List of mammals of Singapore

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Plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus)
Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

Mammals in Singapore currently number about 65 species.[1] Since the founding of modern Singapore in 1819, over 90 species have been recorded, including large species such as tigers, leopards and sambar deer. Most of these have since become extinct largely due to rapid urban development, with occasional large mammals such as Asian elephants swimming across the Straits of Johor from Johor, Malaysia.[2]

Many surviving species have critically low population numbers, the most seriously endangered being the cream-coloured giant squirrel, last sighted in 1995[3] and now possibly extinct. The banded leaf monkey is also down to around 50 individuals. However, some species may be rediscovered in more remote parts of the country, such as the Malaysian porcupine which was found on Pulau Tekong in 2005,[4] and the greater mousedeer on Pulau Ubin in 2009.[5]

The most commonly seen native mammals are the long-tailed macaque and the plantain squirrel. The largest terrestrial mammal that can still be found is the wild pig, which is common on the offshore islands of Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong, but also found on the mainland. The largest mammals in Singapore, however, are marine creatures such as dugongs and dolphins. The colugo is also doing well, but these are rarely seen due to their elusiveness and camouflage.

List of mammals[edit]

Order Eulipotyphla (insectivores)[edit]

Family Soricidae (shrews)

Order Pholidota (pangolins)[edit]

Family Manidae (pangolins)

  • Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) - Bukit Timah, Bukit Batok, Central Catchment, Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong, Western Catchment, Labrador

Order Carnivora (carnivores)[edit]

Family Herpestidae (mongooses)

Family Viverridae (civets)

Family Mustelidae (weasels, otters and relatives)

  • Small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) - Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong, Western Catchment,
  • Smooth otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) - Sungei Buloh, Woodlands, Punggol, Pasir Ris, Changi, Pulau Ubin, Tanah Merah, East Coast, Marina Reservoir, Rochor Canal, Pandan Reservoir, Ulu Pandan Canal, Jurong Lake, Sentosa, Pulau Semakau[6]
  • Hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana) (doubtful)

Family Felidae (cats)

Family Canidae (dogs)

Order Sirenia (sea cows)[edit]

Family Dugongidae (dugong)

  • Dugong (Dugong dugon) - Straits of Johor, Singapore Strait

Order Proboscidea (elephants)[edit]

Family Elephantidae (elephants)

Order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)[edit]

Family Tapiridae (tapirs)

Order Cetacea (cetaceans)[edit]

Family Delphinidae (marine dolphins)

Family Phocoenidae (porpoises)

Family Physeteridae (sperm whale)

Order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]

Family Suidae (pigs)

  • Wild pig (Sus scrofa) - Western Catchment, Lim Chu Kang, Kranji, Bukit Batok, Bukit Timah, Central Catchment, Kent Ridge, Sengkang, Punggol, Coney Island, Lorong Halus, Pasir Ris, Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong[7]

Family Cervidae (deer)

Family Tragulidae (mousedeer)

Family Bovidae (bovids)

  • Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) - Pulau Ubin (lone free-ranging individuals)
  • Wild yak (Bos mutus) - Bukit Timah, Lim Chu Kang, Mandai, Sungei Buloh

Order Rodentia (rodents)[edit]

Family Muridae (mice and rats)

Family Sciuridae (squirrels)

Family Hystricidae

  • Malayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) - Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong, Bukit Timah, Central Catchment, Western Catchment[10]

Order Chiroptera (bats)[edit]

Family Pteropodidae (Old World fruit bats)

Family Emballonuridae (sheath-tailed bats)

Family Nycteridae (hollow-faced bats)

Family Megadermatidae (false vampires)

Family Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats)

Family Hipposideridae (Old World leaf-nosed bats)

Family Vespertilionidae (evening bats)

Family Molossidae (free-tailed bats)

Order Scandentia (treeshrews)[edit]

Family Tupaiidae (treeshrews)

  • Common treeshrew (Tupaia glis) - Bukit Timah, Central Catchment, Singapore Botanic Gardens, Portsdown, Bidadari, Bedok, Bukit Batok, Jurong Hill, Sungei Buloh, Western Catchment

Order Dermoptera (colugo)[edit]

Family Cynocephalidae (colugo)

  • Malayan colugo or Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) - Bukit Timah, Bukit Batok, Central Catchment

Order Primates (primates)[edit]

Family Lorisidae (lorises)

Family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)

  • Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) - Bukit Timah, Central Catchment, Sungei Buloh, Western Catchment, Bukit Batok, Woodlands Waterfront, Admiralty Park, Punggol, Coney Island, Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong, Sentosa, Sisters Islands, lone individuals occasionally seen in parks and urban areas elsewhere in Singapore
  • Southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (extinct) - individuals (escapees?) seen in Pasir Ris, Central Catchment
  • Banded leaf monkey (Presbytis femoralis) - around 50 left in Central Catchment
  • Dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) - Kent Ridge (escapee)

Family Hominidae (great apes)

Note: (extinct) means locally extinct in Singapore.

See also[edit]