List of lost films

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Lon Chaney appeared in numerous films that are now lost. This still is from The Miracle Man (1919), a famous and sought-after lost film.

For this list of lost films, a lost film is defined as one of which no part of a print is known to have survived. For films in which any portion of the footage remains (including trailers), see List of incomplete or partially lost films.

Films may go missing for a number of reasons. One major contributing factor is the common use of nitrate film until the early 1950s. This type of film is highly flammable, and there have been several devastating fires, such as the 1937 Fox vault fire, the 1967 MGM vault fire, and the Universal Pictures fire in 1924.[1] Black-and-white film prints judged to be otherwise worthless were sometimes incinerated to salvage the meager scrap value of the silver image particles in their emulsions.[2] Films have disappeared when production companies went bankrupt.[2] Occasionally, a studio would remake a film and destroy the earlier version.[2] Silent films in particular were once seen as having no further commercial value and were simply junked to clear out expensive storage space.[3]

This is necessarily an incomplete list. Martin Scorsese's Film Foundation claims that "half of all American films made before 1950 and over 90% of films made before 1929 are lost forever."[4] Deutsche Kinemathek estimates that 80-90% of silent films are gone;[5] the film archive's own list contains over 3500 lost films. A study by the Library of Congress states that 75% of all silent films are now lost.[6] While others dispute whether the percentage is quite that high,[7] it is impractical to enumerate any but the more notable and those that can be sourced.

Silent films[edit]

1890s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1896 Arrivée d'un train gare de Vincennes Georges Méliès A French short documentary. [8]
L'Arroseur (aka Watering the Flowers) Georges Méliès A short comedy. [9]
Barque sortant du port de Trouville Georges Méliès [10]
Bateau-mouche sur la Seine Georges Méliès [11]
Bébé et fillettes Georges Méliès A short documentary. [12]
Les Blanchisseuses Georges Méliès A short documentary. [13]
Bois de Boulogne (Porte de Madrid) Georges Méliès A short documentary. [14]
Bois de Boulogne (Touring Club) Georges Méliès A short documentary. [15]
Boulevard des Italiens Georges Méliès A short documentary. [16]
Campement de bohémiens (The Bohemian Encampment) Georges Méliès A short documentary. [17]
Les chevaux de bois Georges Méliès [18]
Le chiffonnier Georges Méliès

[19]

Couronnement de la rosière Georges Méliès [20]
Déchargement de bateaux Georges Méliès [21]
Jardinier brûlant des herbes Georges Méliès [22]
Jetée et Plage de Trouville, 1st and 2nd parts Georges Méliès [23][24]
Jour de marché à Trouville Georges Méliès [25]
Gestoorde hengelaar M.H. Laddé The first Dutch fictional film [26]
Spelende kinderen M.H. Laddé [27]
Zwemplaats voor Jongelingen te Amsterdam M.H. Laddé [28]
1899 The Jeffries–Sharkey Contest William Brady, Tom O'Rourke Jim Jeffries, Tom Sharkey American Mutoscope and Biograph film of heavyweight championship bout,
135 minutes in length, first film shot in artificial light.
[29]

1900s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1900 Solser en Hesse M.H. Laddé The first film with this title, featuring the Dutch comedians Lion Solser and Piet Hesse. [30]
1903 Hiawatha, the Messiah of the Ojibway Joe Rosenthal Believed to be the first Canadian fiction film. [31]
1906 Solser en Hesse M.H. Laddé The second film with this title, featuring the Dutch comedians Lion Solser and Piet Hesse. [32]
1907 Salaviinanpolttajat Louis Sparre,
Teuvo Puro
Teppo Raikas,
Teuvo Puro,
Jussi Snellman,
Eero Kilpi,
Axel Rautio
The first Finnish fiction film. Some sources also consider it to be the first Russian fiction film, as Finland was a part of the Russian Empire until 1917. [33]
1908 The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays Francis Boggs, Otis Turner L. Frank Baum First adaptation of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and several of its sequels. Shown only in roadshow engagements as part of a live theater presentation, the print decomposed and was discarded.[citation needed] [34]
1908 The Music Master Wallace McCutcheon, Jr. D. W. Griffith Most of D. W. Griffith's early appearances as an actor in Biograph films have been preserved, minus this title. [35]

1910s[edit]

1920s[edit]

Sound films[edit]

From 1929 on, films are "all talking" unless otherwise specified.

1920s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1928 Alias Jimmy Valentine Jack Conway William Haines, Lionel Barrymore This part talkie was MGM's first film with synchronized dialogue sequences. It was also released as a silent film, which is similarly lost. [36]
4 Devils F.W. Murnau Janet Gaynor Fox Studios' print was reportedly borrowed by actress Mary Duncan, who played a supporting role in the film, but its whereabouts are now unknown. [37][38]
Heart Trouble Harry Langdon Harry Langdon Langdon's last silent feature received little promotion in the United States, with fewer than 100 prints struck. There were reported showings in Australia in 1931. [39][40]
The Home Towners Bryan Foy Doris Kenyon, Richard Bennett Warner Bros.' third all talkie. [41]
The Melody of Love Arch Heath Walter Pidgeon, Mildred Harris All talkie. Universal's first sound feature. [41]
My Man Archie Mayo Fanny Brice, Guinn Williams Part talkie released by Warner Bros. [41]
On Trial Archie Mayo Pauline Frederick, Lois Wilson, Bert Lytell Warner Bros.' fourth all talking feature. [41]
Tenderloin Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Conrad Nagel Second feature film to have synchronized dialogue sequences. Part talkie. [41]
Women They Talk About Lloyd Bacon Irene Rich Part talkie released by Warner Bros. [41]
1929 The Argyle Case Howard Bretherton Thomas Meighan, H. B. Warner, Lila Lee, Gladys Brockwell Silent veteran Brockwell died in a traffic accident shortly after making this film. [42]
The Aviator Roy Del Ruth Edward Everett Horton, Patsy Ruth Miller [43]
The Awful Truth Marshall Neilan Ina Claire [44]
Blaze o' Glory George Crone Eddie Dowling, Betty Compson
College Love Nat Ross George J. Lewis, Eddie Phillips [41]
Dark Streets Frank Lloyd Jack Mulhall, Lila Lee Jack Mulhall's character is the first attempt at dual role double exposure photography in a talking film.[45]
Evidence John G. Adolfi Pauline Frederick, Conway Tearle [46]
Fancy Baggage John G. Adolfi Audrey Ferris, Myrna Loy A part-talkie from Warner Bros.
Footlights and Fools William A. Seiter Colleen Moore Part-Technicolor. [41]
The Forward Pass Edward F. Cline Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Loretta Young [41]
Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 David Butler John Breeden, Lola Lane Multicolor sequences. [47]
Frozen Justice Allan Dwan Lenore Ulric [48]
The Gamblers Michael Curtiz H. B. Warner, Lois Wilson
Her Private Life Alexander Korda Billie Dove, Walter Pidgeon
Hearts in Exile Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Grant Withers
Honky Tonk Lloyd Bacon Sophie Tucker, Lila Lee This was Tucker's film debut. The complete soundtrack survives. [41]
The Hottentot Roy Del Ruth Edward Everett Horton, Patsy Ruth Miller
Is Everybody Happy? Archie Mayo Ted Lewis, Ann Pennington [41]
Jealousy Jean de Limur Jeanne Eagels, Fredric March [49]
Little Johnny Jones Mervyn LeRoy Edward Buzzell, Alice Day [41]
Love, Live and Laugh William K. Howard George Jessel, Lila Lee [41]
The Love Racket William A. Seiter Dorothy Mackaill, Sidney Blackmer
Lucky in Love Kenneth S. Webb Morton Downey, Betty Lawford All talking [41]
Madonna of Avenue A Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Grant Withers [50]
Melody Lane Robert F. Hill Eddie Leonard, Josephine Dunn Universal's first 100% talking musical. [41]
A Most Immoral Lady John Griffith Wray Walter Pidgeon, Leatrice Joy 8 sound discs survive at UCLA. Visual elements appear not to have survived [51]
The Painted Angel Millard Webb Billie Dove, Edmund Lowe [41]
Paris Clarence G. Badger Irene Bordoni, Jack Buchanan Technicolor sequences. [41]
Queen of the Night Clubs Bryan Foy Texas Guinan, Lila Lee [41]
Red Hot Rhythm Leo McCarey Alan Hale, Kathryn Crawford Multicolor sequences. [41]
The Sacred Flame Archie Mayo Pauline Frederick, Conrad Nagel [52]
Skin Deep Ray Enright Monte Blue, Betty Compson
Smiling Irish Eyes William A. Seiter Colleen Moore Part-Technicolor. [41]
A Song of Kentucky Lewis Seiler Lois Moran, Joseph Wagstaff [41]
South Sea Rose Allan Dwan Lenore Ulric, Charles Bickford [53]
Speakeasy Benjamin Stoloff Paul Page, Lola Lane [54]
Stark Mad Lloyd Bacon Louise Fazenda, H. B. Warner Released in both silent and all talking version. Both are lost. [55]
The Time, the Place and the Girl Howard Bretherton Grant Withers, Betty Compson

1930s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1930 An Elastic Affair Alfred Hitchcock Short film made by Hitchcock for awards ceremony at the London Palladium in January 1930. [56]
The Big Party John G. Blystone Sue Carol, Dixie Lee [41]
Bride of the Regiment John Francis Dillon Vivienne Segal, Walter Pidgeon All Technicolor musical drama, only the soundtrack survives on Vitaphone discs. [41]
Cameo Kirby Irving Cummings J. Harold Murray, Norma Terris [41]
The Cave of the Silken Web II Dan Duyu Yin Mingzhu Silent. Chinese film. Original title: 续盘丝洞. Sequel to the 1927 The Cave of the Silken Web (which itself had been thought to have been lost, but was rediscovered in 2013).
College Lovers John G. Adolfi Marion Nixon, Jack Whiting Musical comedy [41]
Fellers Austin Fay, Arthur Higgins Arthur Tauchert, Les Coney An Australian comedy. [57]
Hold Everything Roy Del Ruth Winnie Lightner, Joe E. Brown All Technicolor musical comedy. The complete soundtrack exists on Vitaphone discs. [41]
Kismet John Francis Dillon Otis Skinner, Loretta Young A lavish costume drama in the early widescreen process known as Vitascope. The complete soundtrack exists on Vitaphone discs. [58]
Let's Go Places Frank R. Strayer Frank Richardson, Dixie Lee [41]
Lilies of the Field Alexander Korda Corinne Griffith, Ralph Forbes [41]
Lord Richard in the Pantry Walter Forde Richard Cooper, Dorothy Seacombe Included on the British Film Institute's "75 Most Wanted" list of missing British feature films. [59]
One Mad Kiss Marcel Silver José Mojica, Antonio Moreno [41]
No, No, Nanette Clarence G. Badger Bernice Claire, Alexander Gray Part Technicolor musical comedy. The soundtrack discs survive. Trailer survives. [41][60]
Song of the Flame Alan Crosland Bernice Claire, Noah Beery All Technicolor musical drama, the first color film featuring wide screen, and Academy Award nominee for Best Sound. Sound discs for five of the nine reels exist. [41]
1931 Alam Ara Ardeshir Irani Master Vithal, Zubeida, Jilloo, Sushila, Prithviraj Kapoor The first Indian sound film. [61]
Charlie Chan Carries On Warner Oland, Hamilton MacFadden An alternate Spanish-language version, featuring a different cast, exists. [62]
Deadlock George King Stewart Rome, Marjorie Hume, Warwick Ward On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [63]
Fanny Foley Herself Edna May Oliver All-color film photographed in Technicolor. [41]
Hobson's Choice Thomas Bentley James Harcourt, Viola Lyel, Frank Pettingell On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [64]
Kalidas H. M. Reddy T. P. Rajalakshmi, P. G. Venkatesan, L. V. Prasad First sound film in Tamil cinema, as well as South Indian cinema [65][66]
Peludópolis Quirino Cristiani Argentine production; the world's first animated feature film with sound, using a primitive sound-on-disc system. [67]
Two Crowded Hours Michael Powell John Longden, Jane Welsh, Jerry Verno Powell's directorial debut. [68]
Woman Hungry Clarence G. Badger Lila Lee All-color film photographed in Technicolor.
1932 Charlie Chan's Chance John G. Blystone Warner Oland Sixth film of the Charlie Chan series and third with Warner Oland. [69]
Men of Tomorrow Zoltan Korda, Leontine Sagan Maurice Braddell, Joan Gardner Robert Donat's film debut. The film is on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [70]
The Missing Rembrandt Arthur Wontner Second film in the Sherlock Holmes series.
Tonendes ABC László Moholy-Nagy Experimental film, scratched[clarification needed] by hand and seen by Norman McLaren in the 1930s. [71]
1933 Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka Kenzō Masaoka First sound anime.
Convention City Archie Mayo Joan Blondell
Dick Powell
Adolphe Menjou
Mary Astor
A pre-Code film produced by First NationalWarner Bros. [41]
Night in the City Fei Mu Ruan Lingyu
Jin Yan
The debut of Fei Mu, one of China's greatest filmmakers.
Two Minutes Silence Paulette McDonagh Frank Bradley, Campbell Copelin, Marie Lorraine Australia's first anti-war movie. [57]
Wasei Kingu Kongu Torajiro Saito Isamu Yamaguchi Japanese short based on King Kong, and the first Kaiju film, preceding Godzilla by 21 years. [72]
1934 Jail Birds of Paradise Al Boasberg Dorothy Appleby, Moe Howard, Curly Howard The only lost Stooges film.
Murder at Monte Carlo Errol Flynn Flynn's debut film in the UK. [73]
Ragazzo Ivo Perilli Costantino Frasca, Isa Pola, Osvaldo Valenti Screening was banned by Fascist authorities before the premiere, and subsequently stored at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia. During the Germans' retreat in 1944, the centre was looted and set on fire. [74][75]
The Scarab Murder Case Wilfrid Hyde-White A Philo Vance film. [76]
1935 The Magic Shoes Peter Finch Completed but never released. [57]
1936 The Oregon Trail John Wayne Lost film, but in 2013 stills were found [77]
The Adventures of Pinocchio Raoul Verdini, Umberto Spano It was intended to be the first animated feature film from Italy, but is now considered lost, only the original script and a couple of still frames are all that survived of the film [78]
1937 Terang Boelan Albert Balink Rd. Mochtar, Roekiah Romance film from the Dutch East Indies; the colony's biggest commercial success [79]
1938 King Kong Appears in Edo Sōya Kumagai Eizaburo Matsumoto A Japanese kaiju (giant monster) film which preceded Godzilla by sixteen years. It was likely lost during World War II. [80]
Nad Niemnem Wanda Jakubowska and Karol Szolowski The Nazi regime liked the artistic value of the movie, but could not allow the screening of a picture so firmly rooted in Polish history. It was dubbed and re-edited, changing it to pro-German propaganda. Stefan Dekierowski informed the Polish underground, and the remaining three copies (out of 5 total) were hidden in winter 1939; the movie is believed to be lost.
1939 The Good Old Days Roy William Neill Max Miller, Hal Walters, Kathleen Gibson On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [81]
Secreto de confesión It was lost during the bombing of Manila during World War II.

1940s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1940 Harta Berdarah R Hu, Rd Ariffien Zonder, Soelastri Indonesian action film. Screened until at least July 1944. [82]
Kedok Ketawa Jo An Djan Fatimah, Basoeki Resobowo, Oedjang Union Films first production. Screened until at least August 1944. [82]
1941 Asmara Moerni Rd Ariffien Adnan Kapau Gani, Djoewariah, S. Joesoef Indonesian romance film. Screened until at least November 1945. [82]
Bajar dengan Djiwa R Hu A Bakar, Djoewariah, O Parma, Oedjang, RS Fatimah, Soelastri, Zonder Indonesian drama film. Screened until at least October 1943. [82]
Soeara Berbisa R Hu Raden Soekarno, Ratna Djoewita, Oedjang, Soehaena Screened until at least February 1949, longer than any other Union Films production, and the only Union picture known to have been shown post-World War II. [82]
This Man Is Dangerous Lawrence Huntington James Mason Although it is said to have been shown on British television as recently as 1987, the film is believed lost and is included on the BFI's "75 Most Wanted" list of missing British feature films. [83]
Wanita dan Satria Rd Ariffien Djoewariah, Ratna Djoewita, Hidajat, Z. Algadrie, Moesa [82]
1942 Brother Martin: Servant of Jesus Spencer Williams
Cóndor Capuchita Carlos Trupp, Jorge Escudero Chilean movie. Apparently, in 1982, after the death of Carlos Trupp in the United States, his heirs would have found and searched in 2001 to finance its restoration, but nothing is known since. [84]
Mega Mendoeng Boen Kim Nam Raden Soekarno, Oedjang, Boen Sofiati, Soehaena Union Films final production before the studio closed ahead of the impending Japanese occupation. [82]
1943 Squadron Leader X Lance Comfort Eric Portman, Ann Dvorak On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films. [85]
1944 Red Sky at Morning Hartney Arthur Peter Finch, John Alden [57]
1945 Flight from Folly Herbert Mason Patricia Kirkwood, Hugh Sinclair Screen debut of stage star Kirkwood. It is on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [86]
For You Alone Geoffrey Faithfull Lesley Brook, Dinah Sheridan, Jimmy Hanley Another film on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [87]
1946 Little Iodine Reginald Le Borg Hobart Cavanaugh, Irene Ryan Release delayed by a polio outbreak; Little Iodine cartoonist Jimmy Hatlo was a writer. [88]
Spree for All Seymour Kneitel A Famous Studios' Noveltoon featuring Snuffy Smith was destroyed by request of King Features Syndicate (owners of the character). [89]
1948 The Betrayal Oscar Micheaux The director's final production. [90]

1950s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1952 Hammer the Toff Maclean Rogers John Bentley, Patricia Dainton, Valentine Dyall On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. It is claimed that this film has been found and will be released on Renown Pictures DVD in March 2016 coupled with Mrs Prym of Scotland Yard (1939/40).[91] [92]
Salute the Toff Maclean Rogers John Bentley, Carol Marsh, Valentine Dyall Sequel to Hammer the Toff and also one of the BFI 75 Most Wanted. [93]
1953 Small Town Story Montgomery Tully Donald Houston, Susan Shaw, Alan Wheatley, Kent Walton Another of the BFI 75 Most Wanted. [94]

1960s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1960 Linda Don Sharp Carol White, Alan Rothwell On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films. [95]
1961 Cranks at Work Ken Russell English. Russell's short 35mm film about the choreographer John Cranko. [96]
1962 Bulgasari Kim Myeong-jae South Korean Kaiju film. Later remade in 1985 as Pulgasari. [97]
Crosstrap Robert Hartford-Davis Laurence Payne,
Jill Adams,
Gary Cockrell
On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. Hartford-Davis' film debut; only reviews are known to survive. [98]
1963 Andy Warhol Films Jack Smith Filming Normal Love Andy Warhol Jack Smith This home movie, which may have been Warhol's first film, was seized by New York City Police in March 1964, and has since disappeared. [99]
Farewell Performance Robert Tronson David Kernan,
Frederick Jaeger,
Delphi Lawrence
On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [100]
1967 Batman Fights Dracula Leody M. Diaz Jing Abalos, Dante Rivero An unofficial Filipino Batman parody made without permission of DC Comics, owner of the character's copyright. [101]
Israel: A Right to Live John Schlesinger Director Schlesinger shot this film for producer Harry Saltzman. Alan Rosenthal claims that "hours of film had been shot and edited, but nobody liked the result. Israel was too triumphant, too out of keeping with the changed mood. It had a few showings and then passed into oblivion." On the other hand, William J. Mann claims that Schlesinger never finished the documentary, "due to 'creative differences' with the BBC." Cinematographer Anthony B. Richmond claimed in 2011 that he has never been able to find a copy of the documentary.
1968 Las Noches del Hombre Lobo René Govar Paul Naschy The second in a series of films featuring the character Count Waldemar Daninsky. Never publicly screened or seen by anyone, including Naschy. Suspected by some to be a hoax. [102]
The Other People David Hart Peter McEnery, Donald Pleasence Never released. [103]
1969 The Promise Michael Hayes Ian McKellen, John Castle First known film adaptation of a work by Soviet playwright Aleksei Arbuzov, and an early film role for McKellen. Appears on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [104]

1970s[edit]

Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1970 Saturation 70 Gram Parsons Nudie Cohn, Anita Pallenberg, Michelle Phillips Experimental science-fiction film; was unfinished and remaining footage lost. [105]
1972 Nobody Ordered Love Robert Hartford-Davis Ingrid Pitt, Tony Selby All known prints believed destroyed upon the director's death, at his request. Currently listed on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list. [106]
1974 HIM Ed D Louie Tava Pornographic film about the life of Jesus Christ, previously believed to be a hoax. [107]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vault and Nitrate Fires – A History". TCM.com. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  2. ^ a b c Jo Botting. "Lost Then Found". British Film Institute (screenonline.org.uk). Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  3. ^ Robert A. Harris, public hearing statement to the National Film Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., February 1993.
  4. ^ "Film Preservation". The Film Foundation. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Why". Deutsche Kinemathek. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  6. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (December 4, 2013). "Most of America's Silent Films Are Lost Forever". The Wire. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  7. ^ Slide, Anthony (2000). Nitrate Won't Wait: History of Film Preservation in the United States. McFarland. p. 5. ISBN 0786408367. Retrieved March 25, 2013. It is often claimed that 75 percent of all American silent films are gone and 50 percent of all films made prior to 1950 are lost, but such figures, as archivists admit in private, were thought up on the spur of the moment, without statistical information to back them up. 
  8. ^ "Arrivée d'un train (Arrival of a Train)". silentera.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  9. ^ "L'arroseur". silentera.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Barque sortant du port de Trouville". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Bateau-mouche sur la Seine". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Bébé et fillettes". silentera.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Les blanchisseuses". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Bois de Boulogne". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Bois de Boulogne". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Boulevard des Italiens". silentera.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Campement de bohémiens". silentera.com. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Les chevaux de bois". silentera.com. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Le chiffonier (sic)". silentera.com. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Couronnement de la rosière". silentera.com. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Déchargement de bateaux". silentera.com. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Jardinier brûlant des herbes". silentera.com. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Jetée et Plage de Trouville (1st part)". silentera.com. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Jetée et Plage de Trouville (2nd part)". silentera.com. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Jour de marché à Trouville". silentera.com. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  26. ^ The First Dutch Film: Gestoorde hengelaar, EYE Film Institute Netherlands
  27. ^ Spelende kinderen, EYE Film Institute Netherlands
  28. ^ Zwemplaats voor Jongelingen te Amsterdam, EYE Film Institute Netherlands
  29. ^ "The Bioscope Festival of Lost Films". Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  30. ^ "Solser en Hesse, 1900". EYE Film Institute Netherlands. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Hiawatha, The Messiah of the Ojibway". Canadian Film Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Solser en Hesse, 1906". EYE Film Institute Netherlands. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  33. ^ Uusitalo, Kari (1996). Suomen kansallisfilmografia, osa 1: 1907–1935 (The Finnish National Filmography, part 1: 1907-1935). Finnish National Audiovisual Archive, Suomen kansallinen audiovisuaalinen arkisto (Kava): Edita. ISBN 9513719014. 
  34. ^ Swartz, Mark Evan (2002). Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baum's the Wonderful Wizard of Oz on Stage and Screen to 1939. JHU Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780801870927. Retrieved February 29, 2016. 
  35. ^ "The Music Master". silentera.com. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Alias Jimmy Valentine". silentera.com. 
  37. ^ "Lost Films: 4 Devils". Deutsche Kinemathek. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  38. ^ "4 Devils". silentera.com. 
  39. ^ "Heart Trouble". silentera.com. Retrieved February 29, 2016. 
  40. ^ Neibaur, James L. (July 6, 2012). The Silent Films of Harry Langdon (1923-1928). Scarecrow Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780810885318. Retrieved February 2016. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. pp. 453–454. ISBN 0195088115. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  42. ^ "The Argyle Case". silentera.com. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  43. ^ "The Aviator". silentera.com. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  44. ^ "Silent Era : Progressive Silent Film List". www.silentera.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  45. ^ Pictorial History of the Talkies c.1958,1970 & 1980 and other years, by Daniel Blum
  46. ^ Greta de Groat (Electronic Media Cataloger at Stanford University Libraries). "Evidence". stanford.edu. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  47. ^ Bradley, Edwin M. (2004). The First Hollywood Musicals: A Critical Filmography of 171 Features, 1927 Through 1932. McFarland. pp. 42–43. ISBN 0-7864-2029-4. 
  48. ^ "Frozen Justice". silentera.com. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 
  49. ^ Koszarski, Richard (2008). Hollywood on the Hudson: Film and Television in New York from Griffith to Sarnoff. Rutgers University Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-813-54293-6. 
  50. ^ The American Film Institute Catalog 1921-30, The American Film Institute, c. 1971
  51. ^ "IMDb trivia section for A Most Immoral Lady". IMDb. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  52. ^ "The Films of Pauline Frederick". Greta de Groat, Metadata Librarian for Electronic and Visual Resources, Stanford University. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  53. ^ "South Sea Rose". silentera.com. 
  54. ^ "Speakeasy". silentera.com. 
  55. ^ "Stark Mad". silentera.com. 
  56. ^ Kerzoncuf, Alain (February 2009). "Alfred Hitchcock and The Fighting Generation". Senses of Cinema (49). 
  57. ^ a b c d "Australia's 'Lost' Films". National Film and Sound Archive. Retrieved March 27, 2013. 
  58. ^ "Kismet". Deutsche Kinemathek. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
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  61. ^ Priya Krishnamoorthy (June 15, 2007). "India's first talkie lost in silence". IBN Live. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  62. ^ Hanke, Ken (1990). Charlie Chan at the Movies: History, Filmography, and Criticism. McFarland. p. 6. 
  63. ^ "Deadlock / BFI Most Wanted". British Film Institute. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  64. ^ "Hobson's Choice / BFI Most Wanted". British Film Institute. 
  65. ^ MALATHI RANGARAJAN. "Tryst with the past". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  66. ^ "Tamil Talkies complete 80 years!". Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  67. ^ "Film Threat's Top 10 Lost Films, Part 4". Film Threat. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  68. ^ "Two Crowded Hours". British Film Institute. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  69. ^ Hanke, Ken (2004). Charlie Chan at the Movies: History, Filmography, and Criticism. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN 0786486619. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Men of Tomorrow / BFI Most Wanted". British Film Institute. 
  71. ^ "Time and Space in the Work of László Moholy-Nagy" (PDF). Hungarian Studies Review. 1988. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  72. ^ Tetsu Itoh & Yuji Kaida. 大特撮-日本特撮映画史 (Large Special: The Japanese Special Effects Movie History). Asahi Sonorama. 1979. Pg.173
  73. ^ "Murder at Monte Carlo / BFI Most Wanted". British Film Institute. 
  74. ^ [2]
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Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]