List of mammals of Christmas Island

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This is a list of the mammal species recorded on Christmas Island. The island had five native and endemic land mammal species, of which four are now believed to be extinct.[1] In addition, five exotic wild mammals have been introduced to Christmas Island.

Carnivora[edit]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes
Feral cat[2]
Feral cat 1.JPG
Felis catus
Linnaeus, 1758
Carnivora Felidae introduced to Christmas Island.
Wild dog[2]
Wilde huendin am stillen.jpg
Canis lupus familiaris
Linnaeus, 1758
Carnivora Canidae introduced to Christmas Island.

Chiroptera[edit]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes Red List
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi
Andrews, 1900
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae endemic to Christmas Island; possibly extinct since 2009.[3]
7
Fl mammals cr.svg[4]
Christmas Island flying fox
Pteropus melanotus natalis - the Christmas Island flying-fox.jpg
Pteropus natalis
Andrews, 1900
Chiroptera Pteropodidae endemic to Christmas Island.[5]
7
Fl mammals cr.svg[6]

Eulipotyphla[edit]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes Red List
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura
Dobson, 1889
Eulipotyphla Soricidae endemic to Christmas Island. Possibly extinct; last observed in 1985.[1]
7
Fl mammals cr.svg[7]

Rodentia[edit]

At the time of human settlement, Christmas Island hosted two endemic rodents, the bulldog rat and Maclear's rat. However, both species were extinct by 1908.[8][9] There is evidence that black rats, introduced to the island in 1899, carried the infectious parasite Trypanosoma lewisi, which was fatal to the native rodents.[10]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes Red List
Maclear's rat
MusMacleariSmit.jpg
Rattus macleari
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia Muridae endemic to Christmas Island; extinct.
7
Fl mammals ex.svg[8]
Bulldog rat
Rattus nativitatis.jpg
Rattus nativitatis
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia Muridae endemic to Christmas Island; extinct.
7
Fl mammals ex.svg[9]
Black rat[2]
Rattus rattus03.jpg
Rattus rattus
Linnaeus, 1758
Rodentia Muridae introduced to Christmas Island in 1899.[10]
7
Fl mammals lc.svg[11]
House mouse[2]
House mouse.jpg
Mus musculus
Linnaeus, 1758
Rodentia Muridae introduced to Christmas Island.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg[12]
Pacific rat[13]
Pacific rat.jpg
Rattus exulans
Peale, 1848
Rodentia Muridae introduced to Christmas Island.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg[13]

Cetacea[edit]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes Red List
Humpback whale
Humpback Whale fg1 cropped.JPG
Megaptera novaeangliae
Gray, 1846
Cetacea Balaenopteridae Native migrant.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg[14]
Blue or Pygmy blue whales
Rug van blauwe vinvis Sri Lanka.jpg
Balaenoptera musculus intermedia
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Balaenoptiidae Possible migrant.
7
Fl mammals en.svg
Southern fin whale
Finhval (1).jpg
Balaenoptera physalus quoyi
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Balaenoptiidae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals en.svg
Sei whale
Sei whale mother and calf Christin Khan NOAA.jpg
Balaenoptera borealis schlegelii
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Balaenoptiidae Native migrant.
7
Fl mammals en.svg
Bryde's whale
Bryde´s whale.jpg
Balaenoptera brydei
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Balaenoptiidae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals dd.svg
Antarctic minke whale
Antarctic, minky whales (js) 13.jpg
Megaptera novaeangliae
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Physeteridae Native migrant.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
Sperm whale
Mother and baby sperm whale.jpg
Physeter macrocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Physeteridae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals vu.svg[15]
Short-finned pilot whale
Maldivian pilot whales.png
Globicephala macrorhynchus
Gray, 1846
Cetacea Globicephala Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals dd.svg[16]
Killer whale
Orcinus orca NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Orcinus orca
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Delphinidae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals dd.svg[17]
Spinner dolphin
Stenella longirostris Maldives.jpg
Stenella longirostris
Gray, 1828
Cetacea Delphinidae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals dd.svg
Short-beaked common dolphin
Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) 4.jpg
Delphinus delphis
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Delphinidae Native migrant or resident.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
Common bottlenose dolphin
Tursiops truncatus Maldives.jpg
Tursiops truncatus
Montagu, 1821
Cetacea Delphinidae Possible migrant.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg

Sirenia[edit]

Name Species Authority Order Family Notes Red List
Dugong
Dugong Lamen Island Epi Vanuatu.jpeg
Dugong dugon
Lacépède, 1799
Sirenia Dugongidae Vagrant possible.
7
Fl mammals vu.svg[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b John Woinarski "Australian endangered species: Christmas Island Shrew" The Conversation, 9 May 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d "Native animals" Christmas Island National Park, Australian government. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  3. ^ Tara Martin, "Threat of extinction demands fast and decisive action" The Conversation, 24 July 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  4. ^ Lumsden, L.; Racey, P.A. & Hutson, A.M. (2009). "Pipistrellus murrayi ". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1 (3.1). International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "Pteropus natalis — Christmas Island Flying-fox Species Profile and Threats Database, Australian government. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  6. ^ Hutson, A.M.; Kingston, T.; James, D.; Lumsden, L.; Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. (2008). "Pteropus melanotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  7. ^ L. Lumsden & M. Schulz (2008). "Crocidura trichura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Lamoreux, J. (2009). "Rattus macleari". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 9 January 2009. 
  9. ^ a b Lamoreux, J. (2008). "Rattus nativitatis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  10. ^ a b Wyatt KB, Campos PF, Gilbert MTP, Kolokotronis S-O, Hynes WH, DeSalle R, et al. (2008) Historical Mammal Extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced Infectious Disease PLoS ONE, 3(11): e3602. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003602.
  11. ^ Amori, G.; Hutterer, R.; Kryštufek, B.; Yigit, N.; Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J. (2008). "Rattus rattus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Musser G, Amori G, Hutterer R, Kryštufek B, Yigit N & Mitsain G (2008). "Mus musculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  13. ^ a b Ruedas, L.; Heaney, L. & Molur, S. (2008). "Rattus exulans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "Christmas Island Local Planning Strategy - Shire of Christmas Island" (pdf). 2015: 1–93. Retrieved 2016-04-19. 
  15. ^ Jenner M.. 2015. Cetacean Season 2015. Center for Whale Research - Western Australia
  16. ^ Creatures
  17. ^ a b "Conservation values in Commonwealth waters of the Christmas and Cocos(Keeling) Island remote Australian territories" (pdf). 2009: 1–222. Retrieved 2016-04-19. 

Further reading[edit]