List of crewed spacecraft

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This is a list of Human spaceflight types, including space stations, sorted by nation and series in chronological order. Canceled programs are listed at the end.

Comparison[edit]

Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation
Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation

Current human spacecraft[edit]

Soyuz-TMA spacecraft
Shenzhou spacecraft

Orbital[edit]

Russian[edit]

  • Soyuz (1967–present) 3 person Earth orbital;[1] fourth and fifth generations continued operation by Russian Federation. 128 crewed spaceflights (including 1 sub-orbital) as of April 2016. 2 accidental crew losses.

Chinese[edit]

  • Shenzhou (2003–present) 3 person Earth orbital craft. 5 flights as of April 2016.

Space stations[edit]

International Space Station
Main article: Space station

Former human spacecraft[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Soviet/Russian[edit]

Apollo 17 spacecraft
  • Vostok (1961–1963) single-person Earth orbital craft[3] 6 flights.
    • Voskhod (1964–1965) 2 or 3 person Vostok derivative[4] 2 flights.

American[edit]

  • Mercury spacecraft (1961–1963) single-person Earth orbital craft[5] 6 flights (including 2 sub-orbital).
  • Gemini spacecraft (1965–1966) 2 person Earth orbital craft[6] 10 flights.
  • Apollo spacecraft (1968-1975) 15 flights; including 9 lunar missions (with 6 lunar landings).
  • Space Shuttle (1981–2011) 2-8 person Earth orbital craft; first orbit-capable spaceplane; first partially reusable orbital spacecraft. 135 flights were made in 5 shuttles, of which 2 were accidentally destroyed and crews lost.

Suborbital[edit]

  • X-15 (1963) single seat, air-launched spaceplane; two X-15 flights above the Kármán line occurred in 1963[9]
  • SpaceShipOne (2004) single seat, air-launched spaceplane; three flights above the Kármán line occurred in 2004.

Space stations[edit]

  • Salyut series (1971–1991)[10] Salyut's 1, 4, 6, and 7.
  • Skylab (1973–1974) Three crews. De-orbited 1979.
  • Almaz series (1973–1977) Military reconnaissance stations. Badged as Salyut 2, 3 and 5 as disinformation.
  • Mir (1986–2000) 28 crews. De-orbited 2001.
  • Tiangong 1 (2011–2012) 2 crews. Still in orbit but will not receive any further crews.

In development[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Orion ground test a le
Dragon spacecraft during an uncrewed cargo mission to the ISS

American[edit]

Russian[edit]

  • Federatsiya - 4 person Lunar capable craft - 1st crewed flight planned for 2024[17]

Indian[edit]

Iranian[edit]

British[edit]

  • Skylon unpiloted reusable space plane with possible Passenger Module (engine in development)[20]

Suborbital[edit]

SpaceShipTwo with mothership in hangar

American[edit]

Chinese[edit]

  • The Chinese winged rocket - the plane may one day fly up passengers to the edge of space. Two versions: one should be able to fly five people to an altitude of 100 kilometres; other - could fly 20 people to 130 kilometres. Payload launches in 2020.[23]

Japan[edit]

Russian[edit]

  • RSSC - reusable sub-orbital space complex MCKK, private company "KosmoKurs". 1st flight planned for 2020[25][26]

Space Stations[edit]

  • Bigelow Commercial Space Station or Space Complex Alpha, proposed private space habitat scheduled for 2020 initial deployment
  • OPSEK, proposed Russian successor to the International Space Station
  • Tiangong-3, a larger Chinese space station tentatively scheduled for 2022

Proposed[edit]

Cancelled[edit]

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[edit]

Joint NASA / United States Air Force[edit]

Joint NASA / European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

  • X-38 (canceled 1999) lifting body crew-rescue vehicle for ISS

Soviet space program[edit]

  • Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda[28] (1962-1968; military researching ship)
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 (1967–1970) part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar flyby program[citation needed]
  • Soyuz L3 spacecraft (late 1960s to early 1970s); part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar landing program (The LOK would carry two cosmonauts into orbit around the Moon, acting as "mother" spacecraft for the LK Lander, which would land one member of the crew to the surface)[citation needed]
  • Spiral-EPOS (also known as EPOS – Russian acronym for Experimental Passenger Orbital Aircraft – canceled 1976)[29]
  • Shuttle Buran (1976-1988) canceled after one unmanned orbital flight[30]
  • Strelec (Archer; 1979 - 1991) universal military 3 person spaceship - tank, which was created within the project of cosmical complex Sapfir (Sapphire, project canceled)[31]
  • Zarya (project canceled 1989)
  • MAKS (project canceled 1991)

Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA)[edit]

  • Kliper (government funding canceled 2006)

European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

Space stations[edit]

China National Space Administration (CNSA)[edit]

Japan[edit]

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)[edit]

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)[edit]

Non-official[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

USA (private)[edit]

  • XCOR Lynx spaceplane (started 2008, cancelled 2016)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gatland, pp.148-165
  2. ^ http://www.techtimes.com/articles/137291/20160229/china-prepares-to-launch-second-space-lab-tiangong-2-into-orbit-in-2016.htm
  3. ^ Gatland, pp.109-115
  4. ^ Gatland, pp.131-113
  5. ^ Gatland, pp.148, 151-165
  6. ^ Gatland, pp.166-185, 266-275
  7. ^ Gatland, pp.190, 278-280
  8. ^ Gatland, pp.191, 207, 283, 284
  9. ^ Long, Tony (2007-07-19). "July 19, 1963: Cracking the 100-Kilometer-High Barrier ... in a Plane". Advance Publications. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  10. ^ Gatland, pp.229-246
  11. ^ http://spaceflights.news/?p=15604
  12. ^ http://spacenews.com/boeing-delays-first-crewed-cst-100-flight-to-2018/
  13. ^ "Orion Quick Facts" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  14. ^ http://www.space.com/30560-nasa-orion-space-capsule-crewed-launch-delay.html
  15. ^ a b Ferster, Warren (2011-04-18). "NASA Announces CCDev 2 Awards". Imaginova Corp. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  16. ^ http://spacenews.com/spacex-unveils-mars-mission-plans/
  17. ^ http://www.russianspaceweb.com/ptk-2015.html
  18. ^ http://www.bangaloremirror.com/bangalore/others/Indias-manned-space-mission-not-in-near-future-or-never/articleshow/50034034.cms
  19. ^ http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Too_Ambitious_to_be_True_Iran_Plans_to_Send_Humans_to_Space_by_2016_999.html
  20. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3359967/Spaceplanes-vs-super-rockets-Expert-reveals-win-battle-cheap-space.html
  21. ^ http://news.discovery.com/space/private-spaceflight/inside-jeff-bezos-secret-rocket-factory-160311.htm
  22. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2016/02/19/us/virgin-galactic-new-space-plane/
  23. ^ https://www.newscientist.com/article/2107802-china-plans-worlds-biggest-spaceplane-to-carry-20-tourists
  24. ^ http://protechnology.jp/companies/development-and-production-of-prototype/pd-aerospace/
  25. ^ http://technicamolodezhi.ru/rubriki_tm/klub_tm/V_KOSMOS_S_MYAGKOY_PEREGRUZKOY
  26. ^ http://www.cosmocourse.com/
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ [4]
  31. ^ [5]
  32. ^ "printer friendly page ATV evolution: Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV)". European Space Agency. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 

Sources[edit]