List of lynching victims in the United States

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The body of John Heath, lynched in Tombstone, Arizona, on February 22, 1884, following the Bisbee massacre

This is a list of lynching victims in the United States. Lynching is the summary execution of one or more persons without due process of law by a group of people organized internally and not authorized by a legitimate government. Lynchers may claim to be issuing punishment for an alleged crime, however they are not a judicial body nor deputized by one. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968.[1] Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post–Civil War period occurred in the Southern states.[2] White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism.[3]

According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused.[4][5]

On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans, Asian Americans and Italian-Americans[6][7] were also lynched.[8] Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans[9] and German-Americans[10] were also lynched occasionally.

19th century[edit]

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
McIntosh, Francis 26 African-American St. Louis N/A (independent city) Missouri 1836 Arrested on charge of disturbing the peace, McIntosh stabbed the deputies who told him he would serve five years for the offense. Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.
Lovejoy, Elijah 35 White Alton Madison Illinois 1837 Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.[11]
Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith 38,
44
White Carthage Hancock Illinois 1844 Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy. In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.
Thomas, David 34 African-American Denton Caroline Maryland 1854 Beating a white man to death [12]
Thompson, Bill Saul; Despano, Sloan African-American Greensburg Green Kentucky 1858 Alleged murder and robbery of wealthy white farmer, "Mr. Simpson." Thompson and Despano were two of four men jailed for allegedly murdering a Mr. Simpson. A mob broke into the jail which was abandoned by the jailor. To avoid lynching, one of the four, Elias Scraggs, slit his own throat. Thompson and Despano were taken by the mob and hanged from a tree. After seeing Scraggs, Thompson and Despano die, a fourth man after "a good deal of reluctance" avoided lynching by implicating five others including Simpson's own son-in-law, though the son-in-law was "generally considered innocent."[13]
Adam African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1859 In response to the murder of a white man, and "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". Adam was tried and convicted of the murder of a white man. He was represented by Ossian Hart who appealed the conviction. The Florida State Supreme Court declared a mistrial following which a mob broke into the jail, seized Adam and hanged him.[14]: 269 
Hamilton, Jacob African-American Smyrna Kent and New Castle Delaware 1861 Believed to have assaulted a white woman in her home. While a trial was in progress, preparations to lynch the victim were made outside. When constables walked out with Hamilton, the crowd seized and hung him.[15]
Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16) Adult men White Gainesville Cooke Texas 1862 Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.[16][17]
Wilson, Jim African-American Oakland Caroline Maryland 1862 Rape and murder of an 8 year old white girl [18]
Campbell, John (Jack) Mixed race (White/Dakota)[19] Mankato Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur Minnesota 1865 Double murder Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".[20][21]
Taylor, John 17 African-American Mason Ingham Michigan 1866 Attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute Taylor was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.[20][22]
Pippin, James unknown White Church Hill or Centerville Queen Anne's Maryland 1867 Tried for killing a merchant, but acquitted. Angry about Pippin's acquittal, a mob of 20 people dragged him from under the floorboards of his father's house and hanged him.[23][24]
McLain, Tom unknown African-American Coffeeville Yalobusha Mississippi 1868 Alleged murder of white overseer. A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged McLain and Gilbert Quinn from the jail and hung both from a gum tree with the same rope.[25][26]
Quinn, Gilbert unknown African-American Coffeeville Yalobusha Mississippi 1868 Alleged accomplice to murder of white overseer. A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged Quinn and Tom McLain from the jail and hung both from a gum tree with the same rope.[25][26]
Moore, Isaac unknown African-American Bel Air Harford Maryland 1868 Robbing a white woman of a sum of money. Moore was accused of having other "nepharious designs" not carried out after he was frightened away by the screams of the woman from whom he allegedly took money. Moore was before a magistrate when a crowd took him away and hung him naked from a tree.[27]
Quinn, Jim unknown African-American Jarrettsville Harford Maryland 1869 Assaulting a white woman [28][29]
Outlaw, Wyatt 49–50 African-American Graham Alamance North Carolina 1870 Prominent local figure (no crime alleged) 63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.[30]
Stephens, John W. 35 White Yancyville Caswell North Carolina 1870 State senator who worked to help freedmen Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.
Ah Wing and at least 15 others Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Group of Chinese immigrants killed in retaliation for the accidental homicide of a white rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Jones, David African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1872 Murdering Henry Murray. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.[31][32]
Castro, José 35 Latino San Juan Bautista San Benito California 1872 Alleged conspiracy to rob a stage coach. After Tiburcio Vásquez robbed a stage on the San Benito Road, a group of vigilantes seized José Castro, a local saloon owner, and hanged him from a tree based on flimsy suspicion that he was associated with the bandit.[33]
McCrory, James White Visalia Tulare California 1872 Murder A group of vigilantes broke into the jail, seized McCrory and hanged him from a bridge.[34]
Randolph, John African-American Osceola Mississippi Arkansas 1875 Lynched after allegedly confessing to murder of white man[35]
Reed, Joseph African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1875 Killing a police officer Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.[36]
Simms, John African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland 1875 Alleged assault of Adaline Jackson. Simms was shackled and in jail when a mob searched the jailor for his keys and took Simms away, irons and all, and hung him from a tree. “Many of the lynchers were painted black and some were masked.”.[37]
Green, Michael[38] African-American Upper Marlboro Prince George's Maryland 1878 Arrested for assaulting Miss Alice Sweeny on August 26, 1878 Green was being held at the jail in Upper Marlboro. Threats of lynching were openly made and were held off by the vigilance of Sheriff James N.W. Wilson. On September 1, 1878, a band of masked men removed Green from the jail and took him a mile outside of town to the corner of Queen Anne's Road and Hills Lane. There a noose was placed around his neck and he was hung 15 feet in the air from a cherry tree. His body remained dangling from the tree and was observed the next morning.[39]
Five un-named men African-American Mount Vernon Posey Indiana 1878 Accused of rape Largest recorded lynching in Indiana. No one was ever indicted.
Easley, Albert 13-14 African-American Jacksonville Calhoun Alabama 1879 Alleged assault and rape of a white woman Accused of assaulting and raping Mrs. Moses Ables, Easley was taken by force from the jail and lynched during the day within the city limits of Jacksonville.[40]
Gilmer, Bill African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1879 Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.[41][42]
Porter, Nevlin African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [43]
Spencer, Johnson African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [44]
Peck, George Washington African-American Poolesville Montgomery Maryland 1880 Accused of assaulting a white girl Taken by a mob and hanged from a tree before he could be transported to Rockville for a trial.[45][46][47]
Harrington, Levi African-American Kansas City Jackson Missouri 1882 Killing a police officer Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.[48][49][50][51]
García, Encarnción Latino Los Gatos Santa Clara California 1883 Murder Encarnación García was a nephew of the bandido Tiburcio Vásquez. He was arrested for stabbing another man to death following a card game at the Los Gatos Saloon. A mob broke into the jail, seized García and hanged him from the Los Gatos Creek bridge.[52][53]
Heath, John 28 White Bisbee Cochise Arizona Territory 1884 Accessory to robbery Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence
Conorly, Huie 16 African-American Bogalusa Washington Louisiana 1884 Attempted rape A mob of 10 or 15 men broke into the jail, sezed Conorly and hung him on the jail steps.[54]
Briscoe, George 40 African-American On a rural road[a] Anne Arundel Maryland 1884 Alleged robbery of the residence of George Schievenent. “[A]sked the magistrate with an oath what right he had to commit him to jail?” angering the crowd. Hung by “a large party” of masked men.[37]
McChristian, Perry White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [55]
Williams, Felix White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [55]
James, Bartley African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [55]
Campbell, John African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [55]
Cook, Townsend 21 African-American Westminster Carroll Maryland 1885 Assaulting a white woman [56]
Jackson, Lizzie; Jackson, Andy; Hayes, Frank; Norman, Joe; Rogers, Willie African-American Elkhart Anderson Texas 1885 Rape and murder of a white woman [57]
Cooper, Howard 15–17 African-American Towson Baltimore Maryland 1885 Assaulting a white woman Convicted of assault and rape after one minute deliberation, his attorneys intended to file an appeal; 75 masked men broke Cooper out of jail and hung him from a tree.[56][58]
Mingo Jack 66 African-American Eatontown Monmouth New Jersey 1886 Rape of a white woman All suspects acquitted.[59][60]
Woods, Eliza "Colored" Jackson Madison Tennessee 1886 Supposedly poisoning her employer. Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hanged in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.[61]
Johnson, David 50 African-American Westernport Allegany Maryland 1886 Alleged murder of Edward White. Hanged by a mob. Newspaper accounts describe Johnson as troubled with “religious mania” and regarded as insane.[37]
Whitley, Charles 18 African-American Prince Frederick Calvert Maryland 1886 Alleged assault of five year old child. A mob of 35–40 heavily armed men broke into the jail, seized Whitley and hanged him from a tree about a mile and a half away.[37]
Villarosa, Federico (Francesco Valoto) Italian Vicksburg Warren County Mississippi 1886 Attempted rape of a 10-year-old white girl Hanged from a tree by a mob despite the efforts of the sheriff and state militia.[62]
Miller, Amos 23 African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1888 Assaulting a white woman Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.[63]
Fletcher, Magruder about 35 African-American Tasley Accomack Virginia 1889 Raping a white woman in her home[64] [65]
Anderson, Orion 14 African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1889 "Scaring a teenaged white girl"[66] Hanged from a derrick[65]
Bush, George 17 African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1889 Rape of a 5 year old white girl [67]
Martin, Albert 23 African-American Port Huron St. Clair Michigan 1889 Assault and rape A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.[20][68]
Meadows, George African-American N/A Jefferson Alabama 1889 Rape and murder Lynched despite calls from his accuser that she couldn't confirm he was guilty. Sheriff eventually determined he had been innocent, and another man was later arrested.
Williams, Willie African-American Kosse Limestone Texas 1890 Rape of an 8 year old white girl Taken from his jail cell by a mob, hanged, and shot multiple times.[69]
Taylor, Jim African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1891 Shooting a policeman Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.[70]
11 Italian Americans Italian-American New Orleans Orleans Louisiana 1891 Killing of police chief 3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.
Joe Coe ("A married man with two children") African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1891 Assault on a white girl of 5 The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.
Lundy, Dick Adult African-American Edgefield Edgefield South Carolina 1891 Murder of son of sheriff Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"
Champion, Tony
Kelly, Michael
African-American,
White (Irish)
Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Murder Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.[71]
Ford, Andrew African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray Taken from jail by mob and hanged.[71]
Hinson, Henry African-American Micanopy Alachua Florida 1892 Murder Hanged.[71]
Unknown boy African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1892 Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism Hanged.[71]
Moss, Tom Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[72]
McDowell, Calvin Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[72]
Stewart, Will Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[72]
Grizzard, Ephraim African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1892 Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.[73]
Heflin, Lee White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[65]
Dye, Joseph White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[65]
Bates, William White Shelbyville Bedford Tennessee 1892 Alleged murder of his wife. Mob formed as officers were transporting Bates to jail. He was hanged.[74]
Shorter, William 17 African-American Winchester N/A (independent city) Virginia 1893 Assault on a white woman [65]
Henry Smith 17 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 1893 Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress. Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.
Peterson, John Adult African-American Denmark Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County) South Carolina 1893 Attack on a white girl
Willis, Charles African-American Rochelle Alachua Florida 1894 Being a "desperado"[75] Shot and burned in bed.[71]
Puryear, Richard African-American Stroudsburg Monroe Pennsylvania 1894 Murder Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.[20][76]
Rawls, William African-American Newnansville Alachua Florida 1895 Murder Hanged and shot.[71]
Divers, Emmett Adult African-American Fulton Callaway Missouri 1895 Murder of a white woman; Jennie E. Cain "Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hanged from bridge until dead, taken down and hanged a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband, John William Cain". Body and cabin burned.[77]
Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella 33–36, 27, 48 Italian Hahnville St. Charles Parish Louisiana 1896 Murder Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.[78]
Daniels, Alfred African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1896 Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence) Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[71]
Randolph, Sydney Adult African-American Gaithersburg Montgomery Maryland 1896 Killing a white girl Taken from the jail by a mob.[79]
McCoy, Joseph 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1897 Assault on a young girl [65]
James, John Henry Adult African-American Charlottesville (near) Albemarle Virginia 1898 Rape Hanged and shot by a mob.
Baker, Frazier B. 41 African-American Lake City Florence South Carollna 1898 Appointed Postmaster

Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted.

Smith, Wright 56 African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland 1898 Alleged assault of Mary Morrison. Wright Smith was identified by Mary Morrison as the man who broke into her house and assaulted her. Mob broke Smith out of jail and riddled his body with bullets.[37]
Thompson, Benjamin 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1899 Attempting to criminally assault an eight year-old white girl[66] hanged from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.[65]
DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
Cerami, Giovanni;
Rosario Fiducia
Italian Tallulah Madison Parish Louisiana 1899 Shooting a doctor Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.[80]
Hose, Sam about 24 African-American Noonan Coweta Georgia 1899 Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching. Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.

20th century[edit]

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Watt, W.W. White Newport News N/A Virginia 1900 Assault Shot[81]
Gause, Anderson African-American Henning Lauderdale Tennessee 1900 Helping two Black prisoners to escape. Mr. Gause was hanged from a tree.[81][82]
Pete, Dago African-American Tutwiler Tallahatchie Mississippi 1900 Assaulted colored woman Killed by African-American mob[81]
Lee, William 29 African-American Hinton Summers West Virginia 1900 Assault on a white woman [83]
Porter, Preston 15 African-American Limon Colorado Colorado 1900 Rape and murder of a 12 year old white girl Burned alive by a mob[84]
Alexander, Fred 22 African-American Leavenworth Leavenworth Kansas 1901 Rape and murder allegations Lynched and burned at stake[85]
Estes, Siles African-American Hodgenville LaRue Kentucky 1901 "Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime." Mr. Estes was taken from his jail cell at 2:00 a.m. by a mob of 50 or 75 persons and hanged in front of the courthouse.[86]
Carter, George African-American Paris Bourbon Kentucky 1901 "Assaulting a white woman." [87]
Fred Rochelle 16 African-American Bartow Polk Florida 1901 Murder and rape of a white woman Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".
Godley, William African-American Pierce Lawrence Missouri 1901 Murder of a white woman Mob subsequently went on a rampage in a nearby black community[88]
Price, Manny,
Scruggs, Robert
African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1902 Murder,
suspected accomplice
Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[71]
Gillespie, James and Harrison 10, 14 African-American Salisbury Rowan North Carolina 1902 Murder of a white woman Two brothers were accused of stoning a neighbor to death. Hanged by a mob of an estimated 400 persons and their bodies shot dozens of times.[89]
Carter, James African-American Amherst Amherst Virginia 1902 Unknown [90]
Craven, Charles African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1902 Assault [65]
Steers, Jennie Adult African-American rural area near Shreveport Caddo Louisiana 1903 Poisoning daughter of a planter [91]: 70 
Fambro, William African-American Griffin Spalding Georgia 1903 Insulted white home [92]
White, George Adult African-American Wilmington New Castle Delaware 1903 Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die Sexually assaulted and stabbed to death a 17 year old girl. Taken from the city jail by a mob and burned alive.[93]
Jarvis, Washington 25 White Madison Madison Florida 1903 Accused of murdering his cousin. [94]
Clark, Jumbo African-American High Springs Alachua Florida 1904 Assault of 14 year old white girl Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[71]
Lee, "General" African-American Reevesville Dorchester South Carolina 1904 Knocking on the door of a white woman's house [95]
Holbert, Luther,
unnamed female
African-American Doddsville Sunflower Mississippi 1904 Murder of a white landowner Tortured and burned alive, crowd of some 600 attended the lynching.[96]
Cato, Will
Reed, Paul
African-American Statesboro Bulloch Georgia 1904 Murder of five members of a family Seized by mob from courthouse after conviction for murder, chained to stump and burned
Maples, Horace African-American Huntsville Madison Alabama 1904 Murder Mob of 2,000 burned jail where he was held, then hung and shot him.[97]
Johnson, Ed 23–24 African-American Chattanooga Hamilton Tennessee 1906 Rape of white woman Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp
Duncan, Horace 20 to 21 African-American Springfield Greene Missouri 1906 Assault of white woman Fred Coker, Horace B. Duncan, and William (Bill) Allen were lynched by large mob of white citizens, though they were innocent. All three suspects were hanged from the Gottfried Tower, which held a replica of the Statue of Liberty, and burned in the courthouse square by a mob of more than 2,000 citizens. Duncan's and Coker's employer testified that they were at his business at the time of the crime against Edwards, and other evidence suggested that they and Allen were all innocent. After the mass lynching in Springfield, many African Americans left the area in a large exodus Judge Azariah W. Lincoln called for a grand jury, but no one was prosecuted. The proceedings were covered by national newspapers, the New York Times and Los Angeles Times]]
Richardson, Bunk African-American Gadsden Etowah Alabama 1906 Not charged Was arrested/held as a witness for one of three defendants accused of rape & murder of a white woman. The three defendants were sentenced to death but the governor commuted to life one man's sentence. Angry at the lighter sentence, a mob seized Richardson from the jail and hung him from a train tressel over the Coosa River.[98][99][100]
Davis, Henry African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland 1906 Assaulting a white woman Dragged from his jail cell and shot over 100 times.[56][101]
Pitts, Slab African-American Toyah Reeves Texas 1906 Living with a white woman Dragged to death before being hanged.[102]
Burns, William 22 African-American Cumberland Allegany Maryland 1907 Alleged murder of Patrolman August Baker.[103] A crowd estimated at 10,000 examined the lynching victim’s body.[37]
Long, Jack White Newberry Alachua Florida 1908 Murder Hanged.[71]
Miller, William African-American Brighton Jefferson Alabama 1908 Labor activist Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).[104]
Riley, Joseph;
Jones, Virgil;
Jones, Robert;
Jones, Thomas
African-American Russellville Logan Kentucky 1908 Victims expressed approval of their lodge brother Rufus Browder's killing his employer. Rufus Browder killed his employer with an axe after being shot in the chest. Browder was arrested and sent to Louisville. The lynching victims expressed approval for his actions and were jailed for disturbing the peace. On August 1, 1908 a mob demanded release of the men, and lynched them from a tree. A note pinned to one of the men read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way."[105]
Patton, Nelse African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1908 Killing a white woman Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".[106][107][108]
Walker, David,
his wife and
four children
African-American Hickman Fulton Kentucky 1908 Using inappropriate language with a white woman [109]
Five men 22–27 African-American Rural Sabine Texas 1908 Murder of two white men Five black men accused of murder were hanged by a mob of an estimated 150[110]
Wades, Jake African-American Lakeland Polk Florida 1909 Accused of rape Transported from Gainesville to Lakeland to be identified and lynched[111]
Miller Jim 47 White Pontotoc Pontotoc Oklahoma 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman [112]
Burrell, Berry 38 White Pontotoc Pontotoc Oklahoma 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman [112]
Allen, Joseph 43 White Pontotoc Pontotoc Oklahoma 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman [112]
West, Jesse 46 White Pontotoc Pontotoc Oklahoma 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman [112]
Albano, Angelo and
Castenge Ficarotta
Italian Tampa Hillsborough County Florida 1910 Complicity in a shooting [113]
William Bradford African-American Chunky Newton Mississippi 1911 Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers [114]
Nelson, Laura African-American Okemah Okfuskee Oklahoma 1911 Killing a Deputy sheriff. Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.[115]
Johnson, King[116] 28 African American Brooklyn Anne Arundel Maryland 1911 Alleged murder of Frederick Schwab. Johnson was to be transported to Annapolis for his safety that same day but those plans were delayed. Around two o'clock in the morning on December 26, 1911 a mob broke into the unguarded jail where Johnson was kept. When Johnson fought back preventing a noose from being placed on his neck, he was beaten with irons and shot.[37] [117]
Walker, Zachariah 20–24 African-American Coatesville Chester Pennsylvania 1911 Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.[118]
Lewis, Sanford African-American Fort Smith Sebastian Arkansas 1912 Shooting a constable Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.[119]
Davis, Dan 25 African-American Tyler Smith Texas 1912 Assault and rape of a 16 year old white girl Burned alive by a mob[120]
White, Henry African-American Campville Alachua Florida 1913 Found under white woman's bed Hanged, noose broke, shot.[71]
Williams, Andrew 35 African-American Houston Chickasaw Mississippi 1913 Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk Dragged from jail and hanged at a nearby tree, upon the alleged statement of two African-American women;[121] the women who made the statement were arrested the next day for making a false statement, according to one source[122] and/or disappeared.[123] The day after Williams was lynched, a second African-American, named in different reports as 'Divel Rucker', 'Dizell Rucker' and 'Dibrell Tucker; was lynched and burned at the stake on the assumption that he, not Williams, was the actual murderer[124][125]
Rucker, Divel 20 African-American Houston Chickasaw Mississippi 1913 Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk The day after Andrew Williams was lynched by hanging for this murder, Rucker was presumed by the mob to be the actual murderer and, allegedly, confessed to the crime. He was tied to an iron stake, covered with tar, and set afire. The family of the victim shot him as he was burning[126] According to the New York Sun report, "The Rucker lynching was the most spectacular in the history of Mississippi and there was no attempt at concealment or evasion."[127][125]
Turner, Allen 47 African-American Western area of Parish (county) Union Louisiana 1914 Accused of Assaulting a white man (J.P. McDougall)[128] J.P. McDougall was whipping Allen Turner's son. Allen was defending his son. Taken from deputy sheriff and shot to death. It is said that Allen's body was then dragged through the roads of Spearsville.
Shields, Dallas African-American Fayette Howard Missouri 1914 Murdering a police officer [129]
Sullivan, Fred;
Sullivan, May
African-American Byhalia Marshall Mississippi 1914 Alleged barn burning. Fred Sullivan and his wife May confessed after nooses were placed around their necks. The couple were hanged by a mob of more than 100.[130]
Leo Frank 31 Jewish Marietta Cobb Georgia 1915 Killing a 13-year-old girl No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.
Lynching of James and Alonzo Green African-American Columbus Jones County Georgia 1915 Mob ran into them while hunting for the murderer of white farmer [131]
Stevenson, Cordella African-American Columbus Lowndes Mississippi 1915 Her son was accused of burning a white man's barn, he was unavailable, so they raped and murdered her Her husband Arch was never seen alive after December 15[132]
Dr Benjamin E Ward 37 White Norman Cleveland Oklahoma 1915 Murdering his wife Mob expected him to be freed on grounds of insanity.[133]
Sheffield, Caesar 17 African-American Lake Park Lowndes Georgia 1915 Allegedly stealing meat from a smokehouse owned by a white man. Jailors abandoned the jail allowing a mob to take Caesar Sheffield to a field where they shot him multiple times and left his body.[134]
Newberry Six lynchings
(Baskins, Rev. Josh J.;
Dennis, Bert;
Dennis, James;
Dennis, Mary;
McHenry, Andrew; and
Young, Stella)
Adults African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1916 Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.[71][135]
Lang, Ed African-American Rice Navarro Texas 1916 "Attacking a young woman." Taken from a sheriff's posse and hanged.[136]
Anthony Crawford[137] 51 African-American Abbeville Abbeville South Carolina 1916 Offensive language Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"
Jesse Washington[138] 17 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1916 Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red."[138]: 5 
Herman Arthur and brother Irving 19 and 28-years-old African-American Paris, Texas Lamar County Texas 1917 Murder Pulled from jail and burned alive
Daley, Starr 26 White Pinal Arizona May 6, 1917 Homicide (Two murders) plus two rapes Accused admitted guilt in trial; taken from Sheriff en route to jail and Hanged from a telephone pole; last Lynching in Arizona
Ell Persons about 50 African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1917 Raping and killing a white girl No charges filed.
McIlherron, Jim[139][140][141] African-American Estill Springs Franklin Tennessee 1918 Killing two white people Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away.
Clark, Andrew and Major;
Alma and Maggie House
16, 20, 16, 20 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1918 Alleged murder of dentist Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.[142]
Taylor, George African-American Rolesville Wake North Carolina 1918 Rape of a white woman No charges were filed.[143] There is a Web site on this lynching.[144]
Jay Lynch 28 White Missouri Barton Missouri 1919 Murder Hanged.
Mary Turner[145] 18 African-American Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia Georgia 1918 Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner. Hanged upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets.
Hayes Turner 25 African-American Morven Brooks Georgia 1918 Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner. Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.
Thompson, Allie African-American Culpeper Culpeper Virginia 1918 Assault [65]
Prager, Robert 30 German-American Collinsville Madison Illinois 1918 Sympathy to Germany during World War I Forced to sing patriotic songs and kiss the flag, before being hanged.
Mosely, Sam African-American Florida Columbia Florida 1919 Accused of assaulting a white woman. [146]
Everest, Wesley 28 White Centralia Lewis Washington 1919 Homicide Hanged from a bridge during the Centralia Massacre labor conflict
Little, Wilbur African-American Blakely Early Georgia 1919 Wearing uniform of his WWI military service to the United States
Brown, Will 41 African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1919 Rape Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919
Williams, Eugene African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 Racial unrest A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.[147]
Robinson, Robert African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 He was black, and they wanted to kill a black Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.[148]
Ashley, Bob African-American Dublin Laurens Georgia 1919 Hoped to shoot someone else A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.[149]
Hamilton, Eugene African-American Jasper Georgia 1919 Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals. Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".[150]: 233–234 
Cox, Obe African-American Oglethorpe County Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.[151]
Jones, Paul African-American Macon (near) Bibb Georgia 1919 Attacking a white woman. Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.[150]: 241 
Jameson, Jordan African-American Magnolia Columbia Arkansas 1919 Killing a sheriff. Burned to death in the public square.[150]: 241 
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.
Holden, George African-American Monroe (near) Ouachita Louisiana 1919 Writing a suggestive note to a white woman[152] Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.[150]: 18 
Wilkins, Willie African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Friend of man believed to have killed lawman. [150]: 8 
Ruffin, John African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [150]: 7–8 
Ruffin, Henry African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [150]: 7–8 
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Consensual sex with white woman The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.[153]
Richards, Benny African-American Warrenton Warren Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others 300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.[154][155]
Clay, Lloyd African-American Vicksburg Warren Mississippi 1919 False rape accusation 1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.[156]
Prince, Henry African-American Hawkinsville Pulaski Georgia 1919 Unknown [157]
Waters, Jim African-American Johnson Georgia 1919 Rape accusation Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.[157]
Livingston, Frank 25 African-American El Dorado Union Arkansas 1919 False murder accusation One of many returning WWI veterans lynched in 1919.[158]
Washington, Berry 72 African-American Milan Dodge and Telfair Georgia 1919 Defended black girls from white home invaders. Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward[159]
Chilton Jennings 28 African-American Gilmer Upshur County Texas 1919 Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged.[160] Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.[161]
Phifer, Miles (or Relius) African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman Was wearing military uniform[162]
Temple, Will African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Killing a police officer [162]
Miles Phifer,
Robert Crosky and
John Temple
African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman [162]
Hartfield, John African-American Ellisville Jones Mississippi 1919 Assaulting a young white woman "The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy.[163] Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on."[164]: 9 
Thomas, Wade African-American Jonesboro Craighead Arkansas 1920 Killing a policeman Taken from jail by a mob, hanged, then riddled with bullets.[165]
Gathers, Phillip African-American Effingham Georgia 1920 Murder
Scott, Henry African American Bartow Polk Florida 1920 He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth Shot[166]
Daniels, Lige 16–18 African-American Center Shelby Texas 1920 Accused of murdering a white woman. Taken from jail by a mob of approx 1000 to the town square and hanged[167]
Clayton, Elias,
Elmer Jackson, and
Isaac McGhie
20–23 African-American Duluth St. Louis Minnesota 1920 Rape of a teenage girl Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.
Belton Roy 18 White Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma 1920 Suspicion of murder of cab driver [168]
July Perry[169] 52 African-American Ocoee Orange Florida 1920 Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote." Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.
Cade, Henry 25 African-American Sour Lake Texas Texas 1921 Rape of an 8 year old white girl Taken from jail and hanged by a mob[170]
Eley, Jesse 46 African-American Murfreesboro Hertford North Carolina 1921 Owned a 50 arch farm which caused jealousy from some white neighbors. Jesse Eley was returning from the market in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He bought some grain for his cattle. He had two workers riding with him in his horse-drawn wagon. As he reached the outskirts of town, he entered a path that went into a wooded area. Several men were hiding in the woods entrance waiting for him. As his wagon entered the woods, the men stopped Jesse. They began beating him and eventually hanged him on a tree. Jesses workers took off running. One of them ran back to Jesses farm to let the family know what was happening. The family got a horse-drawn buggy and went to rescue him. By the time they got there, Jesse was barely alive. They found him because he raised one of his legs in the air to let them know where he was.

Jesse had a hole in his head, and his stomach was cut open. His throat was seizing up because of the hanging. As they put him into the buggy, he died. [171] [172]

Lowry, Henry
("a negro sharecropper")
African-American Nodena Mississippi Arkansas 1921 Asked for his wages Burned to death; crowd of 500[164]: 3 
Hackney, "Curly" 30 White Waco McLennan Texas 1921 Rape of an 8 year old girl Taken from jail and hanged by a mob[173]
James Harvey and
Joe Jordan
African-American N/A Liberty Georgia 1922 Attacked and raped white woman following a pay dispute with her husband Hanged by a mob of about 50 men while in police custody.
Wright, Charles
and two other men
African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of white teacher Escaped convict Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Two other suspects were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.[174][175]
Curry, "Snap";
Cornish, Johnny;
Jones, Mose
23, 19, 46 African-American Kirvin Freestone Texas 1922 Rape and murder of a 17 year old white girl Three suspects mutilated and burned alive. The mob subsequently went on a rampage of destruction and lynchings in a nearby African-American neighborhood.[176]
Thomas, Jesse 23 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1922 Murder of a white man and attempted assault on his female companion Shot dead and his body burned in the town square[177]
Bosier, Mose 55 African-American Alleyton Colorado Texas 1922 Rape of a 15 year old white girl [178]
Winters, Joe 20 African-American Conroe Montgomery Texas 1922 Rape of a 14 year old white girl Burned alive by a mob[179]
Scott, James T. 35–56 African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1923 Assaulting a 14 year old white girl Accused of detaining and beating the daughter of a professor at the University of Columbia, where Scott worked as a janitor. Lynched by a mob of over 100 men. Memorial plaque erected 2016.[180][181]
Wilson, Abraham African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1923 Cattle stealing Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.[71][182]
Carter, Sam 45 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1923 Sexual assault of a white woman Falsely accused, tortured, shot, then hung by white mob which went on a rampage burning homes and killing several other people.
Bell, William 33 African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1924 Accosting two girls Beaten to death by a mob in a Jewish neighborhood. The girls, when questioned by police, admitted they were unsure if Bell was in fact the same man who had accosted them. The only lynching in Chicago history.[183]
Smith, Samuel 15 African-American Nolensville Williamson Tennessee 1924 Stealing spark plugs in a garage. Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.[184]
Jordan, James Adult African-American Waverly Sussex Virginia 1925 Married woman "attacked" in her home. The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.[185][186]
Willie Washington African-American St. Louis Duval Florida 1925 Murdered by a local policeman, Washington's body was latter displayed in the county courthouse. [187]
Marshall, Robert African-American Price Carbon Utah 1925 Accused of killing a white guard The allegation was based on the testimony of two young boys who said they saw a black man running from the scene of the crime. Marshall was lynched in front of a crowd of 1,000. When the sheriff arrived, he cut Marshall down and was putting him in the car when Marshall made noise indicating he was alive. The mob shouted to lynch him again. Afterward, Marshall's body was put on display in the funeral parlor and photos of the lynching were sold door-to-door for 25 cents. In 1998 the community provided a headstone for him.[188]
Buddington, George 55 African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1926 Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.[71][189]
Clark, James African-American Eau Gallie Brevard Florida 1926 Rape of a white girl No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers: last known lynching in Brevard County[190][191]
Selak, Fred N. 61 White Grand Lake Grand Colorado 1926 None Murdered in part because of a fencing dispute, but also to steal money thought to be stashed on his property.[192]
Payne, Tom[193] African-American Willis Montgomery County Texas February 1, 1927 Arrested in connection with a suspected assault and murder, he was taken by a white mob and hanged from a tree.[194]
Carter, John[195] 38 African-American Little Rock Pulaski Arkansas 1927 None No charges filed; "mob" responsible.
Unknown male African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1930s Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".[196]
Grant, George African-American Darien McIntosh Georgia 1930 Killing a police officer, and wounding three other people Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn."[164]: 10 
Thomas Shipp 18 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Shipp, Abram Smith and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.[197]
Abram Smith 19 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Smith, Thomas Shipp and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.[197]
Hughes, George African-American Sherman Grayson Texas 1930 Pled guilty to criminal assault. Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hanged, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.[198]
Charles Wright
[197][verification needed]
21 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1930 Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Parker, John African-American Conway Faulkner Arkansas 1931 Stealing some peaches [164]< <: 4 
Gunn, Raymond African-American Maryville Nodaway Missouri 1931 Murdering a white woman Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.[164]: 10 
Wise, Mrs. African-American Frankfort (Frankford?) Virginia (West Virginia?) 1931 Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen. [164]: 8 
Williams, Matthew 23 African-American Salisbury Wicomico Maryland 1931 Killing his employer Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.[164]: 9–10 
Tillis, Dave African-American Crockett Houston Texas 1932 "Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'". [164]: 4–5 
Thompson, Shedrick
(also spelled "Shamrock")
39 African-American rural Fauquier Virginia 1932 Assault and rape.
Lawrence, Elizabeth African-American rural Jefferson Alabama 1933 Reprimanding a group of white children [199]
Armwood, George 23 African-American Princess Anne Somerset Maryland 1933 Attempted assault and rape Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.
Holmes, John, and
Thomas Thurmond
29
27
White San Jose Santa Clara California 1933 Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."[200]
Micou, Reuben 65 African-American Louisville Winston Mississippi 1933 Accused of getting into an altercation with a white man. Abducted from jail by a mob. Micou's injuries suggested he was whipped before being shot multiple times.[201]
Claude Neal 23 African-American Greenwood Jackson Florida 1934 Rape and murder of 19 year old white female Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hanged, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.
Higginbotham, Elwood 28 African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1935 Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field. Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.[202]
Reuben Stacey
(also found as Rubin Stacy)
37 African-American Fort Lauderdale Broward Florida 1935 Threatening and frightening a white woman with a pen knife Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.[203][204][205]
Roosevelt Townes and
Robert McDaniels
African-American Duck Hill Montgomery Mississippi 1937 Pair suspected in the robbery and shooting of a shopkeeper. Tied to a tree and tortured with blowtorches to extract a confession. McDaniels shot, Townes burned alive. Photos of the lynching made the national media.[206]
Williams, Elbert African-American Brownsville Haywood Tennessee 1940 Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter. Last reported lynching in Tennessee.[207]
Green, Ernest, and
Charlie Lang
14, 15 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1942 Attempted rape. [208]: 101 
Wright, Cleo 26 African-American Sikeston Scott Missouri 1942 Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.[209]
Harrison, Cellos 31 African-American Marianna Jackson Florida 1943 Murder of a white man. Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.
Willie James Howard[210] 15 African-American Live Oak Suwannee Florida 1944 Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl. Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.
Moore's Ford lynchings
(George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey;
Roger and Dorothy Malcom)
Adults African-American Walton Georgia 1946 Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom) Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.
Willie Earle 24 African-American Greenville Greenville South Carolina 1947 Killing of taxi driver 31 suspects charged; all acquitted.
Council, Lynn about 19 African-American near Raleigh Wake North Carolina 1952 Robbery He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.
Banks, Isadore 59 African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1954 Being prosperous [211]
Till, Emmett 14 African-American Money LeFlore Mississippi 1955 Flirting with white woman Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006–2018.[212]
Parker, Mack Charles 22 or 23 African-American Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River Mississippi 1959 Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated. No one indicted.
Chaney, James, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner 21, 20 and 24 African-American, White and White Philadelphia Neshoba Mississippi 1964 Civil rights worker A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Morris, Frank 49–50 African-American Ferriday Concordia Louisiana 1964 "Flirting" with white females [213]: 152 
Rembert, Winifred 19 African-American Cuthbert Randolph Georgia 1965 Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him. Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.[214][215][216][217][218]
Pyszko, Marian 54 Polish Jew Detroit Wayne Michigan 1975 None. Killed by youths with concrete block during riot. Four of his killers were charged with first-degree murder.
Benny Higdon, Robert Owens, and Charles Barreca Whites Miami Miami-Dade County Florida 1980 Killed by African American mob during the 1980 Miami riot.
Donald, Michael 19 African-American Mobile Mobile Alabama 1981 None (Klan looked to kill a black man because accused killer of white policeman got mistrial). Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.
Turks, Willie 34 African-American New York City Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn New York 1982 Drove through a majority-white neighborhood between his subway maintenance shifts Turks and three two other black subway employees were attacked by 15 to 20 assailants who shouted racial epithets. Gino Bova, 18 at the time, was sentenced to 5 to 15 years in prison for manslaughter. Justice Sybil Hart Kooper said at the sentencing: "There was a lynch mob on Avenue X that night. The only thing missing was a rope and a tree."[219][220]
Wilson, Christopher 28 African-American Valrico, Florida Hillsborough County, Florida Florida January 1, 1993 None Three white men kidnapped Wilson and set him on fire.[221]
Seraw, Mulugeta 28 Ethiopian Portland, Oregon Multnomah County, Oregon Oregon November 13, 1988 None (white supremacists)
Hawkins, Yusef 16 African-American New York City Bensonhurst, Brooklyn New York 1989 Either mistaken as or randomly targeted in place of another black teenager who was dating a local girl Hawkins' murder became a major political issue during the 1989 New York City mayoral election season and, alongside the lynchings of Willie Turks and Michael Griffith, played a role in the unseating of incumbent mayor Ed Koch.
Yankel Rosenbaum 29 Australian Jew New York City Crown Heights, Brooklyn New York 1991 None Rosenbaum, a student from Australia, was stabbed to death by a mob as part of the Crown Heights riot.[222] Both New York Senator Daniel Moynihan and New York City Mayor David N. Dinkins called the killing a lynching. Dinkins said: "I think that the death of Yankel Rosenbaum was a lynching, as was Yusuf Hawkins. No question. Whatever term one gives to these kinds of vicious murders, that's what it is."[223]
Byrd Jr., James 49 African-American Jasper Jasper Texas 1998 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.

21st century[edit]

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Arbery, Ahmaud 25 African-American Satilla Shores Glynn Georgia 2020 Burglary Chased down and shot

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Briscoe was seized at the New Bridge over the Magothy River while being transported from Jacobsville to Annapolis, and was hanged beside the road. The place was said to be "very lonely and far from any habitation."[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882–1968". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010. Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.
  2. ^ "Lynching, Whites and Negroes, 1882 – 1968" (PDF). Tuskegee University. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2016.
  3. ^ "Statement to the media by the United Nations' Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, on the conclusion of its official visit to USA, 19-29 January 2016". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. January 29, 2016. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  4. ^ Wells, Ida B. (2014). Southern Horrors (1892) in On Lynching. Dover Books. ISBN 978-0486779997.
  5. ^ Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (New York, 1944), page 561.
  6. ^ Delucia, Christine (2003). "Getting the Story Straight: Press Coverage of Italian-American Lynchings from 1856–1910". Italian Americana. 21 (2): 212–221. JSTOR 29776894.
  7. ^ Blakemore, Erin. "The Grisly Story of America's Largest Lynching". HISTORY. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  8. ^ Gonzales-Day, Ken (2006). Lynching in the West, 1850–1935. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3781-2.
  9. ^ Lovrien, Jimmy (September 17, 2018). "Finnish immigrant was 'victim of warmongers' 100 years ago in..." duluthnewstribune.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  10. ^ "100 Years Ago this Week, During WW 1, a German-American Was Lynched – History News Network". historynewsnetwork.org. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  11. ^ Tebbe, Jen (November 7, 2017). "Elijah Lovejoy: An American Martyr". Missouri Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  12. ^ ""Jim" Wilson , MSA SC 3520-13797".
  13. ^ "A Terrible Deed in Kentucky". Cooper's Clarksburg Register. November 19, 1858. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  14. ^ Allman, T. D. (2013). Finding Florida. The True History of the Sunshine State. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780802120762.
  15. ^ "A man hanged by a mob". Delaware State journal and statesman. October 15, 1861. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  16. ^ McCaslin, Richard B. (June 15, 2010). "Great Hamging at Gainesville". Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
  17. ^ Smallwood, James (December 1976). "Disaffection in Confederate Texas: The Great Hanging at Gainesville". Civil War History. 22 (4). pp. 349–360. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  18. ^ ""Jim" Wilson , MSA SC 3520-13797".
  19. ^ "Blue Earth County Minnesota Genealogy and History". genealogytrails.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d "Map of White Supremacy mob violence". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  21. ^ "This Day in History". Mankato Magazine. April 25, 2012. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  22. ^ Judy Putnam (April 27, 2018). "Putnam: Delhi Township rethinks park called Deadman's Hill, named after 1866 lynching". Lansing State Journal. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  23. ^ Pitts, Joathan; Pate, Caroline. "Lynchings in Maryland". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  24. ^ "Lynch Law in Maryland-An Alleged Murderer Hanged by a Mob. (Published 1867)". The New York Times. June 27, 1867. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  25. ^ a b Brown, Julia C. "Chapter 10. Reconstruction in Yalobusha and Granada Counties". In Riley, Franklin L. (ed.). Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society Vol. 12. pp. 237–238. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  26. ^ a b "Retribution! The Assassin and his Accomplice Hang". The Grenada Sentinel. August 8, 1868. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  27. ^ "Isaac.Moore.1868-1". The Baltimore Sun. July 24, 1868. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  28. ^ Anderson, David. "A push for remembrance of lynching victims, and reconciliation during event at Harford Community College". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on November 25, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  29. ^ Sun, The Baltimore. "Lynchings in Maryland". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  30. ^ Gaddis, Elijah; Kotch, Seth. "A Red Record. Revealing lynching sites in North Carolina and South Carolina". University of North Carolina. Archived from the original on April 1, 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  31. ^ "A Night of Excitement. David Jones, the Murderer of Murray, Taken from the Jail by a Mob. Murderer Offers Resistance, and is Shot Twice. Afterwards Taken to the Public Square and Hanged in Front of the Station House. The Hanging Witnesses by Immense Crowd of Excited Citizens. Efforts of the Mayor to Restore Quiet. Gov. Brown Makes an Appeal in Behalf of Law and Order". Nashville Union and American. March 26, 2018. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ "The Nashville Lynching Case". The Chicago Tribune. March 28, 1872. p. 3. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ Edna E. Kimbro, Anthony Crosby, and E. Leroy Tolles (June 30, 2003). "Historic Structure Report for Rancho San Andrés Castro Adobe" (PDF). California State Parks, Monterey District. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ "Lynch Law at Visalia". Daily Alta California. December 25, 1872. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
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Further reading[edit]