List of mammals of Texas

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Topographic map of Texas

This is a list of mammals of Texas, those mammals native to or immediately off the coast of the U.S. state of Texas.

The varying geography of Texas, the second largest state, provides a large variety of habitats for mammals. The land varies from swamps, Piney Woods in the east, rocky hills and limestone karst in the central Hill Country of the Edwards Plateau, desert in the south and west, mountains in the far west (the Trans-Pecos), and grassland prairie in the north, also known as the Panhandle.[1][2][3] The state's many rivers, including the Rio Grande, the Colorado River, and the Trinity River, also provide diverse river habitats.[4][5] Its central position in the United States means that species found primarily in either the western or eastern reaches of the country often have their ranges meeting in the state. Additionally, its proximity to Mexico is such that many species found there and into Central America also range as far north as Texas.[1]

Texas recognizes three official mammals: the nine-banded armadillo, the Texas Longhorn, and the Mexican free-tailed bat. State law protects numerous species.

List of species[edit]

Order Xenarthra[edit]

Dasypodidae[edit]

Dasypodidae is a family of armoured mammals found mainly in Latin America.[6]

Dasypodidae
Species Common name Distribution Status[a] Image
Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-banded armadillo Found in all of Texas, except the Trans-Pecos region[7]
 LC 
Nine-banded-Armadillo white background.jpg

Order Chiroptera[edit]

Phyllostomidae[edit]

Phyllostomidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Choeronycteris mexicana Mexican long-tongued bat Only found in South Texas; may be slowly increasing distribution northward.[8]
 NT 
Choeronycteris mexicana, Mexican long-tongued bat (7371567444).jpg
Diphylla ecaudata Hairy-legged vampire bat Only one specimen found in 1967, in Val Verde County.[8]
 LC 
Hairy-legged vampire bat, Diphylla ecaudata (closeup).jpg
Leptonycteris nivalis Greater long-nosed bat Only found in Presidio County and Brewster County.[8]
 EN 
Leptonycteris nivalis.jpg

Mormoopidae[edit]

Mormoopidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Mormoops megalophylla Ghost-faced bat Found in the Trans-Pecos, South Texas Plains, and the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau.[9]
 LC 
Mormoops megalophylla 11860575.jpg

Vespertilionidae[edit]

Vespertilionidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Aeorestes cinereus Hoary bat Found in mature forested areas across the state[8]
 LC 
Hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus (cropped).jpg
Antrozous pallidus Pallid bat Commonly found in the western half of Texas, including the panhandle.[10][8]
 LC 
Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus).jpg
Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque's big-eared bat Found in small localities in the Pineywoods of East Texas.[8]
 LC 
Rafinesque's big-eared bat.JPG
Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's big-eared bat Commonly found in the western half of Texas, including the panhandle. Population in West Texas and Panhandle are divided into subspecies.[8]
 LC 
Big-eared-townsend-fledermaus.jpg
Dasypterus ega Southern yellow bat Found in seven counties in the Rio Grande Valley.[8]
 LC 
Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.17371.b ven - lasiurus Ega Ega - skin.jpeg
Dasypterus intermedius Northern yellow bat Occurs in the eastern and southern part of the state, including along the coast.[8]
 LC 
Dasypterus xanthinus Western yellow bat Reported in the southernmost counties of Texas surrounding Big Bend National Park.[8]
 LC 
Lasiurus xanthinus.jpg
Eptesicus fuscus Big brown bat Found primarily iy the eastern, northern and western parts of the state.[8]
 LC 
Flickr - Furryscaly - Smile for the Camera.jpg
Euderma maculatum Spotted bat Found only in Big Bend National Park.[8]
 LC 
Side view of spotted bat -Euderma maculatum- by Paul Cryan.jpg
Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-haired bat Found in forested areas across the state, not seen often in cities.[8]
 LC 
Noctivagans Cutie.png
Lasiurus blossevillii Desert red bat One specimen found in Presidio County in 1988[8]
 LC 
Lasiurus blossevillii.jpg
Lasiurus borealis Eastern red bat Found state-wide, but most commonly found in the eastern and central part of the state[8]
 LC 
C-red-bat.jpg
Lasiurus seminolus Seminole bat Found in the eastern part of the state[8]
 LC 
Seminole Bat (7351768292).jpg
Myotis austroriparius Southeastern myotis Found in eastern Texas caves[8]
 LC 
Southeastern Myotis.JPG
Myotis californicus California myotis Found primarily in the Chihuahuan Desert and Trans-Pecos region of Texas[8]
 LC 
California Myotis (Myotis californicus).jpg
Myotis ciliolabrum Western small-footed myotis Found primarily in the Trans-Pecos mountains and small populations in the panhandle[8]
 LC 
Myotis ciliolabrum.jpg
Myotis occultus Arizona myotis
Myotis septentrionalis Northern long-eared myotis
Myotis thysanodes Fringed myotis
Myotis velifer Cave myotis
Myotis volans Long-legged myotis
Myotis yumanensis Yuma myotis
Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat
Pipistrellus hesperus Western pipistrelle
Pipistrellus subflavus Eastern pipistrelle

Molossidae[edit]

Molossidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Eumops perotis Western mastiff bat Found in Val Verde, Terrell, Brewster, and Presidio counties in South Texas and in Midland County in the west[8]
 LC 
Eumops perotis.jpeg
Nyctinomops femorosacca Pocketed free-tailed bat Found in Val Verde, Terrell, Brewster, and Presidio counties in South Texas.[8]
 LC 
Pocketed free-tailed bat (Nyctinomops femorosaccus).jpg
Nyctinomops macrotis Big free-tailed bat Scattered localities in the Panhandle, Trans-Pecos region, and recently in Wise County[8]
 LC 
Nyctinomops macrotus.jpeg
Tadarida brasiliensis Mexican free-tailed bat State-wide distribution in the summer, with the eastern population being year-round residents[8]
 LC 
Tadarida brasiliensis.jpg

Order Carnivora[edit]

Canidae[edit]

Canidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Canis latrans Coyote ubiquitous throughout Texas
 LC 
Coyote portrait.jpg
Canis lupus Gray wolf all subspecies previously found in Texas are either extinct or extirpated; see below
 LC 
Front view of a resting Canis lupus ssp.jpg
Canis lupus baileyi Mexican wolf extirpated
 EN 
Mexican Wolf 2 yfb-edit 1.jpg
Canis lupus monstrabilis Texas wolf extinct
 EX 
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. monstrabilis mod.jpg
Canis lupus nubilus Great Plains wolf extinct
 EX 
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. nubilus mod.jpg
Canis lupus rufus Red wolf extirpated
 CR 
Red wolf (4531335218).jpg
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox
 LC 
Grey Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).jpg
Vulpes macrotis Kit fox
 LC 
San Joaquin kit fox male.jpg
Vulpes velox Swift fox
 LC 
Vulpes velox2.jpg

Felidae[edit]

Procyonidae[edit]

Procyonidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Bassariscus astutus Ring-tailed cat Common in the Trans-Pecos, Edwards Plateau and Cross Timbers ecoregions, but also seen statewide except the panhandle[8]
 LC 
Squaw-ringtail-28073.jpg
Nasua narica White-nosed coati Recently, only seen in the Big Bend and Padre Island regions[8]
 LC 
Nasuanarica1.jpg
Procyon lotor Raccoon Ubiquitous throughout Texas
 LC 
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 3.jpg

Mephitidae[edit]

Mephitidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Conepatus leuconotus American hog-nosed skunk Hog-nosed-skunk.png
Mephitis macroura Hooded skunk Hooded Skunk side (Gelsenkirchen).jpg
Mephitis mephitis Striped skunk Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) DSC 0030.jpg
Spilogale gracilis Western spotted skunk Spilogale gracilis amphiala.jpg
Spilogale putorius Eastern spotted skunk Spilogale putorius (2).jpg

Mustelidae[edit]

Ursidae[edit]

Ursidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Ursus americanus American black bear Found in the forested areas of east Texas, the Trans-Pecos region, and at the tip of the Panhandle[8]
 LC 
American black bear Gros Mornе NFL.jpg
Ursus arctos Brown bear all subspecies once present in Texas are either extirpated or extinct; see below
 LC 
Kamchatka Brown Bear near Dvuhyurtochnoe on 2015-07-23.jpg
Ursus arctos horribilis Grizzly bear extirpated; the only documented grizzly bear (U. a. horribilis) specimen was killed in 1905 in Jeff Davis County[8] GrizzlyBearJeanBeaufort.jpg
Ursus arctos horriblis Mexican grizzly bear extinct[11][12]
 EX 
Mexican grizzly bear.jpeg

Order Artiodactyla[edit]

Tayassuidae[edit]

Tayassuidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Pecari tajacu Collared peccary Mostly restricted to western Texas and south of San Antonio. Introduced populations occur in north Texas[8]
 LC 
Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo.jpg

Cervidae[edit]

Antilocapridae[edit]

Antilocapridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Antilocapra americana Pronghorn Native to Central and Western Texas; considered the pronghorn's easternmost range
 LC 
Antilocapra americana.jpg

Bovidae[edit]

Order Eulipotyphla[edit]

Soricidae[edit]

Soricidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Blarina carolinensis Southern short-tailed shrew
 LC 
Southern short-tailed shrew.jpg
Blarina hylophaga Elliot's short-tailed shrew
 LC 
Cryptotis parva North American least shrew
 LC 
Notiosorex crawfordi Crawford's gray shrew
 LC 

Talpidae[edit]

Talpidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Scalopus aquaticus Eastern mole Documented in the eastern two-thirds of the state, eastern areas of South Texas, along the Canadian River drainage in the Panhandle, and in Presidio County in the west[13]
 LC [14]
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg

Order Sirenia[edit]

Trichechidae[edit]

Trichechidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Trichechus manatus West Indian manatee Rare in Texas waters, but observed in the Laguna Madre, Cow Bayou, and near Sabine Lake, Copano Bay, San José Island, Bolivar Peninsula, and the mouth of the Rio Grande[15]
 VU 
Underwater photography on endangered mammal manatee.jpg

Order Didelphimorphia[edit]

Didelphidae[edit]

Didelphidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Didelphis virginiana Virginia opossum Found throughout the state except for the arid Trans-Pecos and Llano Estacado[16]
 LC 
Didelphis virginiana with young.JPG

Order Lagomorpha[edit]

Leporidae[edit]

Leporidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Lepus californicus Black-tailed jackrabbit
 LC 
John Woodhouse Audubon - Texian Hare (Lepus Texianus) - Google Art Project.jpg
Sylvilagus aquaticus Swamp rabbit
 LC 
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate XXXVII) (6260425611).jpg
Sylvilagus audubonni Desert cottontail
 LC 
Sylvilagus audubonii2.jpg
Sylvilagus floridanus Eastern cottontail
 LC 
Eastern Cottontail.JPG

Order Rodentia[edit]

Castoridae[edit]

Castoridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Castor canadensis North American beaver
 LC 
Audubon-castor 1854-RZ.jpg

Cricetidae[edit]

Erethizontidae[edit]

Erethizontidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Erethizon dorsatum North American porcupine
 LC 

Geomyidae[edit]

Heteromyidae[edit]

Sciuridae[edit]

Order Cetacea[edit]

Balaenidae[edit]

Balaenidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Eubalaena glacialis North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis NOAA.jpg

Balaenopteridae[edit]

Balaenopteridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Balaenoptera acutorostrata Minke whale Seen stranded occasionally, rare sightings. Last seen in Texas in the 1980s.[17][8] Balaenoptera acutorostrata NOAA.jpg
Balaenoptera brydei Balaenoptera edeni Bryde's whale Seen yearly in every season but the fall in shallow waters. Taxonomy up to debate[8][17] Balaenoptera edeni.jpg
Balaenoptera musculus Blue whale Blauwal.png
Balaenoptera physalus Fin whale Rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus) flipped.jpg
Megaptera novaeangliae Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae NOAA.jpg

Kogiidae[edit]

Kogiidae is a family of whales.

Kogiidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Kogia breviceps Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps.jpg
Kogia simus Dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima.jpg

Physeteridae[edit]

Physeteridae is a monotypic family of whales only containing the extant Physeter macrocephalus.

Physeteridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Physeter macrocephalus Sperm whale A large black whale with a blunt head and proportionally-small flippers

Ziphiidae[edit]

Ziphiidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Mesoplodon densirostris Blainville's beaked whale Beaked Whale.jpg
Mesoplodon europaeus Gervais' beaked whale Gervais' Beaked Whale (cropped).jpg
Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris NOAA.jpg

Delphinidae[edit]

Delphinidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Delphinus delphis Short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis.jpg
Feresa attenuata Pygmy killer whale
Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale
Grampus griseus Risso's dolphin
Orcinus orca Killer whale Uncommon in Texas waters, rare and poorly documented strandings, occasionally seen off South Padre Island[18] Orca graphic.png
Pseudorca crassidens False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens NOAA.jpg
Peponocephala electra Melon-headed whale
Stenella frontalis Atlantic spotted dolphin
Stenella attenuata Pantropical spotted dolphin
Stenella coeruleoalba Striped dolphin
Stenella clymene Clymene dolphin
Stenella longirostris Spinner dolphin
Steno brenadensis Rough-toothed dolphin
Tursiops truncatus Common bottlenose dolphin Grand dauphin Tursiops truncatus.jpg

Introduced/invasive mammals[edit]

Order Primates[edit]

Primates
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Macaca fuscata Japanese macaque Introduced to a sanctuary in Frio County[19][20]
 LC 

Order Carnivora[edit]

Canidae (canids)[edit]

Canidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Vulpes vulpes Red fox While native to North America, red foxes were introduced to Texas and have expanded over most of the state, except the far western and southern regions[8][21][22]
 LC 
Fox - British Wildlife Centre (17429406401).jpg

Order Artiodactyla[edit]

Suidae (pigs)[edit]

Suidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Sus scrofa Wild boar Ubiquitous throughout Texas
 LC 
Wildschwein, Nähe Pulverstampftor (cropped).jpg

Cervidae (deer)[edit]

Cervidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Axis axis Chital
 LC 
Cervus elaphus Red deer
 LC 
Cervus nippon Sika deer
 LC 
Dama dama Fallow deer
 LC 
Rusa unicolor Sambar deer
 VU 

Bovidae (antelopes & sheep)[edit]

Bovidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Ammotragus lervia Barbary sheep
 VU 
Antilope cervicapra Blackbuck
 LC 
Boselaphus tragocamelus Nilgai
 LC 
Oryx gazella Gemsbok
 LC 

Order Rodentia[edit]

Muridae (Old World mice & rats)[edit]

Muridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Mus musculus House mouse Ubiquitous throughout Texas
 LC 
Rattus norvegicus Brown rat Widespread throughout Texas, however not as common in the southern half of Texas as Rattus rattus[8]
 LC 
Rattus norvegicus -Fairlands Valley Park, Stevenage, England-8.jpg
Rattus rattus Black rat Ubiquitous throughout Texas
 LC 
Roofrat Hagenbeck 02.jpg

Myocastoridae (Nutria)[edit]

Myocastoridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Myocastor coypus Nutria Invasive species in eastern two-thirds of Texas, currently expanding westward[23]
 LC 
Ratao do banhado 1 REFON.jpg

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ a: Conservation status at a world level of the species according to the IUCN Red List: Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

 EX  - Extinct
 EW  - Extinct in the wild
 CR  - Critically endangered
 EN  - Endangered
 VU  - Vulnerable
 NT  - Near threatened
 LC  - Least concern
 DD  - Data deficient
 NE  - Not evaluated

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Texas Ecoregions". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on November 5, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  2. ^ "Native Habitats & Ecosystems". Audubon. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  3. ^ "Ecoregion Download Files by State - Region 6". Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  4. ^ "Texas River Guide". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  5. ^ "Texas". National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Archived from the original on October 2, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  6. ^ "Armadillo". Britannica. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  7. ^ "Nine-Banded Armadillo". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Schmidley, David. "The Mammals of Texas, Online Edition (7th Edition)". Texas Tech Natural Science Research Laboratory. University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Ghost-faced Bat (Mormoops megalophylla)". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on October 14, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  10. ^ "Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus)". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  11. ^ Meyer, John R. (December 2006). "The Last Texas Grizzly". Texas Parks & Wildlife. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  12. ^ "Mexican grizzly bear (extinct)". Bear Conversation. Archived from the original on December 27, 2019. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  13. ^ "Eastern Mole". Natural Science Research Laboratory. Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on October 19, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  14. ^ Matson, J., Woodman, N., Castro-Arellano, I. & de Grammont, P.C. (2015). "Scalopus aquaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41471A115188304. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T41471A22319923.en.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link){{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  15. ^ "West Indian Manatee". Natural Science Research Laboratory. Texas Tech University. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)". Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  17. ^ a b Würsig, Bernd (27 June 2017). Habitats and Biota of the Gulf of Mexico: Before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 1489–1587. ISBN 978-1-4939-3456-0. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  18. ^ "Killer Whale". Natural Science Research Laboratory. Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  19. ^ Baker, Ed (5 August 2005). "The Legendary Snow Monkeys of Texas: A brief open season on monkeys resulted in protections for them in the Lone Star State". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  20. ^ Born Free USA: Primate Sanctuary: About the Sanctuary, 2003–2011, archived from the original on 20 April 2011, retrieved 3 May 2011 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  21. ^ Potts, Allen (1912). Fox Hunting in America. Washington: The Carnahan Press. pp. 7, 38. Retrieved 9 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  22. ^ "Introducing Mammals to Young Naturalists - Red Foxes". Texas Parks & Wildlife. Texas Parks & Wildlife. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  23. ^ "Nutria". Natural Science Research Laboratory. Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 17, 2020.

External links[edit]