List of mammals of North America

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This is a list of North American mammals. It includes all mammals currently found in North America north of Mexico, whether resident or as migrants. A list of Mexican mammals can be found here. This article does not include species found only in captivity. Mammal species which became extinct in the last 10,000 to 13,000 years are also included in this article. Each species is listed, with its binomial name. Most established introduced species occurring across multiple states and provinces are also noted.

Some species are identified as indicated below:

  • (A) = Accidental occurrence based on one or a few records, and unlikely to occur regularly.
  • (E) = Extinct; any member of the fauna that died out between 13,000 years ago to present times.
  • (Ex) = Extirpated; no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.
  • (I) = Introduced population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.

Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

EX - Extinct, EW - Extinct in the Wild
CR - Critically Endangered, EN - Endangered, VU - Vulnerable
NT - Near Threatened, LC - Least Concern
DD - Data Deficient, NE - Not Evaluated
(v. 2013.2, the data is current as of March 5, 2014[1])

and Endangered Species Act:

E - endangered, T - threatened
XN, XE - experimental non essential or essential population
E(S/A), T(S/A) - endangered or threatened due to similarity of appearance
(selected only taxa found in the USA, the data is current as of March 28, 2014[2])

Didelphimorphia[edit]

Didelphidae[edit]

Cingulata[edit]

Dasypodidae[edit]

Chlamyphoridae[edit]

Pampatheriidae[edit]

Pilosa[edit]

Megalonychidae[edit]

Jefferson's ground sloth

Megatheriidae[edit]

Mylodontidae[edit]

Nothrotheriidae[edit]

Rodents[edit]

Aplodontiidae[edit]

Castoridae[edit]

North American beaver

Dipodidae[edit]

Erethizontidae[edit]

Caviidae[edit]

Geomyidae[edit]

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of pocket gopher should be recognized as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Botta's pocket gopher

Heteromyidae[edit]

Ord's kangaroo rat

Sciuridae[edit]

Eastern gray squirrel
Black-tailed prairie dog
Woodchuck
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Eastern chipmunk

Muroidea[edit]

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of mice and voles should be recognized as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Meadow vole
Muskrat
Deer mouse
Cactus mouse

Lagomorphs[edit]

Leporidae[edit]

Black-tailed jackrabbit

Ochotonidae[edit]

Eulipotyphla[edit]

Talpidae[edit]

Star-nosed mole

Soricidae[edit]

Short-tailed shrew
Cinerous shrew

Chiroptera[edit]

Vespertilionidae[edit]

Indiana bat
Mexican long-nosed bat

Molossidae[edit]

Antrozoidae[edit]

Mormoopidae[edit]

Phyllostomidae[edit]

Carnivora[edit]

Felidae[edit]

Jaguar

Canidae[edit]

Gray wolf

Ursidae[edit]

Procyonidae[edit]

Mustelidae[edit]

River otter

Mephitidae[edit]

Otariidae[edit]

Odobenidae[edit]

Phocidae[edit]

Harbor seal

Perissodactyla[edit]

Equidae[edit]

Tapiridae[edit]

Artiodactyla[edit]

Camelidae[edit]

Tayassuidae[edit]

Bovidae[edit]

American bison

Cervidae[edit]

Antilocapridae[edit]

Cetacea[edit]

Delphinidae (Oceanic dolphins)[edit]

Killer whales Orcinus orca
near Unimak Island,
eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

Monodontidae[edit]

Phocoenidae[edit]

Kogiidae[edit]

Physeteridae[edit]

Ziphiidae (Beaked whales)[edit]

Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus

Eschrichtiidae[edit]

Balaenopteridae (Rorquals)[edit]

Balaenidae[edit]

Sirenia (Sea cows)[edit]

Manatee Trichechus manatus
Crystal River, Florida

Trichechidae[edit]

  • West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus [n 3] VU E
    (ssp. manatus - Antillean or Caribbean manatee: EN, ssp. latirostris - Florida manatee: EN)

Dugongidae[edit]

Proboscidea[edit]

Physical reconstruction of a mammoth and a mastodon.

Elephantidae[edit]

Mammutidae[edit]

Introduced Animals[edit]

Myocastoridae[edit]

Muroidea[edit]

Leporidae[edit]

Cercopithecidae[edit]

Felidae[edit]

Herpestidae[edit]

Canidae[edit]

Mustelidae[edit]

Equidae[edit]

Suidae[edit]

Bovidae[edit]

Cervidae[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  2. ^ Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as Opossum D. marsupialis (merged Mexican D. marsupialis and D. virginiana).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of another species as possible split.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  6. ^ Texas pocket gopher Geomys personatus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] - as 2 distinct species: Texas Pocket Gopher G. personatus and Strecker's Pocket Gopher G. streckeri.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described as the nominative species and 1 or 2 additional distinct species.
  8. ^ a b Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] and IUCN Red List,[7] also probably North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] and Baker et al. 2003[3] - Dipodomys elephantinus merged with D. venustus as D. venustus elephantinus.
  9. ^ Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  11. ^ Mexican fox squirrel Sciurus nayaritensis: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - only as Apache fox squirrel S. apache.
  12. ^ a b c Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  13. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - range not clear because described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  15. ^ a b Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus:
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List[7] - M. mexicanus.
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - only M. mogollonensis.
    North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] - M. mexicanus listed, but only M. mexicanus mogollensis (Arizona and New Mexico) described in "Mexican Vole (Microtus mexicanus)" chapter.
    IUCN Red List[7] - M. mexicanus sometimes split in two species: M. mexicanus and M. mogollonensis.[10][11]
    12 subspecies are recognized, 4 occur in the USA (1991[12]), Hualapai Mexican vole M. m. hualpaiensis is listed as endangered (E) under the Endangered Species Act.[2][12]
  16. ^ Northern collared lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus: Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as 3 distinct species: Peary Land collared lemming D. groenlandicus, Bering collared lemming D. rubricatus and Victoria collared lemming D. kilangmiutak
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with D. exsul.
  17. ^ Nelson's collared lemming Dicrostonyx nelsoni: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as 2 distinct species: Nelson's collared lemming D. nelsoni and St. Lawrence Island collared lemming D. exsul.
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] - mentioned only in the description of D. groenlandicus as possible split (D. exsul).
  18. ^ a b c d e Baker et al. 2003,[3] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  19. ^ Northern rock mouse Peromyscus nasutus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of rock mouse Peromyscus difficilis that P. difficilis was formerly known as P. nasuts, so range is not clear because these species are merged here.
  20. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - described separately as the nominative species but probably merged with another species.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  22. ^ a b c Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  23. ^ Long-tailed shrew Sorex dispar: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] - as 2 distinct species: longtail/long-tailed shrew S. dispar and Gaspé shrew S. gaspensis.
  24. ^ North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  25. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] IUCN Red List.[7]
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] IUCN Red List.[7]
  27. ^ Southwestern myotis Myotis auriculus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of long-eared myotis M. evotis as possible split, occurring in southern N. Mexico.
  28. ^ a b North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  29. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  30. ^ Velvety free-tailed bat: Baker et al. 2003,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - it is believed that colonies found in buildings in the Florida Keys were members of Molossidae.
  31. ^ Prinstine mustached bat: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - possibly Florida.
    Extinct at the end of Pleistocene - in the USA found in Rancholabrean cave deposits in southern Florida (Monkey Jungle Hammock).[16]
  32. ^ Lesser long-nosed bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae: Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Baker et al. 2003[3] - as southern long-nosed bat L. curasoae (L. yerbabuenae was included[17] in L. curasoae as a subspecies[18]).
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - mentioned only in the description of L. nivalis under the junior synonym[17] L. sanborni as possible split, so range is not clear here.
  33. ^ Margay: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3).[6]
    Kays & Wilson 2002:[4] last record in Texas from 1852.[4]
  34. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] IUCN Red List.[7]
  35. ^ Red fox Vulpes vulpes: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American V. fulva distinct from the Old World species V. vulpes.
  36. ^ Brown bear Ursus arctos: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as 2 distinct species: grizzly bear U. horribilis and Kodiak bear U. middendorffi, also distinct from the "worldwide" species U. arctos.
  37. ^ Wolverine Gulo gulo: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American G. luscus distinct from the Old World species G. gulo.
  38. ^ Least weasel Mustela nivalis: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as North American M. rixosa distinct from the Old World species M. nivalis.
  39. ^ American hog-nosed skunk Conepatus leuconotus: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - as 2 distinct species: eastern hog-nosed skunk C. leuconotus and western hog-nosed skunk C. mesoleucus.
  40. ^ Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as Guadalupe fur seal A. philippi, formerly A. townsendi.
  41. ^ a b Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  42. ^ Elk Cervus canadensis: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] (species list from the database).
    Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI[5] (Field Guide), Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List[7] - as "worldwide" C. elaphus (not North American C. canadensis.)
  43. ^ Caribou Rangifer tarandus: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - as 3 distinct species: woodland caribou R. caribou, barren-ground caribou R. arcticus and Greenland caribou R. tarandus.
  44. ^ Moose Alces alces: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
    North American Mammals NMNH SI,[5] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List[7] - as North American A. americanus (distinct from Eurasian Elk A. alces).
  45. ^ Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  46. ^ Pygmy beaked whale: Kays & Wilson 2002:[4] one record in North America, Division of Mammals Collections NMNH SI:[22] two strandings in California (2001 and 2012).
  47. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
  48. ^ a b Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002.[4]
  49. ^ Polynesian rat[25][26]
  50. ^ House mouse: Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] IUCN Red List.[7]
    Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - only general range description.
  51. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[8] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  52. ^ European rabbit: Baker et al. 2003.[3]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - range not clear (islands on Pacific Coast).
    Introduced to Hawaii.[27]
  53. ^ Feral cat: Baker et al. 2003[3] - feral cat Felis catus, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - Wildcat F. silvestris.
  54. ^ Baker et al. 2003[3] - Feral dog Canis familiaris, Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - packs of feral domestic dogs C. familiaris.
  55. ^ Baker et al. 2003[3] - Feral horse Equus caballus, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - Horse Equus ferus - feral.
  56. ^ Baker et al. 2003,[3] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3).[6]
  57. ^ Sus scrofa: Baker et al. 2003[3] - feral pig or wild boar, Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[8] - wild boar (Swine), Kays & Wilson 2002[4] - wild boar, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - wild boar - feral populations, IUCN Red List[7] - wild boar - introduced.
  58. ^ a b c d e f Baker et al. 2003,[3] Kays & Wilson 2002,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[6] IUCN Red List.[7]
  59. ^ Nilgai - semi-free-ranging[39]/free-ranging.[40]
  60. ^ Feral cattle: Baker et al. 2003[3] - domestic cattle Bos taurus, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - aurochs B. taurus - feral populations.
    For example feral cattle in Hawaii.[41][42]
  61. ^ Gemsbok - free ranging.[43][44]
  62. ^ Blackbuck - free ranging.[39][40][44][45]
  63. ^ Barbary sheep - free ranging.[39][40]
  64. ^ Feral goat: Baker et al. 2003[3] - goat Capra hircus, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - goat C. hircus - feral populations (USA).
    Goat - free-ranging, Hawaii.[46]
  65. ^ Bezoar ibex - free-ranging: Florida Mountains near Deming New Mexico.[44]
  66. ^ Mouflon: Baker et al. 2003[3] - European mouflon sheep Ovis aries, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[6] - red sheep Ovis aries - mouflon introduced, improved domestic stock feral.
    Feral sheep - free-ranging - Hawaii[46] and Texas.[47]
  67. ^ Red deer elaphus division (not canadensis division) - introduced i.e. to USA.[6]
  68. ^ Chital - free-ranging.[39]
  69. ^ Sambar - free ranging.[40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries, § 17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife.". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Robert J. Baker; Lisa C. Bradley; Robert D. Bradley; Jerry W. Dragoo; Mark D. Engstrom; Robert S. Hoffmann; Cheri A. Jones; Fiona Reid; Dale W. Rice & Clyde Jones (1 December 2003). "Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003" (PDF). Occasional Papers. Museum of Texas Tech University (229). ISSN 0149-175X. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  External link in |journal= (help)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Kays, Roland W.; Wilson, Don E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, Ron Klingner, Elizabeth McClelland, Consie Powell, Wendy Smith, Todd Zalewski, Diane Gibbons, Susan C. Morse, Jesse Guertin. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07012-1. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "North American Mammals". Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 1 April 2014. This site is based on The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, by Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999) and Mammals of North America, by Roland W. Kays and Don E. Wilson (Princeton University Press, 2002).  Downloaded on 25 March 2014
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak * Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap "Search Results: Mammalia North America 2014-03-29". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>. IUCN. 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014. Search terms Search by taxonomy: MAMMALIA, Search by location: North America, (Native, Introduced, Vagrant, Uncertain), Refinements : [X] Show regional assessments:, Taxa to show: Species, Subspecies and varieties, Stocks and subpopulation. Downloaded on 29 March 2014  External link in |website= (help)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Burt, William Henry (Text and Maps); Grossenheider, Richard Philip (Illustrations) (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals. North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides (Third ed.). Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-91098-6. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Haynes, Gary (ed.). American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology). Springer Science + Business Media B. V. ISBN 978-1402087929. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  10. ^ Álvarez-Casta?eda, S.T. & Reid, F. (2008). "Microtus mexicanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Microtus (See comments.) mexicanus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 894–1531. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  12. ^ a b U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1991). Hualpai Mexican Vole Recovery Plan (PDF). Albuquerque, New Mexico. pp. 28 pp. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Turvey, Samuel T. (May 28, 2009). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199535095. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  14. ^ Whitaker, John O.; Hamilton, William John (1998-06-28). Mammals of the Eastern United States (3rd ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801434754. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  15. ^ Hutterer, R. (2005). "Sorex (Otisorex) cinereus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 220–311. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  16. ^ Morgan, Gary S.; Emslie, Steven D. (2010). "Tropical and western influences in vertebrate faunas from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Florida" (PDF). evier.com/locate/quaint Quaternary International. 217: 143–158. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2009.11.030. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  External link in |journal= (help)
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Further reading[edit]

  • Kays, Roland W.; Wilson, Don E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, Ron Klingner, Elizabeth McClelland, Consie Powell, Wendy Smith, Todd Zalewski, Diane Gibbons, Susan C. Morse, Jesse Guertin. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07012-1. 
  • Burt, William Henry (Text and Maps); Grossenheider, Richard Philip (Illustrations) (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals. North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides (Third ed.). Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-91098-6. 
  • Robert J. Baker; Lisa C. Bradley; Robert D. Bradley; Jerry W. Dragoo; Mark D. Engstrom; Robert S. Hoffmann; Cheri A. Jones; Fiona Reid; Dale W. Rice & Clyde Jones (1 December 2003). "Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003" (PDF). Occasional Papers. Museum of Texas Tech University (229). ISSN 0149-175X. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  External link in |journal= (help)

External links[edit]