List of mammals of Bhutan

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The Bhutan takin, Budorcas taxicolor whitei, is the national animal of Bhutan.

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Bhutan. There are 90 mammal species in Bhutan, of which 1 is critically endangered, 10 are endangered, 14 are vulnerable, and 3 are near-threatened.[1][2]

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:

LR/cd Lower risk/conservation dependent Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.
LR/nt Lower risk/near threatened Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.
LR/lc Lower risk/least concern Species for which there are no identifiable risks.

Subclass: Theria[edit]

Infraclass: Eutheria[edit]

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)[edit]


The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.

Order: Primates[edit]


Golden langur or Raksha (in Khengkha)

The order Primates contains humans and their closest relatives: lemurs, lorisoids, monkeys, and apes.

Order: Rodentia (rodents)[edit]


Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)[edit]


The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century; they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)[edit]


The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers.

Order: Chiroptera (bats)[edit]


The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Order: Cetacea (whales)[edit]


The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)[edit]


Indian jackal (Canis aureus indicus), a subspecies of golden jackal present in Bhutan

There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)[edit]


The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]


The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)[edit]


Scaly anteaters, or pangolins, are armored with large, overlapping scales made of matted hair. There are approximately seven species of pangolin, of which two occur in Bhutan. Pangolins lack teeth, and eat only ants and termites with the assistance of a long sticky tongue.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available. A full and accurate list of mammals of Bhutan can be found in "A Field Guide to the Mammals of Bhutan."
  2. ^ Mammals of Bhutan
  3. ^ Hutterer 1979, p. 5.
  4. ^ Hutterer 1979, p. 3.

References[edit]

  • Hutterer, R. (1979). "Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel. Mammalia: Insectivora, Rodentia". Bonner zoologische Beiträge. 30 (1–2): 1–6.
  • Wangchuk, Tashi; et al. (2004). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Bhutan. Department of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan. ISBN 99936-620-0-3.