List of mammals of the Philippines

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This is a list of the mammal species recorded in the Philippines.

There are 210 native mammal species in the Philippines, excluding those of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) and extinct species (Pleistocene Epoch), of which around six are critically endangered, around thirteen are endangered, around thirty are vulnerable, and around two are near-threatened. Eight of the species listed for the Philippines have been extinct since the Pleistocene Epoch. One fossil species of Sirenia has been found in Palawan and could have been extinct since the Miocene, the eastern-most fossil remains of any Sirenia in history, However, there are also extinct deer and pig fossil remains known in the Philippine not yet included in this list, as well as other buffalo and small mammal species from the Pleistocene Epoch. One species which became extinct in the 13th to possibly the 16th century, the Asian elephant, which was transported to the Sultanate of Sulu and Maguindanao but became extinct in those areas or whose individuals were transported back to Sabah for unknown reasons. One former species, Acerodon lucifer, is extinct, but is now highly regarded as part of the species Acerodon jubatus today, thus, the species still thrives in the archipelago, but is locally extinct on the island of Panay.

Seven species in the country have been introduced for agriculture, transportation, companionship, and tourism and has played significant roles in the livelihood of the people. One species, the sika deer, was introduced for unknown purpose, and evolved into as separate subspecies on Jolo Island, while three species (introduced accidentally through ships) are worldwide pests: the black and brown rats, and the house mouse.

The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on 1) The Synopsis of Philippine Mammals by the Smithsonian Institution; 2) recent articles on species discovery in the country; 3) domesticated profiles; and 4) those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, the Smithsonian Institution, or the University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically endangered The species is at imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorize it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:

LR/cd Lower risk/conservation dependent Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.
LR/nt Lower risk/near threatened Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.
LR/lc Lower risk/least concern Species for which there are no identifiable risks.

Subclass: Theria[edit]

Infraclass: Eutheria[edit]

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)[edit]


Elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals. One species, the Asian elephant - unknown subspecies like those on Sabah, once lived in both the Sultanate of Sulu and Maguindanao, though became extinct on those areas because of hunting and/or were transported back to Sabah for unknown reasons.

  • Family: Elephantidae (elephants)
    • Genus: Elephas
        • Asian elephant Elephas maximus EN - EX in Philippines - Introduced in the 13th-16th? century from Sabah in the reign of the Sultanate of Sulu, and became extinct on Maguindanao or were transported back to Sabah. Bone fragments were the only proof left behind.[1]

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)[edit]


Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered. One species occur in the Philippines. One fossil species has been discovered in the Philippines in 2011.[2] The fossil hasn't yet been extracted from the rocks in fear of destroying the natural heritage caves of Palawan which are protected by Philippine Law. Future technology in fossil extraction is the only way to get and identify the fossil remain in peace according to the scientists who found the remains.

Order: Scandentia (treeshrews)[edit]


The treeshrews are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Although called treeshrews, they are not true shrews and are not all arboreal. Three species occur in the Philippines, though the Calamian treeshrew is not yet fully considered by the IUCN as a full separate species because assessment is not yet done at present to confirm the movement as of 2013.

Order: Dermoptera (colugos)[edit]


The two species of colugos make up the order Dermoptera. They are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia. Only one species occurs in the Philippines and is endemic to the Mindanao Faunal Region.

Order: Primates[edit]


The order Primates contains humans and their closest relatives: lemurs, lorisoids, monkeys, and apes. Three endemic species occurs in the Philippines.

Order: Rodentia (rodents)[edit]


Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb). As of 2014, 86 native species occur in the Philippines, most endemic to the archipelago. One discovered fossil species has been extinct since the Pleistocene Epoch. The number of species is speculated to rise more because of the high endemic concentration on the islands, which were mostly isolated from Mainland Asia in prehistoric times. There are also three introduced species of rodents in the archipelago; the most common introduced rodents: the house mouse, black rat, and the brown rat, which are considered worldwide pests.

Order: Eulipotyphla (shrews and gymnures)[edit]


The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats. 2 species occurs in the Philippines as of 2013, though speculation persists that perhaps there will be future moonrat species on Leyte, Samar, Basilan, or even Bohol because they were also once part of the Mindanao Faunal Region like Mindanao and Dinagat. The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers. Twelve species occur in the Philippines, most of which are endemic.

Order: Chiroptera (bats)[edit]


The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals. Ninety species occur in the Philippines, though the exact number of species is truly unknown because of the uneven distribution of bat species in Southeast Asia and Australasia. More additional field survey is needed in all of the 7,107 islands of the country archipelago to determine the exact species that occur in the country, and to know the exact number of species that actually live in the archipelago.

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)[edit]


The order Philodota comprises the eight species of pangolin. Pangolins are anteaters and have the powerful claws, elongated snout and long tongue is seen in the other unrelated anteater species. One species occurs in the Philippines, the Philippine pangolin which was elevated to full species status from the Sunda pangolin.

Order: Cetacea (whales)[edit]


Melon-headed whales in Bohol Sea between Balicasag and Alona Beach

The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater. The number of cetacea species that occur in the Philippines is critically unsure. More research and field work is needed to confirm the exact number.

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)[edit]


Leopard cat.

There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition. Seven native species occurs in the Philippines, the second smallest number of carnivore species in any of the Asia-Pacific region countries, next to East Timor. And the smallest number in Southeast Asia compared to land size. One species or subspecies has been introduced: the domestic cat, although its origin is uncertain whether it originated from the leopard cat (though thought by some as introduced in the Visayas from Palawan) in the country or migrated with the Malays, or from Spain and America, or more than two of the former theories. Two subspecies are introduced to the country, the dingo which became extinct 15,000 years ago (dingo migration theory), and the aspin ( the term for the domestic dog in the Philippines) which probably evolved from the dingo.

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)[edit]


The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. They are usually large to very large and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. One species was introduced from Malaysia (probably from Saudi Arabia) and was bred with those that were imported from Spain when the Spaniards built the Spanish East Indies in the Philippines in the 16th century.

  • Family: Equidae
    • Genus: Equus
      • Wild horse Equus ferus
      • Domestic horse Equus ferus caballus - domesticated when introduced, Note: The first horses were introduced by Malays, then the second wave from the Spaniards, thus creating a unique Malay-Spanish breed of horse.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]


The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. 10 native species occur in the Philippines, including the Sus populations in Tawi-tawi Province which are the only Bornean bearded pigs in the country. 5 introduced species occurs in the country: 1.) The carabao, which originated from the water buffalo in Mainland Asia, 2.) The domesticated goat - Philippine breed, 3.) The domesticated pig, though some domesticated pigs in the country originated from native Sus species like those of Banaue, 4.) The domestic cattle, which hybridized from the banteng, and Mexican domestic cattle, forming the breed, Philippine cattle which is further divided into 4 varieties, 5.) The Jolo sika deer which was anciently introduced to Sulu (unknown date, unknown subspecies origin), though it might be already extinct.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.filipiknow.net/prehistoric-animals-in-the-philippines/
  2. ^ lacks reference
  3. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39760/0
  4. ^ Patel, R.P., Wutke, S., Lenz, D., Mukherjee, S., Ramakrishnan, U., Veron, G., Fickel, J., Wilting, A., Förster, D. (2017). "Genetic Structure and Phylogeography of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes". Journal of Heredity. 108 (4): 349−360. doi:10.1093/jhered/esx017. 
  5. ^ Patou, M.L., Wilting, A., Gaubert, P., Esselstyn, J.A., Cruaud, C., Jennings, A.P., Fickel, J., Veron, G. (2010). "Evolutionary history of the Paradoxurus palm civets–a new model for Asian biogeography". Journal of Biogeography. 37: 2092–2093. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02364.x. 
  6. ^ Piper, PJ.., Ochoa, J., Robles, E.C., Lewis, H., Paz, V. (2011). "Palaeozoology of Palawan Island, Philippines". Quaternary International. 233 (2): 142−158. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2010.07.009. 
  7. ^ Veron, G., Willsch, M., Dacosta, V., Patou, M-L., Seymour, A., Bonillo, C., Couloux, A., Wong, S. T., Jennings, A.P., Fickel, J., Wilting, A. (2014). "The distribution of the Malay civet Viverra tangalunga (Carnivora: Viverridae) across Southeast Asia: natural or human-mediated dispersal?". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 170 (4): 917−932. doi:10.1111/zoj.12110. 
  8. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41772/0

References[edit]