal
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Vernon)
1855–1861
1858–1925
(respectively)
wrecked
hulked, then scrapped
(respectively)
Sister 101-gun screw-propelled, first rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy. Conqueror was wrecked in the Bahamas while carrying troops to the French Intervention in Mexico, but all aboard could be saved. Donegal served in Mexico, Liverpool and China until 1886, when it was hulked and merged into the Torpedo School at Portsmouth under the name Vernon. Scrapped in 1926, some of her timbers were used to build the Prince of Wales public house in Brighouse.
73.2 m
(249.8 ft)
11 m (36 ft) Scotland Michael
(later Pavillon royal de la France.svg Grande Nef d'Ecosse)
1512-? unknown Flagship of the Royal Scots Navy, ordered by James IV of Scotland, and built at Newhaven, Edinburgh. Nicknamed Great Michael, she was sold to France following the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Flodden.
73 m
(240 ft)
24 m (79 ft) Roman Empire Second Nemi ship 1st century AD sunk, then burned Believed to have been used as a pleasure barge or floating palace by Caligula. Its remains were recovered from Lake Nemi in 1929 and housed in a Roman museum until they were destroyed in World War II.
71.9 m
(236 ft)
10.7 m
(35.1 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Great Western 1837–1856 disassembled A steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for regular transatlantic steam "packet boat" service. In addition to the paddle wheels, she carried four masts for supplementary propulsion and stability.
71.7 m
(235 ft 3 in)
16.8 m
(55 ft 1 in)
France Ville de Nantes class 1862–1894 all broken up 90-gun ships of the line of the French Navy, powered both by sail and steam power.
71.46 m
(234 ft 5 in)
16.86 m
(55 ft 4 in)
France Algésiras class 1855–1921 varied
71 m
(233 ft)
13.5 m
(44 ft)
Naval Ensign of Denmark.svg Jylland 1860–1908 museum ship A screw-propelled steam frigate of the Royal Danish Navy, It saw action at the Battle of Heligoland (1864). Currently preserved in Ebeltoft.
70.18 m
(230 ft 3 in)
16.87 m
(55 ft 4 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Agamemnon 1852-1870 broken up A 91-gun steam battleship ordered by the Royal Navy in response to the French Napoléon. She was one of two ships used to lay the first Transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858.
70 m
(230 ft)
20 m
(66 ft)
Roman Empire First Nemi ship 1st century AD sunk, then burned A slightly smaller ship discovered in Lake Nemi and built around the same time as the second ship; its purpose is unknown. Also destroyed in World War II.

69-60 meters (226-197 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
69 m
(226 ft)
15.7 m
(51 ft 10 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Victory 1765– still in commission, but not for active service; effectively museum ship A 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy. Oldest naval ship still in commission and the only remaining ship of the line. Currently in dry dock at Portsmouth as a museum ship. It is the flagship of the First Sea Lord.
69 m
(226 ft)

(estimated)
11.7 m
(38 ft)
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg Vasa 1628 sunk, later museum ship A warship sunk on her maiden voyage when a gale forced water onto the ship; she fell over on her port side and sank. The ship was well preserved and recovered relatively intact in 1961. She is now in the Vasa Museum in Stockholm, Sweden.[25] Her sparred length is estimated at 69 meters, but her measured deck length (between perpendiculars) is 47.5 meters (155.8 ft).[26]
67.97 m
(233 ft)
11.95 m
(39.2 ft)
Canada Joseph H. Scammell 1884–1891 wrecked A cargo ship wrecked and looted by locals off the coast of Torquay, Australia.
67 m
(219 ft)
11 m
(36 ft)
United States C.A. Thayer 1895– museum ship One of the last schooners of the West Coast lumber trade, currently exhibited at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park.
67-63 m
(219-207 ft)
11-10 m
(35-34 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Britannia class 1840–1880 varied Wooden paddlers that were the first fleet of the Cunard Line and the first year round scheduled Atlantic steamship service, with a capacity for 115 passengers. Most units were sold to different European navies in 1849–1850.
66 m
(218 ft)
15 m
(50 ft)
England Grace Dieu 1420–1439 burned An English carrack used as King Henry V's flagship. She burned after being hit by lightning.
65.9 m
(216.2 ft)
13 m
(43 ft)
Canada Hamburg 1886–1925 beached, later burned A three-masted barque. The beached ship burned to the waterline in 1936, but the lower hull was buried and preserved in river silt.
65.18 m
(213.8 ft)
16.24 m
(53.3 ft)
France Océan class 1788–1905 varied 118-gun three-decker ships of the line, built by the French Navy between 1788 and 1854.
65 m
(213.2 ft)
10.6 m Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Tenacious 2000– still operational A ship designed for the disabled.
65 m
(213 ft)
11.24 m
(50 ft 1 in)
France Hermione 2014– still operational Named after the 1779 French frigate but built following the plans of the 1783 British frigate HMS Concorde, both smaller. Construction started in 1995 and used mostly traditional tools and techniques.
64.9 m
(212 ft 11 in)
15.1 m
(49 ft 6 in)
Naval Ensign of Norway (1844-1905).svg Kong Sverre 1860–1932 scrapped A steam and sail powered frigate of the Royal Norwegian Navy originally planned to be "Europe's Horror", the most technologically advanced warship in the world. However, after several delays in construction, it was found already obsolete at the time of launch and it spent most of its career in storage at a harbor. It was a school ship between 1894 and 1918, when it was put again in storage due to poor maintenance, and was never fit for service again.[27]
64.05 m
(210.1 ft)
18.11 m
(59.4 ft)
France Valmy 1847–1891 scrapped Largest three-decker of the French Navy and largest tall ship ever built in France. Unlike other sail ships of its time, it was never modified for steam power despite being difficult to manouvre, and often had to be towed by smaller steam ships during its service in the Crimean War. It was turned into a school ship in 1864.
64 m
(210.0 ft)
17.3 m US Naval Jack 26 stars.svg USS Pennsylvania 1837–1861 burned to prevent capture Largest and most heavily armed American wooden sailing warship. It mounted 120 guns and made only one voyage. After being laid up at the Norfolk Navy Yard for several years, it was burned to prevent its capture by the Confederates at the start of the American Civil War.
64 m
(210.0 ft)
11.94 m
(39.2 ft)
Canada Calburga 1890–1915 sunk The last Canadian square-rigger barque of large tonnage, built for trade with South America and Britain. It was made of spruce but fastened with copper and iron. Converted to a transport ship in World War I and sunk during a storm off the coast of Wales in 1915.
63.16 m
(207 ft 3 in)
10.84 m
(35 ft 7 in)
Naval Ensign of Germany.svg Walther von Ledebur
(later Naval Ensign of Germany.svg Mühlhausen)
1966–2007 decommissioned Built as a prototype for a new German Navy class of ocean-going minesweepers with an all-glued laminated timber hull that never entered production. It served as a trials ship until 1994, when it was rebuilt as a training and support vessel for mine-clearing divers, renamed and recommissioned in this capacity.
62.6 m
(205 ft 6 in)
16.6 m
54 ft 5 in
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Caledonia class 1808–1918 varied 120-gun first rate ships of the line. Originally sail-powered, they were all converted to steam in the 1850s.
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Rodney class 1833–1956 Three 90-gun second rate ships of the line. They were among the last unarmored ships of the Royal Navy to be in full commission.
62.6 m
(205 ft 6 in)
16.59 m
54 ft 5 in
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Albion class 1842–1905 all broken up Three 90-gun second rate ships of the line. Originally sail-powered, they were all converted to steam in the 1850s.
62.5 m
(205 ft 1 in)
16.2 m
53 ft 2 in
France Hercule class 1836–1908 varied 100-gun ships of the line of the French Navy. The first were sail powered only; later units were converted to steam, and the last one was built with an engine.
62.2 m
(204.0 ft)
13.3 m Naval Jack of the United States.svg USS Constitution 1797– still in commission, but not for active service The second-oldest commissioned warship (after the Royal Navy's HMS Victory) in the world and the oldest wooden ship still sailing.
62 m
(204 ft)
18 m
(60 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Windsor Castle
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Cambridge)
1858-1908 broken up A 102-gun first-rate triple-decker of the Royal Navy. Served as a gunnery ship off Plymouth after 1869.
62 m
(205 ft)
16.3 m
(53 ft 6 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Nelson class 1814–1928 all broken up 120-gun first rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy. All three units built were sail-powered only originally, though the first (HMS Nelson) was given a steam engine in 1860.
61.72 m
(202.5 ft)
16.73 m
(54.9 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Royal Louis 1758–1773 broken up A 116-gun First-rate ship of the line of the French Royal Navy.
61.4 m
(201.4 ft)
16.69 m
(54.8 ft)
France Duquesne
France Tourville
1847–1887
1853–1878
unknown
scrapped
(respectively)
Sister 90-gun sail and steam ships of the line that were used in the Crimean War and the French Intervention in Mexico. Later on, Duquesne was used as floating barracks, and Tourville as a prison ship for survivors of the Paris Commune.
61.3 m
(201.1 ft)
16.2 m
(53 ft)
Spain Santísima Trinidad 1769–1805 scuttled after capture One of the few four-deckers ever built with 136 guns.[28] Reputed to be the largest warship in the world until surpassed by the French Ócean class in the early 1790s. It sailed poorly and was nicknamed "The Ponderous" and "El Escorial of the Seas". Despite this, it saw extensive action in the American Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars, even surviving and escaping successfully after being attacked by four warships and losing all her sails at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. It was ultimately captured and scuttled after the Battle of Trafalgar. A non-seaworthy replica and a ship fit in its likeness (and thus not a true replica) exist in Alicante and Malaga, respectively.
61.06 m
(200 ft 4 in)
10.8 m
(35 ft 5 in)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Lammermuir 1864–1876 lost at sea An extreme composite clipper, built to replace the ship of the same name wrecked the year before, which had been the favorite of the company owner, Jock Willis. Disappeared while sailing from Adelaide, Australia to London.
61 m
(200 ft)
15.64 m
(51.3 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Soleil-Royal 1670–1692 burned by fireships Flagship of the French Western Squadron during the Nine Years' War. After sustaining great damage in the Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue, it docked at Cherbourg for repairs, where it was surprised and subsequently destroyed.
61 m
(199 ft)
13 m
(43 ft)
US Naval Jack 48 stars.svg USS Constellation 1854–1955 museum ship A sloop-of-war and the last sail-only warship designed and built by the US Navy. Some of her materials were salvaged from the smaller USS Constellation of 1797, which saw action at the Quasi-War, Barbary Wars and War of 1812. The second Constellation served in the American Civil War.
61 m
(200 ft)
10 m
(32.8 ft)
Qing dynasty Fu Po 1870–? unknown An armed transport of the Fujian Fleet active during the Sino-French War. It was hulked in 1890, but was refitted for service in 1893 as a response to piracy. Its later fate is unknown.
60.6 m
(199 ft)
16.2 m
(53 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Terrible
Pavillon royal de France.svg Majestueux
(later France Républicain)
1779–1804
1780-c.1807
(respectively)
broken up
decommissioned
(respectively)
Sister 110-gun ships of the line.
60.5 m
(198 ft)
16.28 m
(53 ft)
France Suffren class 1829–1911 all broken up A 90-gun ship of the line design of the French Navy, first to have straight walls instead of tumblehome. The heightened center of gravity was compensated with new underwater stabilisers. All units completed after 1840 were modified to have steam in addition to sail power.
60.42 m
(198.2 ft)
16.24 m
(53.3 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Royal Louis
(later Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Républicain)
1780–1794 wrecked A 106-gun (elevated to 110 in 1786) ship of the line of the French Navy. Dismasted at the Glorious First of June (1792), it narrowly avoided capture and was restored to service. It was lost two years later during the Croisière du Grand Hiver.
France Commerce de Paris class 1804–1915 all broken up 110-gun ships of the line developed as a modification of the earlier Océan class. Only two (Commerce de Paris and Iéna) were completed before Napoleon's defeat and entered service; the others were dismantled in 1814 while still in the Antwerp shipyard.
60.4 m
(198 ft)
14.9 m
(49 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Auguste
(later Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Jacobin)
1779–1795 sunk A 80-gun ship of the line active in the American and French revolutionary wars. Sunk during a storm along with most of her crew.
60.22 m
(197 ft 7 in)
16.10 m
(52 ft 10 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Princess Charlotte
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Royal Adelaide
1825–? unknown Twin 104-gun ships of the line, with a design inspired on HMS Victory. Their fate after being sold out of the Royal Navy in 1875 and 1905 (respectively), is unknown.
60 m
(197 ft)
6.2 m
(20 ft)
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg La Real 1568–1572? possibly sunk after battle Flagship galley of Don John of Austria at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). Though victorious in its duel with the Ottoman flagship Sultana, it was so damaged upon its return to Messina that the victory feast was not made aboard. Its fate is unknown but it might have sunk there shortly after.[29] A non-seaworthy replica was built in 1971 for the fourth centenary of the battle and is on display at the Maritime Museum of Barcelona.

59-55 meters (193-180 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Fate Comment
59.8 m
(196 ft)
16.2 m
(53 ft)
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Invincible 1780–1808 struck A 110-gun, first rate ship of the line of the French Navy. Saw action during the American Revolutionary War.
59.8 m
(196.19 ft)
14.9 m
(48.88 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Saint-Esprit class 1765–1799 varied Three 80-gun ships of the line (Saint-Esprit, Languedoc, and Couronne). Although considered sisters, each was built with a different design.
59.78 m
(196 ft 1 in)
15.47 m
(50 ft 9 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Calcutta 1831-1908 broken up A 84-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. Initially put in reserve, she was mobilized for the Crimean War in 1855 but saw no action as it was deemed obsolete for modern naval warfare. However, she later served as a flagship in the Second Opium War. Since 1865, she served as a gunnery ship and was moored at Devonport.
59.7 m
(195.9 ft)
13.2 m
(43.3 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Provence 1763–1786 broken up A 64-gun French ship of the line deployed against the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean and at the Caribbean theater of the American Revolutionary War, where its captain was killed in action at the Battle of Grenada. After being decommissioned twice from the Navy, it became a merchantman for the Compagnie de Chine.
59.3 m
(194.55 ft)
15.3 m
(50.20 ft)
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Tonnant class
France Bucentaure class
1789–1887
1803–1868
(respectively)
varied Two different 80-gun ship of the line classes built during the Napoleonic Wars.
59.2 m
(194 ft)
15.6 m
(51 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Soleil-Royal 1749–1759 burnt to prevent capture Flagship of the French Navy at the Battle of Quiberon Bay. During the encounter, it run aground and was burnt by its own crew to prevent its capture by the British. It was the first 80-gun two-decker to use the 24-pounder long gun on her second battery, rising its firing power to that of a three-decker.
59.08 m
(193 ft 10 in)
15.96 m
(52 ft 4.5 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Canopus class 1821–1929 varied 84-gun second rate two-deckers of the Royal Navy based on HMS Canopus, a Tonnant class ship captured in 1798.
58.93 m
(193 ft 4 in)
15.3 m
(50 ft 3.5 in)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Deux Frères
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Juste)
1784–1811 broken up A 80-gun French ship of the line captured and commissioned into the British Royal Navy after the Glorious First of June in 1794.
58.5 m
(191.9 ft)
11 m
(36 ft 3 in)
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg Götheborg I[30] 1738–1745 sunk Built in Stockholm for trade with China and named after Gothenburg, the home port of the Swedish fleet. After three journeys, it crashed on the Knipla Börö rock near Gothenburg and sank within 900 meters (3,000 feet) of its berth. All men aboard survived and most of its cargo could be salvaged. The shipwreck, which remained visible from the surface for several years, was excavated in 1986–1992.
Sweden Götheborg II 2003– museum ship A seaworthy replica of the 1738 ship.
58.3 m
(191.2 ft)
16.0 m
(52.5 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS St Lawrence 1814–1815 turned into a hulk, then sunk Built in the Kingston Royal Naval Dockyard in Upper Canada during the War of 1812 to fight on the Great Lakes, the only British ship of the line to be launched and entirely operated on freshwater. After never seeing action she was decommissioned and became a storage hulk before sinking.
57.96 m
(190 ft 2 in)
11 m
(36 ft)
Qing dynasty Yangwu 1872–1884 sunk A corvette flagship of the Fujian Fleet, and the largest ship built at the Foochow Arsenal during the Imperial Fleet's westernization program of 1868–1875. It exploded and subsequently sunk during the Battle of Fuzhou in the Sino-French War.
57.9 m
(109 ft)
17.3 m
(56 ft 9 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Vanguard-class 1835–1929 varied 80-gun second rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy. Nine were completed under the original sail ship design, and others were modified or converted into steam.
57.5 m
(188.6 ft)
9 m
(29.5 ft)
Sweden Sigyn
(later Finland Sigyn)
1887–1938 museum ship A Swedish trade barque, sold to Finland in 1927. Currently preserved in Turku.
57.2 m
(187.7 ft)
14 m
(45.9 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Six Corps 1762–1780 broken up A 74-gun ship of the line in the French reserve fleet, named after the six merchant guilds of Paris, who donated the money for its construction.
57.1 m
(188 ft 4 in)
15.47 m
(50 ft 9 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Boscawen
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Wellesley)
1844-1914 burned A 70-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. From 1873 she served as a training ship at Wellesley Nautical School.
57 m
(188 ft)
15.67 m
(51 ft 5 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Boyne
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Excellent)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Union
1810–1861
1811–1833
(respectively)
both broken up Sister 98-gun second rate shis of the line of the Royal Navy.
57 m
(188 ft)
15 m
(49 ft 2.75 in)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Formidable
(later Naval Ensign of Great Britain (1707–1800).svg HMS Ham)
1751–1768 broken up French 80-gun ship of the line captured by the British at the Battle of Quiberon Bay (1759), during the French and Indian War.
57 m
(187 ft)
7.7 m
(25 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg La Réale 1694–1720 decommissioned Flagship of the French Mediterranean galley fleet, built in Marseilles.
56.85 m
(186.5 ft)
15.59 m
(51.1 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Océan 1756–1759 burnt French flagship at the Battle of Lagos, where it ran aground and was burnt by the British.
56.6 m
(186 ft)
10.5 m
(34 ft)
Dutch East India Company Batavia 1628–1629 wrecked Dutch East India Company ship wrecked near the Houtman Abrolhos off western Australia, as a result of a failed mutiny. Though only 40 people of 322 aboard died in the sinking, over 200 perished later as a result of the lack of drinking water and infighting among the survivors.
Netherlands Batavia replica 1995– museum ship Seaworthy replica of the 1628 ship, built in 1995 and currently housed at the Bataviawerf in Lelystad.
56.52 m
(185.4 ft)
15.59 m
(51.15 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Royal Louis 1692–1727 broken up A 120-gun First-rate ship of the line, named after a smaller, earlier ship it replaced.
56.52 m
(185.4 ft)
14.46 m
(47.4 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Duc de Bourgogne
(later Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Peuple)
1752–1800 broken up A 80-gun ship of the line and flagship of the French expeditionary fleet to assist the North American rebels during the American Revolutionary War; it carried the Count of Rochambeau and saw action at the Battle of the Saintes. Its hull was coppered in 1761.
56.5 m
(185 ft)
15.3 m
(50 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Foudroyant 1724–1743 broken up A first-rate ship of the line that was broken up without ever taking to the sea.
56.3 m
(184.7 )
14.2 m
(46.6 ft)
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Séduisant
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Mercure
1783–1796
1783–1798
(respectively)
wrecked
burnt after battle
(respectively)
Twin 74-gun ships of the line of the French Navy during the Revolutionary Wars. Séduissant was wrecked accidentally during the expedition to Ireland and Mercure was burnt after being captured at the Battle of the Nile.
56.11 m
(184 ft 1 in)
11.05 m
(36 ft 3 in)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Marco Polo 1851–1883 wrecked First cargo and emigrant ship to sail from England to Australia in under six months. It was run aground off Cavendish, Prince Edward Island deliberately when its pumps failed during a storm.
56 m
(185 ft)
16 m
(51 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Neptune class 1797–1857 all broken up Three 98-gun second rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy, mostly used during the Napoleonic Wars.
56 m
(184 ft)
15 m
(49 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Bretagne
(later Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Révolutionnaire)
1766–1796 broken up Flagship of the Brest fleet during the American Revolutionary War, with 110 guns.
56 m
(183 ft 9 in)
unknown Portugal Santa Rosa 1715–1726 exploded A Portuguese galleon destroyed by an accidental gunpowder explosion while sailing in convoy from Salvador, Brazil to Lisbon. It previously saw action against the Ottomans in the Mediterranean.
55.87 m
(183.3 ft)
14.90 m
(48 ft 11 in)
France Téméraire class 1782–1870 varied The most popular 74-gun ship of the line class of the French Navy, used mainly during the Napoleonic Wars.
55.6 m
(182 ft 6 in)
9 m
(29 ft 6 in)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Abondance
(later Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Abondance)
1780–1786? unknown A French Baleine-class cargo ship, captured in the Bay of Biscay while transporting soldiers to the Caribbean during the American Revolutionary War. It was remade then into a 28-gun sixth rate and was used to ferry black loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies to Newfoundland at the end of the war. It was sold to a private owner and used as a merchantman afterwards, but there is no record of it from 1786.
55.6 m
(182 ft)
14.3 m
(47 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Magnanime
Pavillon royal de France.svg Illustre
(later Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Scévola)
1779–1793
1781–1796
(respectively)
broken up
wrecked
(respectively)
Sister 74-gun ships of the line. Illustre was razeed to a 50-gun heavy frigate in 1794 and was lost in a storm during the attempted French invasion of Ireland.
55.55 m
(182 ft 3 in)
15.32 m
(50  ft 3 in)
Naval Ensign of Great Britain (1707–1800).svg HMS Boyne
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Prince of Wales
1790-1795
1794-1822
(respectively)
exploded
broken up
(respectively)
Sister 98-gun second rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy. The first served in the Caribbean, the second in European waters.
55.52 m
(182 ft)
15 m
(49 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Achille
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Superb
1798–1865
1798–1826
(respectively)
both broken up Sister 74-gun third-rate ships of the line with a design based off La Pompée, a Téméraire-class ship that defected to the British at the Siege of Toulon.
55.5 m
(182 ft)
15 m
(49 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Ajax
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Kent
1798-1807
1798-1881
(respectively)
burned
hulked and broken up
(respectively)
Sister 74-gun third rate ships of the line active during the Napoleonic Wars.
55.4 m
(181 ft 10 in)
15 m
(49 ft 3 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Bulwark 1807-1826 broken up A 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, active in the War of 1812.
55.39 m
(181.7 ft)
14.3 m
(46.4 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Zélé 1764–1806 broken up A 74-gun ship of the line active in the Caribbean and North American theaters of the American Revolutionary War.
55.35 m
(181 ft 7 in)
11.25 m
(36 ft 11 in)
Japan Date Maru

(later Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg San Juan Bautista)

1613-? unknown One of the first Japanese western-style ships, built in imitation of Spanish galleons under orders of Date Masamune, daimyō of Sendai. It made two trans-Pacific trips to Acapulco and back before being sold to the Spanish in Manila, in 1618. Its later fate is unknown. The early Japanese ambassador to Europe Hasekura Tsunenaga boarded this ship for the return trip.
Japan San Juan Bautista 1993– museum ship A replica of the 1613 ship, built according to the records of the House of Date. It is displayed in a theme park of Ishinomaki, where it survived the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami intact.
55.2 m
(181 ft)
14.9 m
(49 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Soleil-Royal 1692–1714 broken up A 104-gun three-decker speeded into production to cover French naval losses in the Nine Years' War, it later saw action at the battles of Lagos and Velez-Malaga, before being scuttled to prevent its destruction in a bombardment during the War of Spanish Succession, in 1707. It was later restored and returned to service for some years before being dismantled.
55.2 m
(181 ft)
14.43 m
(47.34 ft)
Netherlands Chatham
Netherlands Koninklijke Hollander
(later France Hollandais)
1800–1823
1806–1819
(respectively)
decommissioned Dutch 90-gun sister ships of the line, pressed into the French Navy between 1810 and 1814, after which they were returned to the Netherlands.
55.2 m
(181 ft)
14.3 m
(47 ft)
Flag of French-Navy-Revolution.svg Argonaute class
France Pégase class
1781–1798
1781–1816
(respectively)
varied Two different 74-gun ships of the line classes active in the American and French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. Only two ships of the Argonaute class were ever built; both were razeed to 52-gun frigates before being hulked and broken up.
55.2 m
(181 ft)
14.1 m
(46 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Victoire 1773–1792 broken up A 74-gun ship of the line active in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and the Chesapeake during the American Revolutionary War.
55.1 m
(181 ft)
14.1 m
(46 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Algonquin 1753–1773 broken up A 74-gun, third-rate ship of the line built in Québec City during the French and Indian War.
55.06 m
(180.64 ft)
13.97 m
(45.83 ft)
Pavillon royal de France.svg Citoyen class 1764–1803 varied 74-gun ships of the line active in the American and French revolutionary wars.
55 m
(182 ft)
15.62 m
(51 ft 3 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Caesar 1793-1821 broken up A 80-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. Saw action at the Napoleonic Wars and was converted to a depot ship in 1814.
55 m
(182 ft)
14.8 m
(48 ft 7 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Northumberland
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Renown
1798-1850
1798-1835
(respectively)
both hulked and broken up Sister 74-gun third rate ships of the line of the Royal Navy. Northumberland transported Napoleon to his exile in Saint Helena in 1815.
55 m
(180 ft)
12 m
(40 ft)
Portugal São Martinho 1580-? unknown Flagship galleon of the Spanish Armada and its Portuguese Squadron. It returned successfully to Spain in 1588, but its later fate is unknown.
55 m
(180 ft)
9.1 m
(30 ft)
United States Bounty 1960–2012 sunk An oversized replica of the much smaller HMS Bounty, built by MGM for the 1962 movie Mutiny on the Bounty. It sunk off the coast of North Carolina during Hurricane Sandy.

Longest wooden ships by ensign[edit]

Nationality Navy Length Merchant Length
Australia Civil Ensign of Australia.svg City of Adelaide (1864) 74.4 m
(244 ft 1 in)
Belgium Belgium British Queen (1839) 75 m
(245 ft)
Canada Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Calburga (1890) 64 m
(210 ft)
Canada William D. Lawrence (1874)[31] 102 m
(335 ft)
China Qing dynasty Haian (1872)
Qing dynasty Yuyuen (1873)
91 m
(300 ft)
Imperial standard of the Qing Emperor.svg Tek Sing (c. 1822) 50 m
(165 ft)
Denmark Naval Ensign of Denmark.svg Jylland (1860) 71 m
(233 ft)
Denmark Kaskelot (1948) 47 m
(153 ft)
England English White Ensign 1620.svg HMS Sovereign of the Seas (1637) 76 m
(249.3 ft)
Egypt Naval Ensign of Egypt.svg Khufu ship (2500 BC) 43.6 m
(143 ft)
Finland Finland Sigyn (1887) 57.5 m
(188.6 ft)
France France Bretagne (1855) 120 m
(393.7 ft)
Naval Flag of the Kingdom of France (Civil Ensign).svg Provence (1763) 59.7 m
(195.9 ft)
Germany Naval Ensign of Germany.svg Walther von Ledebur (1966) 63.16 m
(207 ft 3 in)
German Empire Jacob Fritz (1856) 80.9 m
(265.3 ft)
Greece Greece Olympias (1987) 36.9 m
(121 ft 1 in)
Hanseatic League Hanse Lübeck.svg Adler von Lübeck (1567) 78.3 m
(256.9 ft)
Hanse Danzig.svg Peter von Danzig (c. 1462) 51 m
(167.3 ft)
Hong Kong Hong Kong Bounty (1978) 42 m
(138 ft)
Italy Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Cambria (1845) 67 m
(219 ft)
Ireland Republic of Ireland Dunbrody (2001) 53.7 m
(176 ft 2 in)
Japan Naval Ensign of Japan.svg Kasuga (1862) 73.6 m
(241.5 ft)
Japan Date Maru (1613) 55.35 m
(181 ft 7 in)
Kuwait Kuwait Al-Hashemi-II (2001) 83.7 m
(274.6 ft)
Malta Flag of the Order of St. John (various).svg San Giovanni (1796) 49.8 m
(163 ft 3 in)
Netherlands Netherlands Chatham (1800)
Netherlands Koninklijke Hollander (1806)
55.2 m
(181.1 ft)
Dutch East India Company Batavia (1628) 56.6 m
(186 ft)
New Zealand Civil Ensign of New Zealand.svg Edwin Fox (1853) 48 m
(157 ft)
Norway Naval Ensign of Norway (1844-1905).svg Kong Sverre (1860) 64.9 m
(212 ft 11 in)
Norge-Unionsflagg-1844.svg Kommander Svend Foyn (1874) 102 m
(335 ft)
Portugal Portugal Dom Fernando II e Glória (1845) 87 m
(284 ft)
Portugal Ferreira (1869) 85.34 m
280 ft
Prussia Preußische Kriegsflagge ab 1850.svg SMS Barbarossa (1840) 63 m
(207 ft)
Roman Empire Roman Empire Nemi Ship II (1st century AD) 73 m
(240 ft)
Roman Empire Caligula's Giant Ship (c. 37 AD) c. 104 m
(341 ft)
Russia Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Derzhava (1871) 94.8 m
(311 ft)
Russia Belyana type (19th century) 100 m
(328 ft)
Scotland Scotland Michael (1512) 73.2 m
249.8 ft
Spain Spain Habanois (1843) 67 m
(219 ft)
Spain Atyla (1984) 31.28 m
(102.6 ft)
Sweden Sweden Vasa (1628) 69 m
(226 ft)
Sweden Götheborg (1738) 58.5 m
(191.9 ft)
Turkey Ottoman Empire Mahmudiye (1829) 76.15 m
(249.8 ft)
United Kingdom Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Minotaur-class 124.05 m
(407 ft 4)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Columbus (1824) 108 m
(356 ft)
United States US Naval Jack 36 stars.svg USS Dunderberg (1865) 115 m
(377.3 ft)
United States Wyoming (1909) 140 m
(450 ft)

Claimed but poorly documented[edit]

Length Name Completed Comment
304.8 m
(1000 ft)
Wang Jun's Tower Ship 3rd century AD The largest of the armored floating fortresses (louchuan) that were used as flagships of river flotillas during the Han and Jin dynasties. According to the Tang dynasty's Taibai Jinjing, it was used on the Yangtze during the Jin conquest of Wu and was equipped with special hanging galleries to transport horses and war chariots. Though oar-powered only, tower ships got tended to lose control when faced with wind changes, and this caused their abandonment.
144–180 m
(472–591 ft)[32]
Surya Majapahit Gold.svg Javanese junk c. 1st century - 17th century AD[dubious ] Malay seagoing junk type claimed to carry up to 1000 passengers. Though the early 16th century Portuguese did not record exact sizes, they remarked that the ships were so monstrously big that Flor do Mar and Anunciada (the largest Portuguese ship of the time) did not seem ships when next to them.[33] Some scholars put them between 1600-2000 tons in weight,[32] others as small as 1000 tons.
c. 137 m
by 52 m (416×170 ft)
[34][dubious ]
大明 Chinese treasure ship 15th century The 18th century History of the Ming dynasty claims that the largest 15th century junks of the Ming emperors were more than 400 feet (120 m) long, and calculations based on 15+ ft stern rudder posts found have been used to claim total ship lengths of 400 to 600 feet (180 m). However, this has been disputed.[35][36][37][38] Some scholars argue that they were probably closer to 200–250 feet in length,[39] others that they were 309–408 feet in length and 160–166 feet in width.[40]
135–150 m
(+500 ft)
Noah's Ark c. 2348 BC A ship claimed in the Book of Genesis to have been built by Noah to house a pair of every animal species on Earth during the Deluge. The story mirrors the older Mesopotamian myth of Utnapishtim. Three full-sized, non-seaworthy replicas exist:[41] one in Hong Kong,[42] one in The Netherlands,[43] and one in Kentucky near the Creation Museum of Answers in Genesis.
128 m
by 18 m (420×58 ft)
Pt eagle.png Tessarakonteres Late 3rd century BC A Greek galley with 40 lines of oarsmen (for a total of 4000), from which her name derives. It reportedly had an additional crew of 400 and could transport 2850 soldiers according to Athenaeus and Plutarch. She was built for Ptolemy IV Philopator.[44][45][46][47] Modern naval engineers have speculated that the ship, of which there is no surviving depiction, had two twin hulls rather than one. According to Plutarch the ship proved difficult and dangerous to move during tests.
115 m
by 14 m (377×46 ft)
[48][49]
Pt eagle.png Thalamegos c. 200 BC A river going pomp boat of Ptolemy IV Philopator whose name translates to "Leader of the Rooms".[44] It is speculated that the ship had two hulls, with one single mast with a yard and sail, and is said to have been towed from the banks of the Nile.
110 m
(360 ft)
Evaenetus, decadracma di siracusa, 410-370 ac ca.jpg Syracusia
(later Pt eagle.png Alexandria)
c. 240 BC Claimed to be the largest transport ship in Antiquity. She was designed by Archimedes and built by Archias of Corinth on the orders of Hieron II of Syracuse. It sailed only once to Alexandria, Egypt, where it was gifted to Ptolemy III Euergetes and permanently berthed.
110 m
(360 ft)
according to modern estimates
Vergina Sun - Golden Larnax.png Leontophoros c. 280 BC A warship (octere) built for Lysimachos. After his death, it was used by Ptolemy Keraunos to defeat Antigonus I in a battle in 280 BC. The length estimate is based on Memnon of Heraclea's claim that each line had 100 oarsmen, bringing the total to 1600.[50]
100 m (328 ft) length
17 m (56 ft) breadth[51]
Flag of Aceh Sultanate.svg Cakra Dunia Before 1629 Acehnese 98-gun galley class numbering 47 units. One captured by the Portuguese was renamed the Espanto do Mundo ("Terror of the Universe"). Armed with 18 large cannons (five 55-pounders at the bow, one 25-pounder at the stern, the rest were 17 and 18-pounders), 80 falcons and many swivel guns.
67 m (220 ft) long
11 m (36 ft) wide[51]
Mendam Berahi c. 1453 Royal galley (ghali kenaikan raja) of the Malacca sultanate and Mansyur Shah's flagship, commandeered by Hang Tuah. It was claimed to have three masts with square sails, 35 oars on each side, and a crew of 700 men.
c. 63–95 m
by 27–32 m
Hatshepsut's barge c. 1500 BC Used to transport obelisks.[52][53][54] The barge may have been "too large to be equipped with a sail and not very manoeuvrable", and "would have been towed downstream by smaller vessels, also using the current, from Aswan to Thebes."[55]
55 m
(180 ft)
Roman Empire Isis c. 150 AD Described by the sophist Lucian, who saw her moored at Athens' seaport of Piraeus.
45–60 m
(150–195 ft)
Olav Tryggvasson mynt.jpg Ormen Lange c. 1000 A Viking longship whose name translates as "Long Serpent", built for King Olav Tryggvason of Norway. It was said to be the largest and most powerful longship of the time.

Longest still afloat[edit]

Over 55 meters (180 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service
91.1 m
(299 ft)
23.7 m
(78 ft)
United States Eureka 1890–1957
87 m
(284 ft)
13 m
(42 ft)
Portugal Dom Fernando II e Glória 1845–1940
85.34 m
(280 ft)
10.97 m
36 ft
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Cutty Sark 1869–1954
83.7 m
(274.6 ft)
18.5 m
(60.7 ft)
Kuwait Al-Hashemi-II 2001–
74.4 m
(244 ft 1 in)
10.15 m
(33.3 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg City of Adelaide 1864–1948
71 m
(233 ft)
13.5 m
(44 ft)
Naval Ensign of Denmark.svg Jylland 1860–1908
69 m
(226 ft)
15.7 m Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Victory 1765–
67 m
(219 ft)
11 m (36 ft) United States C.A. Thayer 1895–
65 m
(213.2 ft)
10.6 m Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg SV Tenacious 2000–
65 m
(213 ft)
11.24 m
(50 ft 1 in)
France Hermione 2014–
62.2 m
(204.0 ft)
13.3 m
(43 ft 6 in)
Naval Jack of the United States.svg USS Constitution 1797–
61 m
(199 ft)
13 m
(43 ft)
Naval Jack of the United States.svg USS Constellation 1854–1955
58.5 m
(191.9 ft)
11 m
(36 ft 1 in)
Sweden Götheborg II 2003–
57.5 m
(188.6 ft)
9 m
(29.5 ft)
Finland Sigyn 1887–1938
56.6 m
(186 ft)
10.5 m
(34 ft)
Netherlands Batavia replica 1995–
55.35 m
(181 ft 7 in)
11.25 m
(36 ft 11 in)
Japan San Juan Bautista 1993–

55-40 meters (180-131 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Comment
54.71 m
(179 ft 6 in)
9.8 m
(32 ft)
United States "HMS" Surprise 1970– Built as a sail training ship, the "HMS" Rose (though it was never commissioned by the Royal Navy), it was modified and renamed Surprise for her part in the movie Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. She was sold to the Maritime Museum of San Diego in 2007. She again appeared on film as HMS Providence in the Disney film Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides.
54 m
(177 ft)
7.9 m
(27 ft)
United States Gazela 1901–1971 Originally a Portuguese fishing vessel operating on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, she was sail-powered only until 1938, when an engine was installed. The ship was acquired by the Philadelphia Maritime Museum in 1971, and the Philadelphia Ship Preservation Guild in 1985.
53.7 m
(176 ft 2 in)
8.5 m
(27 ft 11 in)
Republic of Ireland Dunbrody 2001– A replica of the Quebec-built, three-masted barque of the same name (active 1845–1875).
51.8 m
(170 ft)
11 m
(36 ft)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Gannet 1878– Last surviving Doterel-class sloop. Currently a museum ship in Chatham, Medway.
48 m
(158 ft)
8.4 m
(27.5 ft)
United States Clipper City c.1984– A private replica schooner named after a cargo clipper built in Manitowoc, Wisconsin in 1854.
48 m
(157.5 ft)
8.5 m
(28 ft)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Kaskelot 1948– A three masted barque built by the Danish Royal Greenland Trading Company to carry supplies to eastern Greenland. Sold to private British owners in 2013.
48 m
(157 ft)
9.04 m
(29 ft 8 in)
Civil Ensign of New Zealand.svg Edwin Fox 1853–1950 Last surviving ship to transport convicts to Australia; also served as a transport in the Crimean War. Currently dry-docked in New Zealand.
47 m
(154 ft 2 in)
8 m
(26 ft 3 in)
Republic of Ireland Jeanie Johnston 1998– A replica of the Quebec-built three masted barque of the same name (active 1847–1858).
47 m
(153 ft)
11.5 m
(38 ft)
Netherlands Amsterdam 1990– A replica of the Dutch East India Company ship of the same name. Built in Iroko wood with traditional tools, and currently moored next to the Netherlands Maritime Museum.
46.25 m
(151 ft 9 in)
12.27 m
(40 ft 3 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Unicorn 1824–1964 One of two surviving Leda-class frigates built after the end of the Napoleonic Wars, although her design was modified during construction, was never rigged, and served as a hulk in reserve through her whole career. She is currently preserved as a museum ship in Dundee, Scotland.
46 m
(152 ft)
10 m
(34 ft)
France Étoile du Roy 1996– A three-masted sixth rate frigate built to stand in for the (historically larger) HMS Indefatigable in the British TV series Hornblower. Sold to private French owners in 2010.
46 m
(150 ft 11 in)
8 m
(26 ft 3 in)
Canada Bluenose II 1963– Slightly longer replica of the fishing schooner Bluenose (1921–1946).
45.8 m
(150 ft 4.5 in)
12.2 m
(39 ft 11 in)
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Trincomalee 1817–1986 The other surviving Leda-class frigate, currently moored at the National Museum of the Royal Navy in Hartlepool. It may be considered the oldest Royal Navy warship that is trully afloat, as HMS Victory is actually in dry dock.
45.2 m
(148.3 ft)
8 m
(26 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Alma Doepel 1903–1999 One of the oldest surviving three-masted topsail schooners. Berthed due to a lack of funds to restore it.
44.2 m
(145 ft)
7.3 m Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Earl of Pembroke 1945– A Swedish-built three masted barque originally used to haul timber in the Baltic Sea. Sold to private British owners in 1979.
44 m
(143 ft)
6 m
(19.5 ft)
Naval Ensign of Egypt.svg Khufu ship c. 2500 BC An Ancient Egyptian solar barge buried at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza as part of the funerary rites for the pharaoh Khufu (a.k.a. Cheops). Found intact, though disassembled, in 1954, and restored for exhibition in 1982. It is the oldest intact, full-sized ship in the world.
43.6 m
(143 ft)
9.28 m
(30.4 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg HM Bark Endeavour Replica 1993– Replica of HMS Endeavour owned by the Australian National Maritime Museum.
43 m
(141 ft)
7.6 m
(25 ft)
United States Kalmar Nyckel 1997– A replica of the armed merchant of the same name that carried the first settlers to New Sweden in 1638.
42.7 m
(140 ft)
7.8 m
(26 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Søren Larsen 1949– A brigantine built in Denmark for trade in the Baltic Sea. After suffering a fire in 1972, it was purchased by a British owner who remodeled it in 19th-century style and lent it for TV productions. It was purchased again by the Sydney Harbour Tallships company in 2011.
42 m
(138 ft)
7 m
(23 ft)
Hong Kong Bounty 1978– Replica of HMS Bounty built for the British 1984 film The Bounty, twice the size of the original.

40-30 meters (128-98 feet)[edit]

Length Beam Name Service Comment
40 m
(131 ft)
unknown United States Coronet 1885– One of the oldest surviving and largest schooner yachts in the world.
39.6 m
(130 ft)
6.7 m
(22 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Southern Swan 1922– Built in Denmark for trade with Greenland; sold in Canada in the 1960s, and in Australia in 2007.
38.9 m
(127 ft 8 in)
10.36 ft
(34 ft)
Norway Fram 1892–1912 Norwegian Arctic and Antarctic exploration ship used successively by Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen. Believed to be the wooden ship ever been furtherst to both the north and south of Earth. Preserved since 1935 in Oslo's Fram Museum.
37 m
(121 ft 4 in)
6.99 m
(22 ft 11 in)
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Golden Hinde 1973– A replica of the 1577 privateer Golden Hind (a.k.a. Pelican) used by Francis Drake to circunnavegate the world.
37 m
(120 ft)
7.5 m
(24.5 ft)
United States Arthur Foss 1889–1968 Possibly the oldest surviving wooden tugboat, currently preserved in Seattle.
36.9 m
(121 ft 1 in)
5.5 m
(18 ft 1 in)
Greece Olympias 1987– A replica ancient Athenian trireme built as an exercize in experimental archaeology. Also a commissioned ship in the Hellenic Navy, the only of its kind in the world.
36 m
(118 ft)
unknown Germany Lisa von Lübeck 2004– A replica of a caravel used by the Hanseatic League in the 15th century.
35 m
(115 ft)
8 m
(26 ft)
Norway Draken Harald Hårfagre 2012– A private replica of a Viking longship, and the largest built in modern times.
35 m
(116 ft)
unknown United States Susan Constant 1957– A replica of the English Virginia Company ship of the same name that took part on the founding of Jamestown in 1607. Currently docked at the Jamestown Settlement living history museum.
34.5 m
(113 ft)
7 m
(23 ft)
Russia Shtandart 1999– A private replica of the Russian Baltic fleet's first frigate of the same name, which was active in 1703–1727.
34 m
(113 ft)
8.38 m
(27 ft 6 in)
United States Charles W. Morgan 1841–1926 Oldest surviving merchant ship and last surviving wooden whaling ship. She was restored after being nearly destroyed in a fire and is currently displayed in Mystic, Connecticut.
33 m
(108 ft)
6 m
(20 ft)
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Windeward Bound 1992– A replica of a 1848 Boston schooner, based in Hobart, Tasmania.
32.46 m
(106 ft 6 in)
27 m
(90 ft)
United States Mayflower II 1955– A replica of the 17th century ship of the same name, commissioned by the Plimoth Plantation living history museum and built in Devon using traditional tools and the original blueprints. Its maiden voyage in 1957 also recreated the original's travel from Plymouth, England to Plymouth, Massachusetts.
32 m
(106 ft)
7.6 m
(25 ft)
United States Clearwater 1968– A river sloop built by the non-profit organization Hudson River Sloop Clearwater to promote the protection of the Hudson River and its surrounding wetlands. Its design is based on Dutch sloops of the 18th and 19th centuries.
32 m
(104 ft)
6.7 m
(22 ft)
United States Lady Maryland 1985– An educational vessel in Baltimore.
31.28 m
(102.6 ft)
7 m
(23 ft)
Spain Atyla 1984– A two masted wooden schooner owned by a NGO and used as a training ship.
30 m
(100 ft)
7.4 m Japan Naniwa Maru 1999– A replica of a higaki kaisen, a common trading vessel of the Edo Period. Currently displayed at the Osaka Maritime Museum.
30 m
(100 ft)
unknown Denmark Havhingsten fra Glendalough 2004– A replica of the Viking longship known as Skuldelev 2 (c. 1042). Built by the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark and used in the television series The Last Kingdom.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trimble, P.C. & Knorp, W. (2007) Ferries of San Francisco Bay. Arcadia Publishing, 127 pages.
  2. ^ Launch of the Columbus
  3. ^ The World's Largest Ship, And a Tale of Two Ports, Alan Lucas, AFLOAT, October 2006.
  4. ^ Wisconsin's Great Lakes Shipwrecks: Pretoria University of Wisconsin–Madison Sea Grant Institute and Wisconsin Historical Society, 2003.
  5. ^ Lubbock, Basil: The Down-Easters. Glasgow: Brown, Son, & Ferguson, 1929, pp. 49 and 253.
  6. ^ Great Republic, A Sailor (presumed to be Duncan McLean), Eastburn's Press, Boston, 1853.
  7. ^ MIT Museum's Hart Nautical Collection Portrays the Romance and Reality of Clipper Ships: The Clipper Ship Era, A Fever for Gold, Speed, and Profit 1843–1869, September 30, 2004 — July 10, 2005; More on the history of the clipper ship: Remarkable Achievements, MIT Museum article.
  8. ^ Maritime Museum of the Atlantic William D. Lawrence Infosheet
  9. ^ "Unique River Ships of the Past". English Russia. July 11, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
  10. ^ Santiago, Great Lakes Shipwrecks, ©1999–2007, David D. Swayze, Lake Isabella, MI, retrieved August 16, 2007.
  11. ^ http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Ships/Fourmast_ships/Roanoke(1892).html.
  12. ^ "BIG SAILING SHIP BURNS.; Famous American Craft Roanoke Is Destroyed by Fire". The New York Times. August 11, 1905.
  13. ^ Wisconsin's Great Lakes Shipwrecks: Appomattox University of Wisconsin–Madison Sea Grant Institute and Wisconsin Historical Society, 2003.
  14. ^ "She left Quebec Augt. 23rd & filled with water 650 Miles from land, drew 33 ft (10 m). & had 31 ft (9.4 m). water in her Hold, was waterlogged & went ashore in 3 pieces 24th Octr: near Calais." (Baron Renfrew Timber Ship (Timber Drogher) 1825, Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. R9266-3280 Peter Winkworth Collection of Canadiana).
  15. ^ Originally known as City of Naples, she was one of three sister ships (the others being City of Venice and City of Genoa).
  16. ^ Service History, Frank O'Connor article, Wisconsin's Great Lakes Shipwrecks website, Wisconsin Historical Society and University of Wisconsin–Madison Sea Grant.
  17. ^ http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Ships/Fourmast_ships/Shenandoah(1890).html
  18. ^ Her round-bottomed hull is 42 feet (12.7 m) wide by 277 feet (83.9 m) long. The house rests on a platform extending 18 feet (5.5 m) from the hull on either side.
  19. ^ https://penobscotmarinemuseum.org/for-those-in-peril-fire-and-wooden-ships/
  20. ^ Also Portugal Ferreira and Portugal Maria do Amparo
  21. ^ CNN WORLD REPORT: World's Largest Wooden Ship Unveiled in Kuwait, CNN Transcript, July 8, 2001.
  22. ^ http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Ships/Fourmast_ships/Susquehanna(1891).html
  23. ^ "Deutsche Museumswerft". 4 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 October 2007.
  24. ^ Also Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg HMS Carrick and Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Carrick
  25. ^ The Swedish Ship Vasa's Revival
  26. ^ "Vasa in Numbers, Vasa Museet Archived 2015-10-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=es&rurl=translate.google.com&sl=no&sp=nmt4&tl=en&u=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930204914/http://www.mil.no/start/aktuelt/nyheter/article.jhtml%3FarticleID%3D95469&xid=17259,15700021,15700124,15700149,15700168,15700186,15700190,15700201&usg=ALkJrhidC8VqUsqrL3amFrjNj_JzXCsr6Q
  28. ^ Harbron, John D. (1988). Trafalgar and the Spanish navy. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-695-3.
  29. ^ Édouard, S. (2007). Argo, la galera real de Don Juan de Austria en Lepanto. op. cit, 7–8.
  30. ^ Retroactively
  31. ^ The disposable ship Columbus (108 m) was built in Canada in 1824, and flew the British red ensign.
  32. ^ a b Nugroho, Irawan Djoko. Majapahit Maritime Kingdom. Suluh Nuswantara Bakti. ISBN 6029346008.
  33. ^ Pires, Tome. Suma Oriental. London: The Hakluyt Society. ISBN 9784000085052.
  34. ^ "History of the Ming dynasty" «明史», Zhang Tingyu chief editor, published 1737, “四十四丈一十八丈”.
  35. ^ Ancient Chinese Explorers, Evan Hadingham, Sultan's Lost Treasures, NOVA, PBS Television.
  36. ^ Asia's Undersea Archeology, Richard Gould. NOVA, PBS Television article.
  37. ^ The Great Chinese Mariner Zheng He [Cheng Ho] Archived 2016-04-24 at the Wayback Machine., China the Beautiful webpage with Zheng He links.
  38. ^ Zheng He: China and the oceans in the early Ming dynasty 1404–1433, Edward L. Dreyer, Longman, ISBN 0-321-08443-8, reviewed in China at sea, Jonathan Mirsky, The Times Literary Supplement, Times Online, January 24, 2007.
  39. ^ The Colossal Ships of Zheng He: Image or Reality?, Sally K. Church, pp. 155–176 of Zheng He; Images & Perceptions, South China and Maritime Asia , Volume 15, Hrsg: Ptak, Roderich /Höllmann Thomas, O. Harrasowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2005.
  40. ^ When China Ruled the Seas", Louise Levathes, p. 80.
  41. ^ Edwords, Fred. "Their Ship Didn't Come In How Faith in Noah's Ark May Have Sunk a County Budget". TheHumanist.com.
  42. ^ "Noah's Ark Park and Resort".
  43. ^ "Arkof Noah".
  44. ^ a b Athenaeus. "The Deipnosophists".
  45. ^ Casson, Lionel (1994). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World.
  46. ^ Casson, Lionel. "The Age of the Supergalleys, Chapter 7 of Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times" (PDF). University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71162-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-13.
  47. ^ Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 5, Loeb Classical Library No. 208, Harvard University Press, 1987.
  48. ^ It was over 300 feet (91 m) long, Casson, Lionel, 'Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World', 1995, p. 342.
  49. ^ 'Athenaios does not indicate his sources for the second ship, [the Thalamegos] but it must have been an eye-witness or a person who obtained measurements and other details from a contemporary', Sarton, George, 'Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries B.C.', 1993, p. 121.
  50. ^ Morrison, J.S. (1996). Greek and Roman oared warships. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  51. ^ a b Reid, Anthony (2012). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-4311-96-0.
  52. ^ Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times; Volume Two: The Eighteenth Dynasty, James Henry Breasted, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906, ISBN 0-8370-1660-6; republished by University of Illinois Press (May 17, 2001), ISBN 0-252-06974-9.
  53. ^ Ancient Egypt: River Boats website.
  54. ^ Ships of the Pharaohs, Björn Landström, Allen & Unwin, London, 1970.
  55. ^ Technology along the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Boats, Robert Partridge, Ancient Egypt Magazine, Volume 4, Issue 5, April/May 2004, last modified March 27, 2002).