List of mannerist structures in Southern Poland

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The mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland include two major traditions - Polish/Italian and Dutch/Flemish, that dominated in northern Poland.[1] The Silesian mannerism of south-western Poland was largely influenced by Bohemian and German mannerism, while the Pomeranian mannerism of north-western Poland was influenced by Gothic tradition and Northern German mannerism. The Jews in Poland adapted patterns of Italian and Polish mannerism to their own tradition.[2] The mannerist complex of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and mannerist City of Zamość are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Polish mannerism, though largely dominated by Italian architects and sculptors, has its unique characteristics which differentiate it from its Italian equivalent (attics, decorational motives, construction and shape of buildings, Dutch, Bohemian and German influences).[1] Among notable architects and sculptors of Polish/Italian mannerism wer Santi Gucci, Jan Michałowicz of Urzędów, Giovanni Maria Padovano, Giovanni Battista di Quadro, Jan Frankiewicz, Galleazzo Appiani, Jan Jaroszewicz, Bernardo Morando, Kasper Fodyga, Krzysztof Bonadura, Antoneo de Galia and many others.

Lesser Poland Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Biecz Town Hall Tower erected in 1569 with Ratusz built in 1569–1580 Polish mannerism (architect Jeremiasz Kwajer of Wrocław).[3] The present clock tower was built when former 15th-century tower collapsed in 1569.[3] It was established by Marcin Kromer.[3] The new tower, built on square and octagonal plan, was covered with a mannerist spire and decorated with sgraffito patterns imitating rustication.[3]
Wieza Biecz.JPG
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Basilica of St. Mary 1603–1609 Polish/Dutch mannerism (architects Jan Maria Bernardoni and Paul Baudarth). The church was established by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, voivode of Kraków for Order of Friars Minor. The church was designed by Bernardoni and the construction process was conducted by Baudarth, an architect and goldsmith from Antwerp.[4]
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - klasztor.jpg
Ecce Homo Chapel 1605–1609 Dutch mannerism (architect Paul Baudarth). It was built on the plan of the Greek cross. The vault adorned with profuse stucco decorations in the style of Dutch mannerism.[5]
POL Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Kaplica Ecce Homo.jpg
Chapel of the Crucifixion 1600–1601 Dutch mannerism. The chapel is the first structure built by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski in Kalwaria and give a beginning to the whole complex.[6]
POL Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Kaplica Ukrzyżowania.jpg
Heart of Mary Chapel 1615 Dutch mannerism (architect Paul Baudarth). It was built on the plan of a heart. The chapel commemorate Jesus' encounter with Mary on the road to Calvary.[7]
Kalwaria zebrzydowska1.JPG
Kraków Boner House 1560 Polish mannerism. The original gothic building was rebuilt for Jan Firlej, Grand Marshal of the Crown and his wife Barbara Mniszech.[8] In 1604 the wedding ceremony of Marina Mniszech and False Dmitriy I, Tsar of Russia was held in the house.[8] Richly decorated mannerist attic (caryatids, floral and animal motives) is attributed to the workshop of Santi Gucci.
Kamienica Bonerowska.JPG
Branicki Manor House c. 1603 Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci). The manor house was created for Jan Branicki by enlarging the early 16th century keep. The rectangular building (12 x 10m) was decorated with sgraffito and crowned with an attic gabled with crenellation.[9]
Renaissance manor house in Branice by Maire.jpg
Ciborium in St. Mary's Basilica 1552 Polish mannerism (sculptor Giovanni Maria Padovano).[10] The St. Mary's Basilica's Ciborium was established by Kraków's goldsmiths Andrzej Mastelli and Jerzy Pipan.[10] It was made of sandstone and adorned with red Salzburg marble, alabaster and stucco. A cast bronze balustrade was created in 1595 by Michał Otto and decorated with Polish and Lithuanian coat of arms.[10]
Cyborium close-up.JPG
Collegium Iuridicum 1630s Polish mannerism. Collegium Iuridicum of the Jagiellonian University was founded in 1403 for the jurists, as one of the oldest university's buildings.[11] The original gothic building was reconstructed in the mannerist style (arcade courtyard) and early baroque style (main portal).[11]
Collegium Iuridicum Kraków 02.jpg
Dean's House 1582–1592 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci).[12] It is a former residence of the canons, founded in the 14th century. During the 16th-century reconstruction the arcade courtyard was added and the facade was adorned with a portal and sgraffito decoration.[12]
Kanonicza 21 - Kraków.jpg
Decjusz Villa 1630 Italian mannerism (architect Maciej Trapola).[13] The original villa, built between 1528-1535 for Justus Decjusz, was rebuilt for Sebastian Lubomirski.[13] Inspiration for this reconstruction was a renaissance treaty by Sebastiano Serlio.[13]
Willa Decjusza, 2009.JPG
Holy Trinity Church - Gonzaga-Myszkowski Chapel 1603–1614 Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Santi Gucci), decorated with rustication. The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel (1519–1533). It was founded by Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski (together with his brother Piotr, he was adopted in 1597 by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua).[14]
Old Synagogue - Aron Kodesh late 16th century Jewish mannerism (possibly workshop of Matteo Gucci).[15] The tympanum of the Aron Kodesh bears a Hebrew inscription that reads: By me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things (Book of Proverbs 28:17).
Old Synagogue Krakow 29.jpg
Prelate House 1618–1619 Polish mannerism (architects Maciej Litwinkowicz and Jan Zatorczyk).[15] The characteristics are late renaissance attic by Zatorczyk (1625) and sgraffito decoration imitating diamond-pointed rustication.[15]
Prałatówka Kraków.JPG
Vasa Gate 1590 Polish mannerism. Vasa Gate was the only entrance to the Wawel Castle. The current building replaced an earlier gothic gate and was founded by king Sigismund III Vasa.[16] The inner side was adorned with mannerist attic with palmettes, volutes and sheaves (the emblem of the house of Vasa).[16]
Wawel Cathedral - Stephen Báthory Tomb 1594–1595 Polish mannerism (sculptor Santi Gucci). Established by Queen Anna Jagiellon to commemorate her husband Stephen Báthory.[17] Made of sandstone, red marble and alabaster.[17]
Nagrobek Stefana Batorego.jpg
Książ Wielki Mirów Palace 1585–1595 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). Founded by Piotr Myszkowski, bishop of Cracow as a fortified palace (palazzo in fortezza).[18] The palace is decorated with rusticated stonework.[18]
Mirów Palace Pavilion late 16th century Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). One of two mannerist pavilions situated on the both sides of the Mirów Palace.[18] The pavilions were built to house a library and a chapel.[18]
Książ Wielki budynek przy dziedzińcu zamku.JPG
Niepołomice Church of 10.000 Christians - Branicki Chapel 1596 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). Established by Jan Branicki, castellan of Biecz to commemorate his parents Katarzyna Kotwicz and Grzegorz Branicki.[19]
Niepolomice db07.JPG
Royal Castle 1635–1637 Polish mannerism. The major mannerist additions to the original 14th-century castle were gate (1588) and arcade courtyard (1635–1637).[20]
Sucha Beskidzka Komorowski Castle 1608–1614 Polish mannerism (architect - probably Paul Baudarth). The original defensive mansion built between 1554-1580 was enlarged and rebuilt for Piotr Komorowski.[21]
SuchaBeskidzka castle.jpg
Sułoszowa Szafraniec Castle - Courtyard after 1557-1578[22] Polish mannerism.[23] The trapezoid shape courtyard was surrounded at the level of two upper storeys by arcades, embellished with 21 mascarons.[22] The arcade risalit above the gate is a 17th-century addition.[22]
Pieskowa Skała - zamek - krużganki.jpg
Szafraniec Castle - Loggia after 1578[24] Polish mannerism. For the first time the 14th-century castle was rebuilt in renaissance style between 1542-1544 by Niccolò Castiglione with participation of Gabriel Słoński of Kraków.[22] The sponsor of the castle reconstruction in mannerist style was a Calvinist Stanisław Szafraniec, voivode of Sandomierz.[22] At that time the original medieval tower was transformed into a scenic double loggia decorated in the sgraffito technique.
Pieskowa Skala 31.jpg
Tarnów Tarnów Cathedral - Ostrogski Tomb 1612–1620 Dutch mannerism (design by Willem van den Blocke). Established by Janusz Ostrogski, voivode of Volhyn.[25] Made of black and red marble and yellow alabaster. It depicts the kneeling figures of the founder and his first wife Zsuzsanna Serédi of Felsőnovaj.[25] The monument was enlarged using the trompe-l'œil technique.[25]
Ostrogscy, Tarnów.JPG
Houses with arcades second half of the 16th century Polish mannerism. The house No. 20, built in about 1565, belonged to the Scottish family, the Huysons.[26] It is adorned wit sgraffito decoration imitating rustication.
Tarnów, centrum města, Rynek, historické domy.JPG

Lower Silesian Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Krobielowice Abbot's Palace 1596–1613 Bohemian mannerism. The renaissance mansion of St. Vincent Monastery in Ołbin, built between 1570–1580, was rebuilt for abbot Scultetus to house the monastery's estate administration (grangia).[27]
Oleśnica Ducal Castle 1585–1608 German mannerism (architect Bernard Niuron).[28] The original gothic castle (built by duke Konrad I of Oleśnica) was successively enlarged and rebuilt by the powerful bohemian magnates the Poděbrads.[28] The reconstruction in mannerist style began in 1585. Duke Charles II built a new eastern and southern wings. He also rebuilt the so-called Widow Palace. The courtyard was emebllished with characteristic balconies and the main gate portal was adorned with Silesian and Poděbrad family crests.[28]
Olesnica (js).jpg
Sobieski's Castle in Oława Abbot's Palace ?–1588 German mannerism. The Renaissance castle was built by master Jakub of Milan (most likely with the surname Parr, builder of the Bolków Castle), and continued by Barnard Niuron in 1588. It was constructed on the site of a medieval castle built by Duke Ludwik I built in the second half of the fourteenth century. [29][30]
SM Oława PlacZamkowy15 (11).jpg
Wrocław House of the Griffins 1587–1589 German/Dutch mannerism (architect Friedrich Gross).[31] It is the largest merchant house in Wrocław (16.25m wide), originally built in about 1300.[31] The house was rebuilt for Daniel von Turnau und Kueschmalz and his wife Dorothea von Matte. The mannerist portal with founders' crests was carved by Gerhard Hendrik of Amsterdam.[31] The house was named after griffins decorating the attic.[31]
Kamienica Pod Gryfami Wrocław.jpg
St. Mary Magdalene's Church - Pulpit 1579–1580 German mannerism (sculptor Friedrich Gross).[32] It was carved in precious materials: Ruthenian alabaster from Lviv, Silesian sandstone, marble and gabbro from the Mount Ślęża.[32] The alabaster reliefs on the sides depicts scenes from the Old Testament - The Fall of Jericho, Elijah calling down fire from heaven on Ahaziah's soldiers, David and Goliath encounter and Daniel in the Lion's Den.[32]
Maria Magdalena-Ambona.JPG
Zagórze Śląskie Grodno Castle before 1587 Bohemian mannerism. The reconstruction of a medieval Piast Castle was started by Matthias von Logau (Maciej z Łagowa) and accomplished by his son Georg.[33] The castle was adorned with beautifully carved sandstone portals and sgraffitos (Gate, 1570).[33]
Zagorze(js) 3.jpg
Żórawina Holy Trinity Church 1600–1608 German/Dutch mannerism. The 14th-century church was reconstructed in mannerist style at Adam von Hanniwaldt's initiative. The undertaking was financially supported by Adam's brother Andreas, councillor at the court of Emperor Rudolph II. Among the artists employed in decoration of the church were eminent Dutch sculptors Adriaen de Vries and Gerhard Hendrik.[34]

Opole Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Brzeg Piast Castle Courtyard 1556–1558 Silesian mannerism (architect Francesco de Pario of Bissone). The original gothic castle was rebuilt for Jerzy II the Magnificent, duke of Brzeg and Legnica.[35] It was probably inspired by Wawel Castle courtyard.[36] The architecture of the castle's arcades bears strong resemblance to Opočno Castle in the Czech Republic and Schloss Güstrow in Germany.
0 Brzeg 15.jpg
Piast Castle Gate 1554–1560 Silesian mannerism. The gate was adorned with profuse mannerist reliefs and sculptures of Jerzy II and his wife Barbara of Brandenburg.[36] The busts depicts 24 Piasts, ancestors of Jerzy II - 12 rulers of Poland from the legendary Piast the Wheelwright to Władysław II the Exile and 12 dukes of Silesia from Henry I the Bearded to Frederick II of Legnica.[36] The inspiration for this decoration were woodcuts from the 1521 Chronica Polonorum by Maciej Miechowita.[36]
Town Hall 1570–1577 Silesian mannerism (architects Jacopo de Pario and Bernard Niuron of Lugano).[37] It was built to replace former late gothic building burned in 1569. The architecture of the building was inspired by both Polish/Bohemian (loggia) and German mannerism (attics).
Niemodlin Promnitz Castle 1581–1591 Bohemian mannerism. The ruined gothic castle (built in 1313 by Bolesław the Elder) was purcheased in 1581 by Kaspar von Pückler from the Emperor Rudolph II.[38] Pückler enlarged and rebuilt the castle in mannerist style. In 1610 another wing was added to close the courtyard (sponsored by new owners von Promnitz family). The castle's architecture bears strong resemblance to renaissance residencies in Bohemia (e.g. Castle in Častolovice, 1588–1615).[39]
Niemodlin - zamek 002.JPG
Nysa Town Scale 1602–1604 Silesian mannerism. The building was founded at bishop Johann VI. von Sitsch's initiative. It was decorated with sculptures attributed to the workshop of Georg Pullmann. The architecture of the Town Scale was inspired by both Bohemian (arcades) and German mannerism (gables).
Neisse - Kämmereigebäudes (Dom Wagi Miejskiej).jpg

Silesian Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Żywiec Cathedral tower 1582–1585 Polish/Bohemian mannerism (architect Giovanni Ricci).[40] The tower was added to the gothic church (built before 1470) between 1582-1583 at initiative of Komorowski brothers - Jan Spytek and Krzysztof.[40] The construction was conducted by a stonemason Maciej Świętek. In 1585 the stone-built tower was enhanced (17.5m high) with the upper part in brick and embellished with an arcade loggia.[40]
Żywiec - Konkatedra.jpg
Komorowski Castle 1567 Polish mannerism. The original 15th-century castle was rebuilt for Jan Spytek Komorowski, cup-bearer of Kraków.[41] The new palace was decorated with an arcade courtyard and sgraffitos.[41]
Zywiec2 (js).jpg

Subcarpathian Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Baranów Sandomierski Leszczyński Castle 1591–1606 Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci).[42] The castle was built for Rafał Leszczyński and his son Andrzej as a fortified palace (palazzo in fortezza).[42] The architecture of the castle merge all the characteristics of Polish mannerism - side towers, arcade courtyard and richly decorated attic.
Jarosław Church of Corpus Cristi 1582–1594 Polish mannerism (architect Giuseppe Briccio with participation of Stefan Murator of Jarosław).[43] Established by Zofia Odrowąż, wife of Jan Kostka, voivode of Pomerania.[43]
Jarosław Kolegiata Bożego Ciała.JPG
Orsetti House 1570–1593, 1646 Polish mannerism. Built for Stanisław Smiszowic, Jarosław's apothecary.[44] In 1633 the building was purchased by Wilhelm Orsetti and rebuilt in 1646.[44]
Jarosław kamienica Orsettich.jpg
Church of St. Nicolas 1615–1624 Polish mannerism. The church was founded by Anna Kostka for Benedictine Sisters.[45] The church was built on the plan of a Latin cross. Richly decorated mannerist portal, created in 1621, was during the construction of the abbey transferred to east elevation of the church in 1635.
Jaroslaw opactwo kosciol 1.JPG
Krasiczyn Krasicki Palace 1580–1631 Polish mannerism (architect Galleazzo Appiani).[46] The construction was started by Stanisław Krasicki and accomplished by his son Marcin Krasicki, voivode of Podolia. It was built as a fortified palace.[46] Each tower of the Krasicki Palace is different and both inner and the outer facades were decorated with profuse sgraffitos (they cover more than 7000 square meters in total).[46]
Zanek w Krasiczynie - dziedziniec.jpg
Lesko Fortified Synagogue 1626–1654 Jewish mannerism.[47] The facade bears a Hebrew inscription that reads: He was afraid and said, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God; this is the gate of heaven." (Genesis 28:17)[48]
Lesko synagoga 2.jpg
Leżajsk Basilica of St. Mary 1618–1628 Polish mannerism (architect Antonio Pellaccini with participation of Szymon Sarocki).[49] The church was erected by Łukasz Opaliński and his wife Anna Pilecka in gratitude to God for granted victory over the Devil of Łańcut - Stanisław Stadnicki.[49]
Defensive Walls first half of the 17th century Polish mannerism. The monastery was surrounded by a wall 10 m high.[50] The pentagonal wall tower so-called puntone was built at that time.[50]
Monastery 1637 Polish mannerism (architect Antonio Pellaccini with participation of Szymon Sarocki).[50] The mannerist monastery building was built adjacent to the church and connected with the church's presbytery. It was constructed as a one-storeyed four-wing building with a cloister in the center and pavilions at the corners.[50]
Leżajsk Monastery 24.JPG
Przemyśl Kazimierz Castle beginning of the 17th century Polish mannerism (architect Galleazzo Appiani).[51] The original 14th-century castle was rebuilt for Marcin Krasicki. The mannerist decorations of tower link to solutions adopted in Krasiczyn Palace.[51]
2015, Przemyśl, Zamek Kazimierzowski (02).jpg
Carmelite Church 1624–1630 Polish mannerism (architect - probably Galleazzo Appiani).[52] The church was founded in 1620 by Marcin Krasicki, starost of Przemyśl and owner of Krasiczyn.[52] The construction started in 1630 and was conducted by master craftsman Ligęski of Przemyśl.[52]
Kosciol Karmelitow - Przemysl1.jpg
Przemyśl Cathedral - Fredro Tomb after 1622 Polish mannerism. The tomb monument was constructed for Jan Fredro, castellan of Przemyśl and his wife Anna ze Stadnickich.[53] It was carved in limestone and alabaster in tuscan order.[53] The top of the tomb is decorated with a sculpture of archangel Michael.
7 Przemysl 062.jpg
Rzeszów Bernardine Church 1610-1629 German/Polish mannerism (Leipzig architects). Established by Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza in 1610.[54] The church architecture bears strong resemblance to contemporary German style inspired by gothic patterns. The sole tower with main entry was adorned with one line of ascending windows crowned with two small windows at the top (e.g. Protestant church in Gollma, Landsberg, Saxony-Anhalt). The Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave ended with a round presbytery also refers to gothic style.
Alabaster Altar in Bernardine Church before 1637 German mannerism. Commissioned by Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza and executed by Johann Pfister or Johann Behem.[54] The central bas-relief in alabaster depicts the Lamentation of Christ and is supplemented with seven wooden, waxed and gilded reliefs with scenes from the Passion (from bottom right): Christ in the Garden of Olives, Flagellation, Crowning with thorns, Fall under the cross, Christ being nailed to the Cross, Elevation of the Cross and Descent from the Cross and three alabaster reliefs in predella: the Archangel Gabriel, Saint Anne and the Annunciation.[54]
Pfister Alabaster altar 02.jpg
Ligęza Mausoleum in Bernardine Church 1630-1638 German/Italian mannerism (attributed to Sebastiano Sala of Lugano).[54] Tomb monuments of the Ligęza family were established by Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza.[54] The life size sculptures depicts eight most prominent members of the family as orants facing towards the altar.[54] The statues were made of alabaster and integrated into the northern and the southern wall of the chancel.[54]
Pfister Ligęza mausoleum 01.jpg

Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship[edit]

Place Building Date of construction Style and history Image
Bejsce Church of St. Nicholas - Firlej Chapel 1594–1601 Polish mannerism (architect Tomasz Nikiel of Pińczów).[55] Tęczyński Chapel was founded by Mikołaj Firlej, voivode of Kraków to commemorate himself and his first wife Elżbieta Ligęza.[55] The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel in Kraków, and its profuse interior decorations are attributed to the workshop of Santi Gucci.[55]
Bejsce church 20060624 1334.jpg
Kielce Bishops' Palace 1637–1644 Italian/Dutch mannerism (architect Tommaso Poncino).[56] The palace was established by Jakub Zadzik, bishop of Kraków. The building was inspired by the royal residences in Warsaw and modelled in the so-called Poggio–Reale style after Villa Poggio Reale in Naples.[56] Steep roofs, towers and decorations are Dutch style features.
Kielce Bishops' palace 20051008 1019.jpg
Kielce Cathedral 1632–1635 Polish mannerism. The original romanesque church (built in 1171) was enlarged and rebuilt at cardinal John Albert Vasa's initiative.[57]
Katedra Kielce 01 ssj 20060513.jpg
Pińczów Church of St. John the Baptist beginning of the 17th century Polish mannerism. The original 1380 building was rebuilt in the mannerist style in the beginning of the 17th century, when the Polish Brethren were exiled from the city.[58] The western facade with mannerist gable was accomplished in 1642.
Pinczow church 20060722 1526.jpg
Garden Pavilion late 16th century Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci).[59] The building is the only preserved of four garden pavilions of the Pińczów Castle. The pavilion was built on a pentagonal plan and covered with tented roof; the portal was adorned with Jastrzębiec coat of arms.[59]
Pinczow 20060722 1425.jpg
Old Synagogue 1594–1609 Jewish mannerism (possibly workshop of Santi Gucci).[15] In 1594 Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski issues a privilege asserting the Pińczów Jewish community's right to build a synagogue.[60]
Synagogue in Pińczów - inside - 01.JPG
St. Anne's Chapel 1600 Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci).[61] The building was established by Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski, marquess in Mirów to commemorate a Jubilee of 1600.[61]
Pinczow 20060722 1429.jpg
Rytwiany Church of the Annunciation 1624–1637 Polish mannerism. The church was established by Jan Magnus Tęczyński, starost of Płock for Camaldolese Brothers. The construction process, according to Italian patterns, was conducted by friar Hyacinth.[62]
Klasztor pokamedulski-18.jpg
Sandomierz Town Hall tower beginning of the 17th century Polish mannerism. The original 14th-century building was rebuilt in the renaissance style in the 16th century.[63]
Sandomierz 14a.JPG
Collegium Gostomianum 1604–1615 Polish mannerism (architect Michał Hintz). The building was established in 1602 by Hieronim Gostomski, voivode of Poznań for the Jesuits.[64]
Collegium Gostomianum.jpg
Staszów Church of St. Bartholomew - Tęczyński Chapel 1618–1625 Polish mannerism (Pińczów workshop, circle of Santi Gucci).[65] Tęczyński Chapel was founded by Katarzyna Leszczyńska to commemorate her husband Andrzej Tęczyński, castellan of Bełz and son Jacek.[65] The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel and decorated with rustication.[65]
Staszów 10.jpg
Ujazd Krzyżtopór 1621–1644 Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Wawrzyniec Senes of Sent). The palace was built for Krzysztof Ossoliński as a fortified palace with bastions on plan of a regular pentagon. Krzyżtopór has 4 towers (seasons of the year), 12 halls (months), 52 chambers (weeks of the year) and 365 windows (days of the year).[66]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bolesław Klimaszewski (1984). An outline history of Polish culture. Interpress. pp. 92–120. ISBN 83-223-2036-1. 
  2. ^ Andrzej Trzciński (2001). "1-2(7-8)". Zachowane wystroje malarskie bożnic w Polsce (in Polish). Studia Judaica 4. pp. 67–95. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Renesansowy Ratusz". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  4. ^ "Sanktuarium Kalwaryjskie". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  5. ^ "Ratusz Pilata". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  6. ^ "Ważniejsze wydarzenia". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  7. ^ "Kaplica Serca Maryi". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  8. ^ a b "Kamienica Bonerowska". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  9. ^ "Renesansowa rezydencja Branickich". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  10. ^ a b c "Historia". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28.  ...cyborium, wykonane w latach 1551-1554 przez rzeźbiarza i architekta Jana Marię Mosca zwanego Padovano, zaangażowanego przez ówczesnych prowizorów kościoła Andrzeja Marstellę i Jerzego Pipana. (...) ...balustrada i ażurowe bramki, odlane w brązie w 1595 roku przez Michała Otta, który ozdobił je herbami Polski i Litwy.
  11. ^ a b "Collegium Iuridicum". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  12. ^ a b The portal was decorted with a Leszczyc coat of arms and a Latin inscription: Procul este profani - let the unsanctified keep their distance."Dom Dziekański". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  13. ^ a b c "History of Villa Decius". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  14. ^ "Zygmunt Myszkowski h. Jastrzębiec (1562-1615)". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Stara Synagoga". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "pralatowka" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  16. ^ a b "Brama Wazów". (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  17. ^ a b "Kaplica Mariacka". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  18. ^ a b c d The original 16th-century building was enhanced between 1841 and 1846 and decorated in Neo-Gothic style by Friedrich August Stüler for Franciszek Wielopolski. Source: "Książ Wielki". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  19. ^ "Renesansowa Fundacja Branickich". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  20. ^ Mieczyslaw Tadeusz Borowiec. "Zamek w Niepolomicach" (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  21. ^ "Renesansowy zamek zwany "Małym Wawelem"". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Historia zamku". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  23. ^ "Pieskowa Skała". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  24. ^ Państwowy Instytut Sztuki, Stowarzyszenie Historyków Sztuki (1969). Biuletyn historii sztuki, Tom 31. p. 434. 
  25. ^ a b c "Pomnik Ostrogskich". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  26. ^ "Historia". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  27. ^ "Pałac". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  28. ^ a b c "Zamek Książąt Oleśnickich". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  29. ^ "Zamek Oławski". Gmzorawina. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  30. ^ "Zamek Oława". Zamki. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d "9. Zachodnia pierzeja Rynku". (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
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