List of main battle tanks by generation

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Main battle tanks are often classified as belonging to a particular generation, although the actual definition and membership in these generations is not clearly defined. Soviet and Russian military planners organize tanks with first generation of tanks up to 1945, and four generations of main battle tanks[Note 1][1] while Canadian strategists organize main battle tanks into three generations.[Note 2][2] The military of the People's Republic of China also recognizes three generations of its own tanks.

In 1983, Rolf Hilmes saw three tank generations and three "intermediate generations", which consisted mainly of upgraded vehicles.[3] The first generation of main battle tanks were based on or influenced by designs of World War II, most notably the T-34 and the Panther tank.[4] The second generation was equipped with NBC protection (only sometimes), IR night vision devices, a stabilized main gun and at least a mechanical fire control system.[4] The third generation is determined by the usage of thermal imagers, digital fire control systems and special (composite) armour.[4]

However, Hilmes acknowledged that tanks cannot be definitively grouped by generations, as each tank-producing country develops and introduces its tanks in tune with its own ideas and needs. He also states that breakdown of postwar tanks by generations is based on timeframe and technical factors, as a basis for further discussion.[5]

First generation[edit]

The first generation consists of the medium tanks designed and produced directly after World War II that were later redefined as main battle tanks.

Name Entered service in Origin Notes
Centurion[3][6] 1946  United Kingdom First "Universal Tank" (MBT) Culmination of the WWII cruiser tanks
T-54[3][6] 1947  Soviet Union Russia's First Generation of MBT
M47 Patton 1952  United States A development of the M46 Patton tank
M48 Patton 1953  United States A further development of the M47 Patton tank.
T-55[3][6] 1958  Soviet Union Improved T-54
Panzer 58 1958   Switzerland Swiss First Generation of MBT
Type 61[3] 1961  Japan Developed and used by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force

Second generation[edit]

The second generation had enhanced night-fighting capabilities and in most cases NBC protection. Most western tanks of this generation were armed with the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 tank gun or derivatives of it.

Name Entered service in Origin Notes
T-62[3][6] 1961  Soviet Union A further development of the T-55.
M60 Patton 1961  United States A further development of the M48 Patton tank. Later models(M60A2 and M60A3) are considered as the first intermediate generation.
Leopard 1[3][6] 1965  West Germany A main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.
Panzer 61[3] 1965   Switzerland A further development of the Panzer 58 tank.
T-64[3] 1966  Soviet Union World's first composite armored tank, later versions of the T-64 may be considered as third generation.
AMX 30[3][6] 1966  France The AMX 30 served as the principal Main Battle Tank (MBT) for the French Army.
FV 4201 Chieftain[3][6] 1966  United Kingdom Armed with the British 120 mm Royal Ordnance L11A5 gun.
Vickers MBT[3] 1967  United Kingdom British private venture design for export, license built as the Vijayanta for India.
Stridsvagn 103[3][6] 1968  Sweden Turretless design developed and employed solely by Sweden. Double engine feature; both diesel and gas turbine.
Panzer 68 1971   Switzerland Swiss Main Battle Tank (MBT) based on the Panzer 61.
T-72 1973  Soviet Union Hilmes puts the T-72 in the first intermediate generation.[3]
Olifant Mk 1[citation needed] 1974  South Africa Improvements to the Centurion tank.
Type 74 1975  Japan Hilmes puts the Type 74 in the first intermediate generation.[3]
Lion of Babylon 1985  Iraq Licensed copy of the T-72.
Merkava Mark I/II[citation needed] 1978  Israel
Ch'onma-ho 1980  Soviet Union /  North Korea Licensed copy of the T-62; later versions include upgrades.
OF-40 1981  Italy
Tanque Argentino Mediano[citation needed] 1983  Argentina "Argentine Medium Tank" developed from Marder IFV by Argentina and Thyssen-Henschel
AMX-40 1983  France Prototype, never acquired by the French Army.
Type 88 1988  China Variants include the Type 80, Type 88C, and Type 85

Third generation[edit]

The third generation of main battle tanks is characterized by composite armour and computerized stabilized fire control systems, which allow firing on the move as well as very high first hit probability on targets up to 2000m.

Name In service from Origin Notes
T-80[3][7] 1976  Soviet Union World's first turbine engine equipped tank. Though the Swedish Stridsvagn 103 that entered service in 1960s used a turbine engine alongside a diesel. However, T-80 in Hilmes's book is very different to a T-80 in real world,[8] and early model of T-80 has no big difference compared to T-64A in overall performance. So models under T-80B should be regarded as first intermediate generation.
Leopard 2[3][7] 1979  West Germany
MBT-80 1979  United Kingdom Prototype, never entered service.
M1 Abrams 1980  United States
FV4030/4 Challenger 1[3][7] 1983  United Kingdom Replaced Chieftain.
M-84 1984  Yugoslavia
EE-T1/EE-T2 Osório 1985  Brazil Prototype, never acquired by the Brazilian Army.
K1 88-Tank 1987  South Korea
Merkava Mark III 1989  Israel
Type 90 Kyū-maru[7] 1990  Japan
AMX Leclerc[7] 1993  France
Zulfiqar I/II/III 1993  Iran Iranian tank derived from T-72 and M60 Patton. Zulfiqar 3 is the most advanced variant.
PT-91 Twardy 1995  Poland
C1 Ariete[7] 1995  Italy
K1A1 1996  South Korea
T-90[7] 1996  Russia
Stridsvagn 122 1997  Sweden Based on the German Leopard 2.
Type 96A/B 1997  China
FV4034 Challenger 2[7] 1998  United Kingdom A future life upgrade is the planning phase.
T-84 1999  Ukraine Upgraded Ukrainian version of the T-80 tank.
Type 98/99 2001  China
Al-Khalid 2001  Pakistan
Centurion Olifant Mk 2 2003  South Africa Upgrade version of the Olifant Mk 1 Tank
T-72M4 CZ[9] 2003  Czech Republic Upgraded Czech version of the T-72 tank.
Arjun MBT[3][7] 2004  India
Type 99A2[10][11] 2009  China "Enhanced Third Generation Main Battle Tank"

Advanced Third Generation and Next Generation[edit]

Advanced third generation[12] and Next Generation[13] are still under development or at early stages of their generation. While the terms 'Advanced Third Generation' and 'Next Gen' have no formal basis, these main battle tanks are using the latest technology and designs to compete with the current advanced warfare environment.[14] "Advanced" been stated in many premieres for these tanks. Advanced Third Generation are normally upgraded variants using the same framework of the Third Generation Tank. While the Next Generation have their advancements built into newly designed frames than being an add-on technology. Next Generation is very argumentative in its concepts of technologies and the purpose it serves in warfare.[citation needed]

Advanced Third Generation and Next Generation

Name In service from Origin Notes
Merkava Mk IVm Windbreaker 2011  Israel Adv. 3rd with Active Protection (operational from 2011)
T-90MS[15] 2011  Russia Adv. 3rd
Type 10[16][17] 2012  Japan Adv. 3rd
K2 Black Panther[16][18] 2014  South Korea Adv. 3rd
Leopard 2A7+ 2014  Germany Adv. 3rd
VT-4 2014  China Export tank based of Types 96 and 99
T-14 Armata 2015  Russia 4th Generation of RAF[19] MBT derived from "Armata" modular platform

Under development[edit]

Tanks that are currently under development and not yet in service.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ “The Soviets saw tank generations in this manner: 1920-1945, first generation; 1946-1960, second generation; 1961-1980, third generation; and 1981-present, fourth generation. Since the last really new tank design, the T-80, came out in 1976, they feel that they have not produced a true Fourth Generation Tank Design. In comparison, they count the M1, Challenger, and Leopard 2 as Fourth Generation and the LeClerc as Fifth Generation.”
  2. ^ “The Canadian Directorate of Land Strategic Concept defines three generations of Main Battle Tanks. The first generation of post World War II Main Battle Tanks includes the U.S. M48/M60, the German Leopard 1 and the British Centurion and Chieftain. The second generation includes most of the 120 mm Main Battle Tanks such as the American M1A1, the German Leopard 2 and the British Challenger. As for the third generation Main Battle Tank, they include the latest ‘digital’ tank such as the French Leclerc and perhaps the American M1A2 and the German Leopard 2A5.”
  • Note to the Pancerni website source - Translation of most important parts of 1st, 2nd, 2.5 and 3rd generation MBTs characteristics: "The first generation MBTs are tanks made immediately after WWII. The second generation MBTs have better sights in comparison to the first generation MBTs. Also second generation MBTs were the first ones to use laser sights and APFSDS rounds. The third generation consists of tanks armed with high caliber and velocity guns like M1A1 Abrams. Third generation tanks also use composite armour as well as armour made out of highly resistant sintered ceramic materials. Third generation tanks also have full stabilization system for the main gun. There tanks between second and third generations, like Soviet T-72 which has powerful gun which would classify it as a third generation MBT but at the same time the stabilization system is much too primitive for it to a third generation MBT. It also lacks engine power to be a third generation MBT and has ammunition with less quality."

References[edit]

  1. ^ —Sewell 1988, note 1.
  2. ^ —Lamontagne 2003, pp 7–8.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Hilmes, Rolf (1983). Kampfpanzer der Die Entwickelungen der Nachkriegszeit (in German). Verlag Soldat und Technik. ISBN 3-524-89001-6, p. 7.
  4. ^ a b c Hilmes 1983, p. 8.
  5. ^ Hilmes 1983, p. 10.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Czołgi (in Polish), Pancerni.net, p. 2 [unreliable source?]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i option=com_content&task=view&id=5&Itemid=6&limit=1&limitstart=2 Czołgi Check |url= value (help) (in Polish), Pancerni.net, p. 3 [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ Hilmes 1983, p. 27.
  9. ^ "Tank T-72M4 CZ" (in Czech). Army of the Czech Republic official website. Retrieved December 14, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Type 99A2", China military, Global security .
  11. ^ APA PLA AFV, Aus air power .
  12. ^ Keller, John (4 February 2014). "General Dynamics gets contract to build 12 advanced main battle tanks with digital vetronics". Military & Aerospace Electronics. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  13. ^ Baglole, Joel (1 January 2014). "The Abrams Tank - Next Generation". US military. About. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Aware" (PDF). SMDC. USASMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs Office. 16 August 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  15. ^ "T-90MS Tagil Main battle tank". Military-Today.com. Retrieved December 14, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Competition Tank Asian countries: China Satellite Compass may be supported 99A2". Military of China, force comment. August 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. 
  17. ^ "The world's top 10 main battle tanks". Army technology. 28 November 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
  18. ^ "K2 Black Panther Main Battle Tank, South Korea". Army technology. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  19. ^ Naryshkin, Alexei (26 January 2015). "Platform Armata and other samples of armored vehicles". Echo. RU: MSK. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  20. ^ "Rheinmetall future MBT main battle tank MGCS Main Ground Combat System with 130mm cannon 11802161". 
  21. ^ Defense news .
  22. ^ SSM, TR .
  23. ^ "Milli Tank Altay In Test Surusleri Basladi". 
  24. ^ Aselsan .
  25. ^ "Leopard 2 NG", Military today .
  26. ^ Army equipment program 2015 (PDF), Army .
  27. ^ http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/uncategorized/government-gives-nod-to-next-generation-arjun-tanks_100363361.html
  28. ^ http://motoryzacja.interia.pl/wiadomosci/news-taki-bedzie-nowy-polski-maly-czolg-mamy-jego-zdjecia,nId,1396628#pst65830919