List of lynching victims in the United States
This is a list of lynching victims in the United States. Lynching is the summary execution of one or more persons without due process of law by a group of people organized internally and not authorized by a legitimate government. Lynchers may claim to be issuing punishment for an alleged crime, however they are not a judicial body nor deputized by one. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post–Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism.
According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused.
On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans, Asian Americans and Italian-Americans were also lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans and German-Americans were also lynched occasionally.
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|McIntosh, Francis||26||African-American||St. Louis||N/A (independent city)||Missouri||1836||Arrested on charge of disturbing the peace, McIntosh stabbed the deputies who told him he would serve five years for the offense.||Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.|
|Lovejoy, Elijah||35||White||Alton||Madison||Illinois||1837||Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher||Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.|
|Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith||38,
|White||Carthage||Hancock||Illinois||1844||Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy.||In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.|
|Thomas, David||34||African-American||Denton||Caroline||Maryland||1854||Beating a white man to death|||
|Thompson, Bill Saul; Despano, Sloan||African-American||Greensburg||Green||Kentucky||1858||Alleged murder and robbery of wealthy white farmer, "Mr. Simpson."||Thompson and Despano were two of four men jailed for allegedly murdering a Mr. Simpson. A mob broke into the jail which was abandoned by the jailor. To avoid lynching, one of the four, Elias Scraggs, slit his own throat. Thompson and Despano were taken by the mob and hanged from a tree. After seeing Scraggs, Thompson and Despano die, a fourth man after "a good deal of reluctance" avoided lynching by implicating five others including Simpson's own son-in-law, though the son-in-law was "generally considered innocent."|
|Adam||African-American||Tampa||Hillsborough||Florida||1859||In response to the murder of a white man, and "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution".||Adam was tried and convicted of the murder of a white man. He was represented by Ossian Hart who appealed the conviction. The Florida State Supreme Court declared a mistrial following which a mob broke into the jail, seized Adam and hanged him.: 269|
|Hamilton, Jacob||African-American||Smyrna||Kent and New Castle||Delaware||1861||Believed to have assaulted a white woman in her home.||While a trial was in progress, preparations to lynch the victim were made outside. When constables walked out with Hamilton, the crowd seized and hung him.|
|Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16)||Adult men||White||Gainesville||Cooke||Texas||1862||Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters||Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.|
|Wilson, Jim||African-American||Oakland||Caroline||Maryland||1862||Rape and murder of an 8 year old white girl|||
|Campbell, John (Jack)||Mixed race (White/Dakota)||Mankato||Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur||Minnesota||1865||Double murder||Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".|
|Taylor, John||17||African-American||Mason||Ingham||Michigan||1866||Attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute||Taylor was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.|
|Pippin, James||unknown||White||Church Hill or Centerville||Queen Anne's||Maryland||1867||Tried for killing a merchant, but acquitted.||Angry about Pippin's acquittal, a mob of 20 people dragged him from under the floorboards of his father's house and hanged him.|
|McLain, Tom||unknown||African-American||Coffeeville||Yalobusha||Mississippi||1868||Alleged murder of white overseer.||A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged McLain and Gilbert Quinn from the jail and hung both from a gum tree with the same rope.|
|Quinn, Gilbert||unknown||African-American||Coffeeville||Yalobusha||Mississippi||1868||Alleged accomplice to murder of white overseer.||A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged Quinn and Tom McLain from the jail and hung both from a gum tree with the same rope.|
|Moore, Isaac||unknown||African-American||Bel Air||Harford||Maryland||1868||Robbing a white woman of a sum of money.||Moore was accused of having other "nepharious designs" not carried out after he was frightened away by the screams of the woman from whom he allegedly took money. Moore was before a magistrate when a crowd took him away and hung him naked from a tree.|
|Quinn, Jim||unknown||African-American||Jarrettsville||Harford||Maryland||1869||Assaulting a white woman|||
|Outlaw, Wyatt||49–50||African-American||Graham||Alamance||North Carolina||1870||Prominent local figure (no crime alleged)||63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.|
|Stephens, John W.||35||White||Yancyville||Caswell||North Carolina||1870||State senator who worked to help freedmen||Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.|
|Ah Wing and at least 15 others||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Group of Chinese immigrants killed in retaliation for the accidental homicide of a white rancher.|
|Jones, David||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1872||Murdering Henry Murray.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.|
|Castro, José||35||Latino||San Juan Bautista||San Benito||California||1872||Alleged conspiracy to rob a stage coach.||After Tiburcio Vásquez robbed a stage on the San Benito Road, a group of vigilantes seized José Castro, a local saloon owner, and hanged him from a tree based on flimsy suspicion that he was associated with the bandit.|
|McCrory, James||White||Visalia||Tulare||California||1872||Murder||A group of vigilantes broke into the jail, seized McCrory and hanged him from a bridge.|
|Randolph, John||African-American||Osceola||Mississippi||Arkansas||1875||Lynched after allegedly confessing to murder of white man|
|Reed, Joseph||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1875||Killing a police officer||Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.|
|Simms, John||African-American||Annapolis||Anne Arundel||Maryland||1875||Alleged assault of Adaline Jackson.||Simms was shackled and in jail when a mob searched the jailor for his keys and took Simms away, irons and all, and hung him from a tree. “Many of the lynchers were painted black and some were masked.”.|
|Green, Michael||African-American||Upper Marlboro||Prince George's||Maryland||1878||Arrested for assaulting Miss Alice Sweeny on August 26, 1878||Green was being held at the jail in Upper Marlboro. Threats of lynching were openly made and were held off by the vigilance of Sheriff James N.W. Wilson. On September 1, 1878, a band of masked men removed Green from the jail and took him a mile outside of town to the corner of Queen Anne's Road and Hills Lane. There a noose was placed around his neck and he was hung 15 feet in the air from a cherry tree. His body remained dangling from the tree and was observed the next morning.|
|Five un-named men||African-American||Mount Vernon||Posey||Indiana||1878||Accused of rape||Largest recorded lynching in Indiana. No one was ever indicted.|
|Easley, Albert||13-14||African-American||Jacksonville||Calhoun||Alabama||1879||Alleged assault and rape of a white woman||Accused of assaulting and raping Mrs. Moses Ables, Easley was taken by force from the jail and lynched during the day within the city limits of Jacksonville.|
|Gilmer, Bill||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1879||Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood||Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.|
|Peck, George Washington||African-American||Poolesville||Montgomery||Maryland||1880||Accused of assaulting a white girl||Taken by a mob and hanged from a tree before he could be transported to Rockville for a trial.|
|Harrington, Levi||African-American||Kansas City||Jackson||Missouri||1882||Killing a police officer||Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.|
|García, Encarnción||Latino||Los Gatos||Santa Clara||California||1883||Murder||Encarnación García was a nephew of the bandido Tiburcio Vásquez. He was arrested for stabbing another man to death following a card game at the Los Gatos Saloon. A mob broke into the jail, seized García and hanged him from the Los Gatos Creek bridge.|
|Heath, John||28||White||Bisbee||Cochise||Arizona Territory||1884||Accessory to robbery||Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence|
|Conorly, Huie||16||African-American||Bogalusa||Washington||Louisiana||1884||Attempted rape||A mob of 10 or 15 men broke into the jail, sezed Conorly and hung him on the jail steps.|
|Briscoe, George||40||African-American||On a rural road[a]||Anne Arundel||Maryland||1884||Alleged robbery of the residence of George Schievenent.||“[A]sked the magistrate with an oath what right he had to commit him to jail?” angering the crowd. Hung by “a large party” of masked men.|
|McChristian, Perry||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|Williams, Felix||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|James, Bartley||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Campbell, John||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Cook, Townsend||21||African-American||Westminster||Carroll||Maryland||1885||Assaulting a white woman|||
|Jackson, Lizzie; Jackson, Andy; Hayes, Frank; Norman, Joe; Rogers, Willie||African-American||Elkhart||Anderson||Texas||1885||Rape and murder of a white woman|||
|Cooper, Howard||15–17||African-American||Towson||Baltimore||Maryland||1885||Assaulting a white woman||Convicted of assault and rape after one minute deliberation, his attorneys intended to file an appeal; 75 masked men broke Cooper out of jail and hung him from a tree.|
|Mingo Jack||66||African-American||Eatontown||Monmouth||New Jersey||1886||Rape of a white woman||All suspects acquitted.|
|Woods, Eliza||"Colored"||Jackson||Madison||Tennessee||1886||Supposedly poisoning her employer.||Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hanged in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.|
|Johnson, David||50||African-American||Westernport||Allegany||Maryland||1886||Alleged murder of Edward White.||Hanged by a mob. Newspaper accounts describe Johnson as troubled with “religious mania” and regarded as insane.|
|Whitley, Charles||18||African-American||Prince Frederick||Calvert||Maryland||1886||Alleged assault of five year old child.||A mob of 35–40 heavily armed men broke into the jail, seized Whitley and hanged him from a tree about a mile and a half away.|
|Villarosa, Federico (Francesco Valoto)||Italian||Vicksburg||Warren County||Mississippi||1886||Attempted rape of a 10-year-old white girl||Hanged from a tree by a mob despite the efforts of the sheriff and state militia.|
|Miller, Amos||23||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1888||Assaulting a white woman||Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.|
|Fletcher, Magruder||about 35||African-American||Tasley||Accomack||Virginia||1889||Raping a white woman in her home|||
|Anderson, Orion||14||African-American||Leesburg||Loudoun||Virginia||1889||"Scaring a teenaged white girl"||Hanged from a derrick|
|Bush, George||17||African-American||Columbia||Boone||Missouri||1889||Rape of a 5 year old white girl|||
|Martin, Albert||23||African-American||Port Huron||St. Clair||Michigan||1889||Assault and rape||A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.|
|Meadows, George||African-American||N/A||Jefferson||Alabama||1889||Rape and murder||Lynched despite calls from his accuser that she couldn't confirm he was guilty. Sheriff eventually determined he had been innocent, and another man was later arrested.|
|Williams, Willie||African-American||Kosse||Limestone||Texas||1890||Rape of an 8 year old white girl||Taken from his jail cell by a mob, hanged, and shot multiple times.|
|Taylor, Jim||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1891||Shooting a policeman||Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.|
|11 Italian Americans||Italian-American||New Orleans||Orleans||Louisiana||1891||Killing of police chief||3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.|
|Joe Coe ("A married man with two children")||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1891||Assault on a white girl of 5||The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.|
|Lundy, Dick||Adult||African-American||Edgefield||Edgefield||South Carolina||1891||Murder of son of sheriff||Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"|
|Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Murder||Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Ford, Andrew||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray||Taken from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Unknown||boy||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1892||Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism||Hanged.|
|Moss, Tom||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|McDowell, Calvin||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Stewart, Will||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Grizzard, Ephraim||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1892||Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.|
|Heflin, Lee||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Dye, Joseph||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Bates, William||White||Shelbyville||Bedford||Tennessee||1892||Alleged murder of his wife.||Mob formed as officers were transporting Bates to jail. He was hanged.|
|Shorter, William||17||African-American||Winchester||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1893||Assault on a white woman|||
|Henry Smith||17||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||1893||Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress.||Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.|
|Peterson, John||Adult||African-American||Denmark||Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County)||South Carolina||1893||Attack on a white girl|
|Willis, Charles||African-American||Rochelle||Alachua||Florida||1894||Being a "desperado"||Shot and burned in bed.|
|Puryear, Richard||African-American||Stroudsburg||Monroe||Pennsylvania||1894||Murder||Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.|
|Rawls, William||African-American||Newnansville||Alachua||Florida||1895||Murder||Hanged and shot.|
|Divers, Emmett||Adult||African-American||Fulton||Callaway||Missouri||1895||Murder of a white woman; Jennie E. Cain||"Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hanged from bridge until dead, taken down and hanged a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband, John William Cain". Body and cabin burned.|
|Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella||33–36, 27, 48||Italian||Hahnville||St. Charles Parish||Louisiana||1896||Murder||Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.|
|Daniels, Alfred||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1896||Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence)||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Randolph, Sydney||Adult||African-American||Gaithersburg||Montgomery||Maryland||1896||Killing a white girl||Taken from the jail by a mob.|
|McCoy, Joseph||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1897||Assault on a young girl|||
|James, John Henry||Adult||African-American||Charlottesville (near)||Albemarle||Virginia||1898||Rape||Hanged and shot by a mob.|
|Baker, Frazier B.||41||African-American||Lake City||Florence||South Carollna||1898||Appointed Postmaster||
Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted.
|Smith, Wright||56||African-American||Annapolis||Anne Arundel||Maryland||1898||Alleged assault of Mary Morrison.||Wright Smith was identified by Mary Morrison as the man who broke into her house and assaulted her. Mob broke Smith out of jail and riddled his body with bullets.|
|Thompson, Benjamin||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1899||Attempting to criminally assault an eight year-old white girl||hanged from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.|
|DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
|Italian||Tallulah||Madison Parish||Louisiana||1899||Shooting a doctor||Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.|
|Hose, Sam||about 24||African-American||Noonan||Coweta||Georgia||1899||Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching.||Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.|
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Watt, W.W.||White||Newport News||N/A||Virginia||1900||Assault||Shot|
|Gause, Anderson||African-American||Henning||Lauderdale||Tennessee||1900||Helping two Black prisoners to escape.||Mr. Gause was hanged from a tree.|
|Pete, Dago||African-American||Tutwiler||Tallahatchie||Mississippi||1900||Assaulted colored woman||Killed by African-American mob|
|Lee, William||29||African-American||Hinton||Summers||West Virginia||1900||Assault on a white woman|||
|Porter, Preston||15||African-American||Limon||Colorado||Colorado||1900||Rape and murder of a 12 year old white girl||Burned alive by a mob|
|Alexander, Fred||22||African-American||Leavenworth||Leavenworth||Kansas||1901||Rape and murder allegations||Lynched and burned at stake|
|Estes, Siles||African-American||Hodgenville||LaRue||Kentucky||1901||"Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime."||Mr. Estes was taken from his jail cell at 2:00 a.m. by a mob of 50 or 75 persons and hanged in front of the courthouse.|
|Carter, George||African-American||Paris||Bourbon||Kentucky||1901||"Assaulting a white woman."|||
|Fred Rochelle||16||African-American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1901||Murder and rape of a white woman||Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".|
|Godley, William||African-American||Pierce||Lawrence||Missouri||1901||Murder of a white woman||Mob subsequently went on a rampage in a nearby black community|
|Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Gillespie, James and Harrison||10, 14||African-American||Salisbury||Rowan||North Carolina||1902||Murder of a white woman||Two brothers were accused of stoning a neighbor to death. Hanged by a mob of an estimated 400 persons and their bodies shot dozens of times.|
|Steers, Jennie||Adult||African-American||rural area near Shreveport||Caddo||Louisiana||1903||Poisoning daughter of a planter||: 70|
|Fambro, William||African-American||Griffin||Spalding||Georgia||1903||Insulted white home|||
|White, George||Adult||African-American||Wilmington||New Castle||Delaware||1903||Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die||Sexually assaulted and stabbed to death a 17 year old girl. Taken from the city jail by a mob and burned alive.|
|Jarvis, Washington||25||White||Madison||Madison||Florida||1903||Accused of murdering his cousin.|||
|Clark, Jumbo||African-American||High Springs||Alachua||Florida||1904||Assault of 14 year old white girl||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Lee, "General"||African-American||Reevesville||Dorchester||South Carolina||1904||Knocking on the door of a white woman's house|||
|African-American||Doddsville||Sunflower||Mississippi||1904||Murder of a white landowner||Tortured and burned alive, crowd of some 600 attended the lynching.|
|African-American||Statesboro||Bulloch||Georgia||1904||Murder of five members of a family||Seized by mob from courthouse after conviction for murder, chained to stump and burned|
|Maples, Horace||African-American||Huntsville||Madison||Alabama||1904||Murder||Mob of 2,000 burned jail where he was held, then hung and shot him.|
|Johnson, Ed||23–24||African-American||Chattanooga||Hamilton||Tennessee||1906||Rape of white woman||Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp|
|Duncan, Horace||20 to 21||African-American||Springfield||Greene||Missouri||1906||Assault of white woman||Fred Coker, Horace B. Duncan, and William (Bill) Allen were lynched by large mob of white citizens, though they were innocent. All three suspects were hanged from the Gottfried Tower, which held a replica of the Statue of Liberty, and burned in the courthouse square by a mob of more than 2,000 citizens. Duncan's and Coker's employer testified that they were at his business at the time of the crime against Edwards, and other evidence suggested that they and Allen were all innocent. After the mass lynching in Springfield, many African Americans left the area in a large exodus Judge Azariah W. Lincoln called for a grand jury, but no one was prosecuted. The proceedings were covered by national newspapers, the New York Times and Los Angeles Times]]|
|Richardson, Bunk||African-American||Gadsden||Etowah||Alabama||1906||Not charged||Was arrested/held as a witness for one of three defendants accused of rape & murder of a white woman. The three defendants were sentenced to death but the governor commuted to life one man's sentence. Angry at the lighter sentence, a mob seized Richardson from the jail and hung him from a train tressel over the Coosa River.|
|Davis, Henry||African-American||Annapolis||Anne Arundel||Maryland||1906||Assaulting a white woman||Dragged from his jail cell and shot over 100 times.|
|Pitts, Slab||African-American||Toyah||Reeves||Texas||1906||Living with a white woman||Dragged to death before being hanged.|
|Burns, William||22||African-American||Cumberland||Allegany||Maryland||1907||Alleged murder of Patrolman August Baker.||A crowd estimated at 10,000 examined the lynching victim’s body.|
|Miller, William||African-American||Brighton||Jefferson||Alabama||1908||Labor activist||Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).|
|African-American||Russellville||Logan||Kentucky||1908||Victims expressed approval of their lodge brother Rufus Browder's killing his employer.||Rufus Browder killed his employer with an axe after being shot in the chest. Browder was arrested and sent to Louisville. The lynching victims expressed approval for his actions and were jailed for disturbing the peace. On August 1, 1908 a mob demanded release of the men, and lynched them from a tree. A note pinned to one of the men read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way."|
|Patton, Nelse||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1908||Killing a white woman||Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".|
his wife and
|African-American||Hickman||Fulton||Kentucky||1908||Using inappropriate language with a white woman|||
|Five men||22–27||African-American||Rural||Sabine||Texas||1908||Murder of two white men||Five black men accused of murder were hanged by a mob of an estimated 150|
|Wades, Jake||African-American||Lakeland||Polk||Florida||1909||Accused of rape||Transported from Gainesville to Lakeland to be identified and lynched|
|Miller Jim||47||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Burrell, Berry||38||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Allen, Joseph||43||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|West, Jesse||46||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Albano, Angelo and
|Italian||Tampa||Hillsborough County||Florida||1910||Complicity in a shooting|||
|William Bradford||African-American||Chunky||Newton||Mississippi||1911||Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers|||
|Nelson, Laura||African-American||Okemah||Okfuskee||Oklahoma||1911||Killing a Deputy sheriff.||Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.|
|Johnson, King||28||African American||Brooklyn||Anne Arundel||Maryland||1911||Alleged murder of Frederick Schwab.||Johnson was to be transported to Annapolis for his safety that same day but those plans were delayed. Around two o'clock in the morning on December 26, 1911 a mob broke into the unguarded jail where Johnson was kept. When Johnson fought back preventing a noose from being placed on his neck, he was beaten with irons and shot. |
|Walker, Zachariah||20–24||African-American||Coatesville||Chester||Pennsylvania||1911||Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense||Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.|
|Lewis, Sanford||African-American||Fort Smith||Sebastian||Arkansas||1912||Shooting a constable||Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.|
|Davis, Dan||25||African-American||Tyler||Smith||Texas||1912||Assault and rape of a 16 year old white girl||Burned alive by a mob|
|White, Henry||African-American||Campville||Alachua||Florida||1913||Found under white woman's bed||Hanged, noose broke, shot.|
|Williams, Andrew||35||African-American||Houston||Chickasaw||Mississippi||1913||Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk||Dragged from jail and hanged at a nearby tree, upon the alleged statement of two African-American women; the women who made the statement were arrested the next day for making a false statement, according to one source and/or disappeared. The day after Williams was lynched, a second African-American, named in different reports as 'Divel Rucker', 'Dizell Rucker' and 'Dibrell Tucker; was lynched and burned at the stake on the assumption that he, not Williams, was the actual murderer|
|Rucker, Divel||20||African-American||Houston||Chickasaw||Mississippi||1913||Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk||The day after Andrew Williams was lynched by hanging for this murder, Rucker was presumed by the mob to be the actual murderer and, allegedly, confessed to the crime. He was tied to an iron stake, covered with tar, and set afire. The family of the victim shot him as he was burning According to the New York Sun report, "The Rucker lynching was the most spectacular in the history of Mississippi and there was no attempt at concealment or evasion."|
|Turner, Allen||47||African-American||Western area of Parish (county)||Union||Louisiana||1914||Accused of Assaulting a white man (J.P. McDougall)||J.P. McDougall was whipping Allen Turner's son. Allen was defending his son. Taken from deputy sheriff and shot to death. It is said that Allen's body was then dragged through the roads of Spearsville.|
|Shields, Dallas||African-American||Fayette||Howard||Missouri||1914||Murdering a police officer|||
|African-American||Byhalia||Marshall||Mississippi||1914||Alleged barn burning.||Fred Sullivan and his wife May confessed after nooses were placed around their necks. The couple were hanged by a mob of more than 100.|
|Leo Frank||31||Jewish||Marietta||Cobb||Georgia||1915||Killing a 13-year-old girl||No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.|
|Lynching of James and Alonzo Green||African-American||Columbus||Jones County||Georgia||1915||Mob ran into them while hunting for the murderer of white farmer|||
|Stevenson, Cordella||African-American||Columbus||Lowndes||Mississippi||1915||Her son was accused of burning a white man's barn, he was unavailable, so they raped and murdered her||Her husband Arch was never seen alive after December 15|
|Dr Benjamin E Ward||37||White||Norman||Cleveland||Oklahoma||1915||Murdering his wife||Mob expected him to be freed on grounds of insanity.|
|Sheffield, Caesar||17||African-American||Lake Park||Lowndes||Georgia||1915||Allegedly stealing meat from a smokehouse owned by a white man.||Jailors abandoned the jail allowing a mob to take Caesar Sheffield to a field where they shot him multiple times and left his body.|
|Newberry Six lynchings
(Baskins, Rev. Josh J.;
McHenry, Andrew; and
|Adults||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1916||Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable||James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.|
|Lang, Ed||African-American||Rice||Navarro||Texas||1916||"Attacking a young woman."||Taken from a sheriff's posse and hanged.|
|Anthony Crawford||51||African-American||Abbeville||Abbeville||South Carolina||1916||Offensive language||Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"|
|Jesse Washington||17||African-American||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1916||Murder;||Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red.": 5|
|Herman Arthur and brother Irving||19 and 28-years-old||African-American||Paris, Texas||Lamar County||Texas||1917||Murder||Pulled from jail and burned alive|
|Daley, Starr||26||White||Pinal||Arizona||May 6, 1917||Homicide (Two murders) plus two rapes||Accused admitted guilt in trial; taken from Sheriff en route to jail and Hanged from a telephone pole; last Lynching in Arizona|
|Ell Persons||about 50||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1917||Raping and killing a white girl||No charges filed.|
|McIlherron, Jim||African-American||Estill Springs||Franklin||Tennessee||1918||Killing two white people||Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away.|
|Clark, Andrew and Major;
Alma and Maggie House
|16, 20, 16, 20||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1918||Alleged murder of dentist||Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.|
|Taylor, George||African-American||Rolesville||Wake||North Carolina||1918||Rape of a white woman||No charges were filed. There is a Web site on this lynching.|
|Mary Turner||18||African-American||Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia||Georgia||1918||Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner.||Hanged upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets.|
|Hayes Turner||25||African-American||Morven||Brooks||Georgia||1918||Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner.||Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.|
|Prager, Robert||30||German-American||Collinsville||Madison||Illinois||1918||Sympathy to Germany during World War I||Forced to sing patriotic songs and kiss the flag, before being hanged.|
|Mosely, Sam||African-American||Florida||Columbia||Florida||1919||Accused of assaulting a white woman.|||
|Everest, Wesley||28||White||Centralia||Lewis||Washington||1919||Homicide||Hanged from a bridge during the Centralia Massacre labor conflict|
|Little, Wilbur||African-American||Blakely||Early||Georgia||1919||Wearing uniform of his WWI military service to the United States|
|Brown, Will||41||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1919||Rape||Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919|
|Williams, Eugene||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||Racial unrest||A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.|
|Robinson, Robert||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||He was black, and they wanted to kill a black||Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.|
|Ashley, Bob||African-American||Dublin||Laurens||Georgia||1919||Hoped to shoot someone else||A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.|
|Hamilton, Eugene||African-American||Jasper||Georgia||1919||Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals.||Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".: 233–234|
|Cox, Obe||African-American||Oglethorpe County||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife||Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.|
|Jones, Paul||African-American||Macon (near)||Bibb||Georgia||1919||Attacking a white woman.||Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.: 241|
|Jameson, Jordan||African-American||Magnolia||Columbia||Arkansas||1919||Killing a sheriff.||Burned to death in the public square.: 241|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.|
|Holden, George||African-American||Monroe (near)||Ouachita||Louisiana||1919||Writing a suggestive note to a white woman||Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.: 18|
|Wilkins, Willie||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Friend of man believed to have killed lawman.||: 8|
|Ruffin, John||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||: 7–8|
|Ruffin, Henry||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||: 7–8|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Consensual sex with white woman||The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.|
|Richards, Benny||African-American||Warrenton||Warren||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others||300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.|
|Clay, Lloyd||African-American||Vicksburg||Warren||Mississippi||1919||False rape accusation||1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.|
|Waters, Jim||African-American||Johnson||Georgia||1919||Rape accusation||Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.|
|Livingston, Frank||25||African-American||El Dorado||Union||Arkansas||1919||False murder accusation||One of many returning WWI veterans lynched in 1919.|
|Washington, Berry||72||African-American||Milan||Dodge and Telfair||Georgia||1919||Defended black girls from white home invaders.||Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward|
|Chilton Jennings||28||African-American||Gilmer||Upshur County||Texas||1919||Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard||He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged. Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.|
|Phifer, Miles (or Relius)||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman||Was wearing military uniform|
|Temple, Will||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Killing a police officer|||
Robert Crosky and
|African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman|||
|Hartfield, John||African-American||Ellisville||Jones||Mississippi||1919||Assaulting a young white woman||"The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy. Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on.": 9|
|Thomas, Wade||African-American||Jonesboro||Craighead||Arkansas||1920||Killing a policeman||Taken from jail by a mob, hanged, then riddled with bullets.|
|Scott, Henry||African American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1920||He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth||Shot|
|Daniels, Lige||16–18||African-American||Center||Shelby||Texas||1920||Accused of murdering a white woman.||Taken from jail by a mob of approx 1000 to the town square and hanged|
Elmer Jackson, and
|20–23||African-American||Duluth||St. Louis||Minnesota||1920||Rape of a teenage girl||Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.|
|Belton Roy||18||White||Tulsa||Tulsa||Oklahoma||1920||Suspicion of murder of cab driver|||
|July Perry||52||African-American||Ocoee||Orange||Florida||1920||Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote."||Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.|
|Cade, Henry||25||African-American||Sour Lake||Texas||Texas||1921||Rape of an 8 year old white girl||Taken from jail and hanged by a mob|
|Eley, Jesse||46||African-American||Murfreesboro||Hertford||North Carolina||1921||Owned a 50 arch farm which caused jealousy from some white neighbors.||Jesse Eley was returning from the market in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He bought some grain for his cattle. He had two workers riding with him in his horse-drawn wagon. As he reached the outskirts of town, he entered a path that went into a wooded area. Several men were hiding in the woods entrance waiting for him. As his wagon entered the woods, the men stopped Jesse. They began beating him and eventually hanged him on a tree. Jesses workers took off running. One of them ran back to Jesses farm to let the family know what was happening. The family got a horse-drawn buggy and went to rescue him. By the time they got there, Jesse was barely alive. They found him because he raised one of his legs in the air to let them know where he was.|
("a negro sharecropper")
|African-American||Nodena||Mississippi||Arkansas||1921||Asked for his wages||Burned to death; crowd of 500: 3|
|Hackney, "Curly"||30||White||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1921||Rape of an 8 year old girl||Taken from jail and hanged by a mob|
|James Harvey and
|African-American||N/A||Liberty||Georgia||1922||Attacked and raped white woman following a pay dispute with her husband||Hanged by a mob of about 50 men while in police custody.|
and two other men
|African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of white teacher||Escaped convict Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Two other suspects were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.|
|23, 19, 46||African-American||Kirvin||Freestone||Texas||1922||Rape and murder of a 17 year old white girl||Three suspects mutilated and burned alive. The mob subsequently went on a rampage of destruction and lynchings in a nearby African-American neighborhood.|
|Thomas, Jesse||23||African-American||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1922||Murder of a white man and attempted assault on his female companion||Shot dead and his body burned in the town square|
|Bosier, Mose||55||African-American||Alleyton||Colorado||Texas||1922||Rape of a 15 year old white girl|||
|Winters, Joe||20||African-American||Conroe||Montgomery||Texas||1922||Rape of a 14 year old white girl||Burned alive by a mob|
|Scott, James T.||35–56||African-American||Columbia||Boone||Missouri||1923||Assaulting a 14 year old white girl||Accused of detaining and beating the daughter of a professor at the University of Columbia, where Scott worked as a janitor. Lynched by a mob of over 100 men. Memorial plaque erected 2016.|
|Wilson, Abraham||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1923||Cattle stealing||Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.|
|Carter, Sam||45||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1923||Sexual assault of a white woman||Falsely accused, tortured, shot, then hung by white mob which went on a rampage burning homes and killing several other people.|
|Bell, William||33||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1924||Accosting two girls||Beaten to death by a mob in a Jewish neighborhood. The girls, when questioned by police, admitted they were unsure if Bell was in fact the same man who had accosted them. The only lynching in Chicago history.|
|Smith, Samuel||15||African-American||Nolensville||Williamson||Tennessee||1924||Stealing spark plugs in a garage.||Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.|
|Jordan, James||Adult||African-American||Waverly||Sussex||Virginia||1925||Married woman "attacked" in her home.||The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.|
|Willie Washington||African-American||St. Louis||Duval||Florida||1925||Murdered by a local policeman, Washington's body was latter displayed in the county courthouse.|||
|Marshall, Robert||African-American||Price||Carbon||Utah||1925||Accused of killing a white guard||The allegation was based on the testimony of two young boys who said they saw a black man running from the scene of the crime. Marshall was lynched in front of a crowd of 1,000. When the sheriff arrived, he cut Marshall down and was putting him in the car when Marshall made noise indicating he was alive. The mob shouted to lynch him again. Afterward, Marshall's body was put on display in the funeral parlor and photos of the lynching were sold door-to-door for 25 cents. In 1998 the community provided a headstone for him.|
|Buddington, George||55||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1926||Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint||Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.|
|Clark, James||African-American||Eau Gallie||Brevard||Florida||1926||Rape of a white girl||No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers: last known lynching in Brevard County|
|Selak, Fred N.||61||White||Grand Lake||Grand||Colorado||1926||None||Murdered in part because of a fencing dispute, but also to steal money thought to be stashed on his property.|
|Payne, Tom||African-American||Willis||Montgomery County||Texas||February 1, 1927||Arrested in connection with a suspected assault and murder, he was taken by a white mob and hanged from a tree.|
|Carter, John||38||African-American||Little Rock||Pulaski||Arkansas||1927||None||No charges filed; "mob" responsible.|
|Unknown male||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1930s||Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read||Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".|
|Grant, George||African-American||Darien||McIntosh||Georgia||1930||Killing a police officer, and wounding three other people||Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn.": 10|
|Thomas Shipp||18||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape||Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Shipp, Abram Smith and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.|
|Abram Smith||19||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape||Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Smith, Thomas Shipp and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.|
|Hughes, George||African-American||Sherman||Grayson||Texas||1930||Pled guilty to criminal assault.||Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hanged, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.|
|21||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1930||Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Parker, John||African-American||Conway||Faulkner||Arkansas||1931||Stealing some peaches||< <: 4|
|Gunn, Raymond||African-American||Maryville||Nodaway||Missouri||1931||Murdering a white woman||Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.: 10|
|Wise, Mrs.||African-American||Frankfort (Frankford?)||Virginia (West Virginia?)||1931||Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen.||: 8|
|Williams, Matthew||23||African-American||Salisbury||Wicomico||Maryland||1931||Killing his employer||Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.: 9–10|
|Tillis, Dave||African-American||Crockett||Houston||Texas||1932||"Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'".||: 4–5|
(also spelled "Shamrock")
|39||African-American||rural||Fauquier||Virginia||1932||Assault and rape.|
|Lawrence, Elizabeth||African-American||rural||Jefferson||Alabama||1933||Reprimanding a group of white children|||
|Armwood, George||23||African-American||Princess Anne||Somerset||Maryland||1933||Attempted assault and rape||Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.|
|Holmes, John, and
|White||San Jose||Santa Clara||California||1933||Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart||An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."|
|Micou, Reuben||65||African-American||Louisville||Winston||Mississippi||1933||Accused of getting into an altercation with a white man.||Abducted from jail by a mob. Micou's injuries suggested he was whipped before being shot multiple times.|
|Claude Neal||23||African-American||Greenwood||Jackson||Florida||1934||Rape and murder of 19 year old white female||Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hanged, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.|
|Higginbotham, Elwood||28||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1935||Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field.||Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.|
(also found as Rubin Stacy)
|37||African-American||Fort Lauderdale||Broward||Florida||1935||Threatening and frightening a white woman with a pen knife||Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.|
|Roosevelt Townes and
|African-American||Duck Hill||Montgomery||Mississippi||1937||Pair suspected in the robbery and shooting of a shopkeeper.||Tied to a tree and tortured with blowtorches to extract a confession. McDaniels shot, Townes burned alive. Photos of the lynching made the national media.|
|Williams, Elbert||African-American||Brownsville||Haywood||Tennessee||1940||Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter.||Last reported lynching in Tennessee.|
|Green, Ernest, and
|14, 15||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1942||Attempted rape.||: 101|
|Wright, Cleo||26||African-American||Sikeston||Scott||Missouri||1942||Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest||Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.|
|Harrison, Cellos||31||African-American||Marianna||Jackson||Florida||1943||Murder of a white man.||Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.|
|Willie James Howard||15||African-American||Live Oak||Suwannee||Florida||1944||Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl.||Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.|
|Moore's Ford lynchings
(George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey;
Roger and Dorothy Malcom)
|Adults||African-American||Walton||Georgia||1946||Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom)||Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.|
|Willie Earle||24||African-American||Greenville||Greenville||South Carolina||1947||Killing of taxi driver||31 suspects charged; all acquitted.|
|Council, Lynn||about 19||African-American||near Raleigh||Wake||North Carolina||1952||Robbery||He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.|
|Banks, Isadore||59||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1954||Being prosperous|||
|Till, Emmett||14||African-American||Money||LeFlore||Mississippi||1955||Flirting with white woman||Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006–2018.|
|Parker, Mack Charles||22 or 23||African-American||Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana||Pearl River||Mississippi||1959||Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated.||No one indicted.|
|Chaney, James, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner||21, 20 and 24||African-American, White and White||Philadelphia||Neshoba||Mississippi||1964||Civil rights worker||A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.|
|Morris, Frank||49–50||African-American||Ferriday||Concordia||Louisiana||1964||"Flirting" with white females||: 152|
|Rembert, Winifred||19||African-American||Cuthbert||Randolph||Georgia||1965||Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him.||Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.|
|Pyszko, Marian||54||Polish Jew||Detroit||Wayne||Michigan||1975||None.||Killed by youths with concrete block during riot. Four of his killers were charged with first-degree murder.|
|Benny Higdon, Robert Owens, and Charles Barreca||Whites||Miami||Miami-Dade County||Florida||1980||Killed by African American mob during the 1980 Miami riot.|
|Donald, Michael||19||African-American||Mobile||Mobile||Alabama||1981||None (Klan looked to kill a black man because accused killer of white policeman got mistrial).||Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.|
|Turks, Willie||34||African-American||New York City||Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn||New York||1982||Drove through a majority-white neighborhood between his subway maintenance shifts||Turks and three two other black subway employees were attacked by 15 to 20 assailants who shouted racial epithets. Gino Bova, 18 at the time, was sentenced to 5 to 15 years in prison for manslaughter. Justice Sybil Hart Kooper said at the sentencing: "There was a lynch mob on Avenue X that night. The only thing missing was a rope and a tree."|
|Wilson, Christopher||28||African-American||Valrico, Florida||Hillsborough County, Florida||Florida||January 1, 1993||None||Three white men kidnapped Wilson and set him on fire.|
|Seraw, Mulugeta||28||Ethiopian||Portland, Oregon||Multnomah County, Oregon||Oregon||November 13, 1988||None (white supremacists)|
|Hawkins, Yusef||16||African-American||New York City||Bensonhurst, Brooklyn||New York||1989||Either mistaken as or randomly targeted in place of another black teenager who was dating a local girl||Hawkins' murder became a major political issue during the 1989 New York City mayoral election season and, alongside the lynchings of Willie Turks and Michael Griffith, played a role in the unseating of incumbent mayor Ed Koch.|
|Yankel Rosenbaum||29||Australian Jew||New York City||Crown Heights, Brooklyn||New York||1991||None||Rosenbaum, a student from Australia, was stabbed to death by a mob as part of the Crown Heights riot. Both New York Senator Daniel Moynihan and New York City Mayor David N. Dinkins called the killing a lynching. Dinkins said: "I think that the death of Yankel Rosenbaum was a lynching, as was Yusuf Hawkins. No question. Whatever term one gives to these kinds of vicious murders, that's what it is."|
|Byrd Jr., James||49||African-American||Jasper||Jasper||Texas||1998||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.|
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Arbery, Ahmaud||25||African-American||Satilla Shores||Glynn||Georgia||2020||Burglary||Chased down and shot|
- Lists of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States
- Mass racial violence in the United States
- Racism in the United States
- Red Summer
- The National Memorial for Peace and Justice
- Treatment of the enslaved in the United States
- Jim Crow laws
- "Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882–1968". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.
- "Lynching, Whites and Negroes, 1882 – 1968" (PDF). Tuskegee University. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2016.
- "Statement to the media by the United Nations' Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, on the conclusion of its official visit to USA, 19-29 January 2016". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. January 29, 2016. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
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