List of mammalian gestation durations

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This is a collection of lists of mammal gestation period estimated by experts in their fields. The mammals included are only viviparous (marsupials and placentals) as some mammals, which are monotremes (including platypuses and echidnas) lay their eggs. A marsupial has a short gestation period, typically shorter than placental. For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia’s articles on gestational age.

The gestation figures given here are shown in days. They represent average values and should only be considered as approximations.

Mammal Gestation period (days)[1] Reference
Min Max Average
African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) 71 [2]
Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) 345 [3][4]
Acouchi (Green) (Myoprocta pratti) 98 [5]
American bison (Bison bison) 217
Antelope (Blackbuck) (Antilope cervicapra) 165 [2]
Antelope (Impala) (Aepyceros melampus) 191 [2]
Antelope (Sable) (Hippotragus niger) 270 [2]
Armadillo (Nine-banded) (Dasypus Novemcinctus) 120 [5]
Armadillo (Six-banded) (Euphractus sexcinctus) 62
Baboon (Papio sp.) 185 [6]
Badger (American) (Taxidea taxus) 60 [5]
Bear (black) (Ursus americanus) 220 [7]
Bear (grizzly) (Ursus arctos) 215 [5]
Bear (polar) (Ursus maritimus) 241 [5]
Beaver (Castor sp.) 122
Boar (Wild) (Sus scrofa) 120 [5]
Bonobo (Pan paniscus) 196 260 228 [8]
Camel (Bactrian) (Camelus bactrianus) 360 420 390
Caprine (Barbary sheep) (Ammotragus lervia) 158 [5]
Capuchin monkey (Gracile) (Cebus sp.) 180 [8]
Cat (domestic) 58 67 64
Cheetah (Acinoyx jubatus) 92 [2]
Chital (Axis axis) 218 [5]
Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 230 250 240 [8]
Chinchilla 105 115 110 [9]
Chinchilla (Long-tailed) (Chinchilla laniger) 110 [5]
Chipmunk 31
Colobus (King) (Colobus polykomos) 180 213 202 [8]
Coyote (Canis latrans) 62 [2]
Coypu (Myocastor coypus) 132 [2]
Deer (fallow deer) (Cervus dama) 228 [2]
Deer (mule deer) (Odocoileus hemionus) 206 [2]
Deer (Père David's) (Elaphurus davidianus) 284 [5]
Deer (red deer) (Cervus elaphus) 238 [2]
Deer (Sambar) (Cervus unicolor) 246 [5]
Deer (white-tailed) (Odocoileus virginianus) 201
Dog (domestic) (Canis familiaris or Canis lupus familiaris) 58 65 61
Dolphin (Bottlenose) (Tursiops truncatus) 364 [2]
Dolphin (Spinner) (Stenella longirostris) 318 [2]
Donkey (Equus asinus) 335 426 365 [2]
Douc (red-shanked) (Pygathrix nemaeus) 180 190 185 [8]
Duiker (Bay) (Cephalophus dorsalis) 120 [5]
Eland (Common) (Taurotragus oryx) 255 [5]
Elephant (Asian) 617
Elephant (African bush) (Loxodonta africana) 655 [5]
Elephant shrew (Bushveld) (Elephantulus intufi) 51 [5]
Elephant shrew (eastern rock elephant shrew) (Elephantulus myurus) 46 [5]
Elk (wapiti) (Cervus canadensis) 240 250 245 [5]
European mink (Mustela lutreola) 38 76 57 [10]
Ferret (domestic) (Mustela putorius furo) 41 42 41 [10]
Flying squirrel (Southern) (Glaucomys volans) 40 [5]
Fox (Bat-eared) (Otocyon megalotis) 65 [5]
Fox (island) (Urocyon littoralis) 63 [5]
Fox (red) (Vulpes vulpes) 52 [2]
Dolphin (Spinner) (Stenella longirostris) 318 [2]
Galago (Galago sp.) 124 [2]
Gazelle (Dorcas) (Gazella dorcas) 132 [2]
Gazelle (Thomson's) (Gazella thomsonii) 165 [2]
Gelada (Theropithecus gelada) 170 [8]
Gerbil (Greater Egyptian) (Gebrillus pyramidum) 21 [5]
Gerbil (Mongolian) (Meriones unguiculatus) 22 130 24 [10]
Gibbon (lar) (Hylobates lar) 220 [8]
Giraffe (Giraffa sp.) 420 450 430
Goat (domestic) (Capra aegagrus hircus) 145 155 150 [5]
Goat (mountain goat) (Oreamnos Americanus) 176 [2]
Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) 131 [2]
Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) 255 260 257 [8]
Grivet (Cercopithecus aethiops) 210 [8]
Guenon (Cercopithecus sp.) 160 [2]
Guinea pig (Cavia sp.) 56 74 65 [10]
Hamster 16 23 20
Hamster (Chinese) (Cricetulus griseus) 21 [5]
Hamster (Golden) (Mesocricetus auratus) 16 [5]
Hare (European) (Lepus europaeus) 41 [5]
Hedgehog (European) (Erinaceus europaeus) 34 [5]
Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) 225 250 237 [5]
Horse (Equus ferus caballus) 330 342 336 [5]
Human (Homo sapiens) 259 275 270 [5]
Hyena (Striped) (Hyaena hyaena) 90 [11]
Jackal (golden) (Canis aureus) 62 [2]
Kangaroo 42
Kinkajou (Potos flavus) 77 [5]
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) 34 [12]
Langur (northern plain) (Semnopithecus entellus or Presbytis entellus) 183 [8]
Lemur (Lemur sp.) 128 [2]
Leopard (Panthera pardus) 92 95 93 [5]
Lion (Panthera leo) 108 [5]
Llama (Lama glama) 330 [5]
Lynx (Canadian) (Lynx canadensis) 60 [5]
Macaque (Bonnet) (Macaca radiata) 153 169 161 [8]
Macaque (Celebes crested) (Macaca nigra) 155 175 164 [8]
Macaque (Crab-eating) (Macaca fascicularis) 153 179 165 [8]
Macaque (Formosan rock) (Macaca cyclopis) 163 [8]
Macaque (Japanese) (Macaca fuscata) 150 180 166 [8]
Macaque (Rhesus) (Macaca mulatta) 164 [8]
Macaque (Southern pig-tailed) (Macaca nemestrina) 1168 171 170 [8]
Macaque (Stump-tailed) (Macaca arctoides) 168 184 182 [8]
Macaque (Toque) (Macaca sinica) 180 [8]
Mangabey (Grey-cheeked) (Cercocebus albigena) 174 [8]
Howler monkey (mantled howler) (Alquatta paliatta) 139 [5]
Marmoset (Goeldi's) (Callimico goeldii) 149 152 151 [8]
Mink 40 75 57
Monkey (blue) (Cercopithecus mitis) 140 [8]
Monkey (Dusky leaf) (Trachypithecus obscurus or Presbytis obscurus) 150 [8]
Monkey (patas) (Erythrocebus patas) 192 [8]
Monkey (proboscis) (Nasalis larvatus) 166 [8]
Monkey (Red-tailed) (Cercopithecus ascanius) 190 [8]
Monkey (spider) (Ateles sp.) 139 [8]
Monkey (squirrel) (Saimiri sp.) 167 [2]
Monkey (Talapoin) (Cercopithecus talapoin) 196 [8]
Monkey (Vervet) (Cercopithecus pygerythrus) 195 [5]
Moose (Alces alces) 240 250 245
Mouse (domestic (Mus musculus) 19 [5]
Mouse (meadow) 21
Mouse (Cotton) (Peromyscus gossypinus) 23 [5]
Mouse (White-footed) (Peromyscus leucopus) 23 [5]
Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) 28 30 29
Opossum (Virginia) (Didelphis virginiana) 12 13 12
Orangutan (Bornean) (Pongo pygmaeus) 234 [2]
Orca (Orcinus orca) 473 567 532 [13]
Otter (Lutra sp.) 60 86 73
Pig (domestic) (Sus sp.) 112 115 113
Porcupine (Crested) (Hystrix cristata) 112 [5]
Porcupine (North American) (Erethizon dorsatum) 113 [5]
Porpoise (harbour) (Phocoena phocoena) 270 [5]
Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) 246 [2]
Puma (Puma concolor) 90
Quokka (Setonix brachyurus) 26 [5]
Rabbit (domestic) 28 35 31 [10]
Rabbit (European) (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 31 [5]
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 63 [5]
Rat (Rattus sp.) 21 23 22 [14]
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) 215 [2]
Rat (Hispid cotton) (Sigmodon hispidus) 27 [5]
Rhinoceros (black) (Diceros bicornis) 450
Rhinoceros (Indian) (Rhinoceros unicornis) 478 [11]
Rhinoceros (white) (Ceratotherium simum) 467 [2]
Rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) 255 [5]
Seal 330
Seal (Northern fur) (Callorhinus ursinus) 254 [5]
Seal (Weddel) (Leptonychotes wedelli) 310 [5]
Sea lion (California) (Zalophus californianus) 350 [5]
Sheep (Ovis aries) 150 [5]
Sheep (Bighorn) (Ovis canadensis) 180 [2]
Slow loris (Sunda loris) (Nycticebus coucang) 90 [5]
Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) 236 [8]
Skunk (Stripped) (Mephitis mephitis) 65 [2]
Squirrel (gray) (Sciurus carolinensis) 30 40 35
Squirrel (red) (Sciurus vulgaris) 38 [5]
Stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura) 9.5 12 11 [15]
Tamarin (Saguinus sp.) 162 [2]
Tapir (Malayan) (Tapirus indicus) 379 [2]
Tiger (Panthera tigris) 105 113 109
Treeshrew (common) (Tupaia glis) 46 [5]
Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) 456
Whale (Beluga) (Delphinapterus leucas) 408 [2]
Whale (sperm) (Physeter catodon) 480 590 535
Wolf (Canis lupus) 60 68 64
Wombat 26 28 27
Woolly monkey (Brown) (Lagothrix lagothrica) 139 [8]
(Yak) (Bos grunniens) 255 [5]
Zebu (Bos taurus) 280 [5]
Zebra (Burchell's) (Equus quagga burchelli) 390 [2]
Zebra (Grant's) (Equus quagga boehmi) 361 390 375

Factors affecting the gestation period in mammals[edit]

There are several factors affecting the length of the gestation period in mammals.

Animal size/ mass[edit]

There is a positive relationship between mass at birth and length of gestation in eutherian mammals.[16] Larger mammals are more likely to produce a well-developed neonate than small mammals. Large mammals develop at an absolute slower rate compared to small mammals. Thus, the large mammal tend have longer gestation periods than small mammal as they tend to produce larger neonate.[17] Large mammals require a longer period of time to attain any proportion of adult mass compared to small mammals. [18]

The level of development at birth[edit]

More developed infants will typically require a longer gestation period. Altricial mammals needs less time to gestate compare to the precocial (well-developed neonate) mammal. A typical precocial mammal has a gestation period almost four times longer than a typical altricial mammal of the same body size.[19] Precocial mammal species generally have greater adult body weights than altricial mammals as precocial mammals have markedly longer gestation periods than altricial mammals.[20] The neonatal of larger mammals develop relatively more quickly and thus making it more likely that a large mammal would produce a more well-developed neonate as a consequence of its longer gestation period. In some cases, some mammal species may have similar gestation periods despite having significantly different body masses.[21]

Environmental factor[edit]

In response to the conditions of the environment, some mammals, such as bat delay the implantation due to the cold temperature in winter.[22] Another factor is due to the shortage of food stocks during winter as the insects are being driven away and as the result, bat hibernate in pregnant condition.[23]

In pinnipeds, the purpose of delayed implantation is in order to increase survival chance of the young animals as the mother ensure that the neonates are born at an optimal season.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ infoplease.com > Health and Science > Environment and Nature > Nature > Gestation, Incubation, and Longevity of Selected Animals By James G. Doherty, general curator, The Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved on April 9, 2010
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Langer, P. (2008). The phases of maternal investment in eutherian mammals. Zoology, 111(2), 148-162.
  3. ^ Paris Hill Farm. "Alpacas 101". Retrieved 2012-07-14.
  4. ^ Northwest Alpacas. "Alpaca Q&A". Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Sacher, G. A., & Staffeldt, E. F. (1974). Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. The American Naturalist, 108(963), 593-615.
  6. ^ Christian R. Abee; Keith Mansfield; Suzette D. Tardif; Timothy Morris, eds. (May 9, 2012). Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management. Academic Press. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-12-397837-0.
  7. ^ University of Michigan. "Ursus Americanus". Retrieved 2013-01-16.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Ardito, G. (1976). Check-list of the data on the gestation length of primates. Journal of human evolution, 5(2), 213-222.
  9. ^ A.Rijnberk, F.J (2005). Anamnese en lichamelijk onderzoek bij gezelschapsdieren, A.Rijnberk, F.J.van Sluis, 2nd print, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 2005, (Current Dutch veterinary examination study book for small domestic mammals)
  10. ^ a b c d e Anamnese en lichamelijk onderzoek bij gezelschapsdieren, A.Rijnberk, F.J.van Sluis, 2nd print, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 2005, (Current Dutch veterinary examination study book for small domestic mammals)
  11. ^ a b Kiltie, R. A. (1982). Intraspecific variation in the mammalian gestation period. Journal of Mammalogy, 63(4), 646-652.
  12. ^ Larry Vogelnest; Rupert Woods (August 18, 2008). Medicine of Australian Mammals. Csiro Publishing. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-643-09928-9.
  13. ^ Frances M.D. Gulland; Leslie A. Dierauf; Karyl L. Whitman (20 March 2018). CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine. CRC Press. p. 408. ISBN 978-1-351-38416-2.
  14. ^ The Laboratory Rat, 2nd Edition, Eds. Mark A. Sucklow, Steven H. Weisbroth, and Craig L. Franklin. Page 151.
  15. ^ . A timetable of embryonic development, and ovarian and uterine changes during pregnancy, in the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Journal of reproduction and fertility 91 1 (1991): 213-27. DOI 10.1530/jrf.0.0910213
  16. ^ Sacher, G. A., & Staffeldt, E. F. (1974).Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. The American Naturalist, 108(963), 593-615.
  17. ^ Martin, R. D., Genoud, M., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Problems of allometric scaling analysis: examples from mammalian reproductive biology. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208(9), 1731-1747.
  18. ^ Zullinger, E. M., Ricklefs, R. E., Redford, K. H., & Mace, G. M. (1984). Fitting sigmoidal equations to mammalian growth curves. Journal of Mammalogy, 65(4), 607-636.
  19. ^ Martin, R. D., & MacLarnon, A. M. (1985). Gestation period, neonatal size and maternal investment in placental mammals. Nature, 313(5999), 220-223.
  20. ^ Derrickson, E. M. (1992). Comparative reproductive strategies of altricial and precocial eutherian mammals. Functional Ecology, 57-65.
  21. ^ Isler, K., & van Schaik, C. P. (2009). The expensive brain: a framework for explaining evolutionary changes in brain size. Journal of human evolution, 57(4), 392-400.
  22. ^ Racey, P. A., & Swift, S. M. (1981). Variations in gestation length in a colony of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from year to year. Reproduction, 61(1), 123-129.
  23. ^ Bradley, S. (2006). The ecology of bat reproduction.
  24. ^ Scheffer, V. B., & York, A. E. (1997). Timing of implantation in the northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus. Journal of Mammalogy, 78(2), 675-683.

Sources[edit]