List of mammals of Sri Lanka

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"Mammals of Sri Lanka" redirects here. For the book by Asoka Yapa and Gamini Ratnavira, see Mammals of Sri Lanka (book).

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Sri Lanka. There are 125 mammal species in Sri Lanka, of which 1 is critically endangered, 10 are endangered, 10 are vulnerable, and 3 are near-threatened.[1]

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:

LR/cd Lower risk/conservation dependent Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.
LR/nt Lower risk/near threatened Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.
LR/lc Lower risk/least concern Species for which there are no identifiable risks.

Mammalian diversity[edit]

Class Order Number of species Endemic species Endemism
Mammals Sirenia
1
-
-
Proboscidea
1
-
-
Primates
5
3
60%
Rodentia
23
7
30.4%
Lagomorpha
1
-
-
Eulipotyphla
10
6
60%
Chiroptera
30
-
-
Carnivora
16
3
18.75%
Pholidota
1
-
-
Artiodactyla
8
2
25%
Perissodactyla
2
-
-
Cetacea
27
-
-

Subclass: Theria[edit]

Infraclass: Eutheria[edit]

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)[edit]


The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)[edit]


Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered.

Order: Primates[edit]


The order Primates contains humans and their closest relatives: lemurs, lorisoids, monkeys, and apes.

Order: Rodentia (rodents)[edit]


Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)[edit]


The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)[edit]


The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers.

Order: Chiroptera (bats)[edit]


Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus), most common bat found in the island

The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)[edit]

The order Philodota comprises the eight species of pangolin. Pangolins are anteaters and have the powerful claws, elongated snout and long tongue seen in the other unrelated anteater species.

Scaly ant eater by Dushy Ranetunge 2.jpg

]

Order: Cetacea (whales)[edit]


The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)[edit]


There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]


The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)[edit]

The odd-toed ungulates are ungulates that are equally important as Artiodactyls. There are about 17 perissodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

  • Family: Equidae (horses)
    • Genus: Equus
      • Wild horse Equus ferus* LR/lc - also known as Delft pony - වල් අශ්වයා
      • Donkey Equus africanus asinus LR/lc - බූරුවා

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.
  2. ^ - මොල්ලි තල්මසා Megaptera novaeangliae (Arabian Sea subpopulation)

References[edit]