List of marine animals of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Map showing approximate extent of the range of the article and identifying key locations
Marine ecoregions of the South African exclusive economic zone
Marine species distribution reference map of the Southern African coastline.

The list of marine animals of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay is a list of marine and shore-based species that form a part of the fauna of South Africa. This list includes animals which either live entirely marine lives, or which spend critical parts of their lives at sea.

The geographical range is from Bloubergstrand at the north of Table Bay to Cape Hangklip, the south eastern limit of False Bay, in the Western Cape province of South Africa and includes the Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area[1] and the Helderberg Marine Protected Area.

Contents

Sponges[edit]

Calcarea – Lime sponges[edit]

Order Leucosolenida

Family Sycettidae

Family Leucosoleniidae

Demospongiae – fibre or horny sponges[edit]

Order Astrophorida

Family Ancorinidae

Order Hadromerida

Family Clionaidae

Family Polymastiidae

Family Trachycladidae

Family Suberitidae

  • Dusty sponge Suberites aff. ficus (both side of the Cape Peninsula, also southern Namibia, Mediterranean, Pacific and north Atlantic)[3]

Family Tethyidae

Order Halichondrida

Family Halichondriidae

  • Crumb-of-bread-sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis (Montagu, 1818) (Northern Cape to Port St. Johns, also north Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Pacific)[2]

Order Poecilosclerida

Family Chondropsidae

Family Crambeidae

Family Latrunculiidae

  • Vented sponge Latrunculia (Biannulata) spinispiraefera Brøndsted, 1924 (Angola to Durban)[4]

Family Isodictyidae

Family Microcionidae

Family Desmacellidae

Order Haplosclerida

Family Chalinidae

Order Dictyoceratida

Family Irciniidae

  • Black stink sponge Ircinia arbuscula (Hyatt, 1877) (syn. Sarcotragus australis) (Cape Peninsula to Cape Agulhas, also Australia)[4]
  • Sand cup sponge Psammocinia cf. arenosa (Orange River to Cape Peninsula)[4]

Cnidarians[edit]

Anthozoa[edit]

Hexacorallians[edit]

Order: Actiniaria – Anemones
Family Halcampidae

Family Sagartiidae

Family Actiniidae

Family Preactiidae

  • Walking anemone, sock anemone Preactis millardae England in England & Robson, 1984 (Cape Peninsula)[8]

Family Isanthidae

Order Corallimorpharia
Family Corallimorphidae

Order Zoanthids
Family Parazoanthidae

Order Cerianthids
Family Cerianthidae

Octocorallians[edit]

Order Scleractinia
Family Dendrophylliidae

  • Cup coral Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) bonaespei van der Horst, 1938 (Saldanha Bay to East London)[2]

Family Caryophylliidae

Order Alcyonacea – soft corals
Family Alcyoniidae

Family Gorgoniidae

  • Flagellar sea fan, whip fan Eunicella albicans (Kolliker, 1875) (Cape Peninsula to Port Elizabeth)[2]
  • Nippled sea fan Eunicella papillosa (Esper, 1797) (Luderitz to Sodwana)[2]
  • Sinuous sea fan Eunicella tricoronata Velimirov, 1971 (Cape Peninsula to East London)[2]
  • Palmate sea fan Leptogorgia palma (Pallas, 1766) (Cape Peninsula to Sodwana)[2]

Family Nephtheidae

Order Pennatulacea – sea pens
Family Echinoptilidae

Family Virgulariidae

Order Alcyonacea – sea fans
Family Anthothelidae

Family Melithaeidae

Medusozoa[edit]

Staurozoa[edit]

Order Stauromedusae
family Depastridae

Family Lipkeidae

Scyphozoa - True jellyfish[edit]

Order Semaeostomeae
Family Pelagiidae

Order Rhizostomeae
Family Rhizostomatidae

Order Carybdeida
Family Carybdeidae

Hydrozoans[edit]

Order Anthoathecata

Family Candelabridae

Family Eudendriidae

Family Hydractiniidae

Family Porpitidae

Family Solanderiidae

Family Stylasteridae

Family Tubulariidae

Order: Leptothecata
Family Aequoreidae

Family Aglaopheniidae

Family Campanulariidae

Family Halopterididae

Family Kirchenpaueriidae

Family Plumulariidae

Family Sertulariidae

Order Siphonophorae
Family Apolemiidae

Family Forskaliidae

Family Physaliidae

Ctenophora - Comb jellies[edit]

Order Beroida
Family Beroidae

Order Cestida
Family Cestidae

Order Cydippida
Family Pleurobrachiidae

Order Lobata
Family Bolinopsidae

Worms[edit]

Platyhelminthes - Flatworms[edit]

Order Polycladida
Family Pseudocerotidae

Incertae sedis

  • Acoel flatworm, Sponge flatworm. Undescribed. (Both sides of the Cape Peninsula)[7]
  • Striped flatworm. Undescribed. (Cape Peninsula and Port Elizabeth)[7]
  • Freckled flatworm. Undescribed. (Both sides of the Cape Peninsula)[7]

Polychaeta - Bristleworms, annelids[edit]

Order Eunicida
Family Eunicidae

Order Myzostomida
Family Myzostomidae

Order Terebellida
Family Cirratulidae

Family Terebellidae

Order Sabellida
Family Sabellidae

Family Serpulidae

Arthropods[edit]

Pycnogonida - Sea spiders[edit]

Order Pantopoda
Family Ammotheidae

Family Nymphonidae

Superfamily Ascorhynchoidea family incertae sedis

Crustacea[edit]

Order Stomatopoda – mantis shrimps
Family Lysiosquillidae

Order Decapoda
Infraorder Achelata
Family Palinuridae

  • West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) (Walvis Bay to Port Elizabeth)[2]

Infraorder Caridea – benthic prawns
Family Alpheidae

Family Hippolytidae

Family Palaemonidae

Infraorder Anomura – hermit crabs
Family Diogenidae

Family Paguridae

Infraorder Brachyura – true crabs
Family Calappidae

  • Masked crab Mursia cristiata H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Saldanha Bay to Sodwana Bay)[2] synonym Mursia cristimanus

Family Plagusiidae

  • Cape rock crab Guinusia chabrus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Luderitz to Sodwana Bay)[2] synonym Plagusia chabrus

Family Portunidae

Family Pilumnoididae

Family Hymenosomatidae

Family Dromiidae

Family Inachidae

Family Epialtidae

  • Toothed decorator crab Dehaanius dentatus (Milne-Edwards, ?1862) (Saldanha Bay to Richards Bay)[2]
  • Agulhas spider crab Maja capensis (Ortmann, 1894) (False Bay to Port Elizabeth)[26] syn. Mamaia capensis

Order Mysidacea – mysid shrimps
Family Mysidae

Order Amphipoda
Family Cyproideidae

Family Iphimediidae

Family Dexaminidae

Family Caprellidae

Order Isopoda
Family Idoteidae

Family Cymothoidae

Family Anthuridae

Family Sphaeromatidae

  • Spherical isopod Exosphaeroma spp. (whole Namibian coast to cape Peninsula)[2]

Infraclass Cirripedia – Barnacles
Order Pedunculata
Family Lepadidae

Order Sessilia
Family Balanidae

Bryozoans - Moss animals, lace animals[edit]

Order Cheilostomatida
Family Adeonellidae

  • Forked false coral Adionella spp. (Namibian border to Durban)[4]

Family Adeonidae

Family Beaniidae

Family Bugulidae

Family Calwelliidae

Family Candidae

Family Celleporidae

Family Chaperiidae

Family Electridae

Family Exochellidae

Family Flustridae

Family Gigantoporidae

Family Lanceoporidae

Family Lepraliellidae

Family Margarettidae

Family Membraniporidae

Family Phidoloporidae

Family Steginoporellidae

Family Watersiporidae

Order Ctenostomatida
Family Alcyonidiidae

Order Cyclostomatida
Family Diaperoeciidae

Molluscs[edit]

Gastropoda - Slugs and snails[edit]

Patellogastropoda - True limpets[edit]

Family Patellidae – true limpets

Vetigastropoda[edit]

Family Haliotidae – Abalone

  • Perlemoen or abalone Haliotis midae Linnaeus, 1758 (Cape Columbine to KwaZulu-Natal South coast)[2]
  • Spiral-ridged siffie Haliotis parva Linnaeus, 1758 (Cape Point to Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Siffie or Venus ear Haliotis spadicea Donovan, E., 1808 (Cape Point to KwaZulu-Natal north coast)[2]

Family Fissurellidae – keyhole limpets

Caenogastropoda[edit]

Family Janthinidae

  • Bubble raft shell or Violet snail Janthina janthina Linnaeus, 1758 (Cape Columbine to Mozambique)[2]

Family Turritellidae

Littorinimorpha[edit]

Family Aporrhaidae – pelican foot shells

Family Assimineidae

Family Calyptraeidae – slipper limpets

Family Cassidae – helmet shells

Family Cypraeidae – true cowries

Family Hipponicidae – hoof limpets

Family Littorinidae

Family Naticidae – Necklace shells

  • Mottled necklace shell Natica tecta Anton, 1839 (Namibia to Eastern Cape)[2]

Family Ranellidae

Family Triviidae – trivia

Family Velutinidae

Family Vermetidae – worm shells

  • Colonial worm shell Dendropoma corallinaceus (Tomlin, 1939) (Orange river to Transkei)[2] (Keen & Morton listed as authors by WoRMS) (syn. Vermetus (Stoa) corallinaceus Tomlin, 1939)
  • Solitary worm shell Serpulorbis natalensis Mörch, 1862 (Namaqualand to central Kwa-Zulu-Natal)[2]
Neogastropoda[edit]

Family Babyloniidae

Family Buccinidae

Family Conidae – cone shells

  • Algoa cone Conus algoensis G. B. Sowerby II, 1834 (Cape Columbine to Cape Agulhas)[2]
    • Conus algoensis algoensis (West Coast)[2]
    • Yellow Algoa cone Conus algoensis simplex G. B. Sowerby II, 1858 (Cape Point to Hermanus)[2]
  • Elongate cone Conus mozambicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Orange river to Eastern Cape)[2]

Family Fasciolariidae

  • Lugubrilaria lugubris (A. Adams & Reeve, 1847) (Saldanha to False Bay)[2] (syn? Pleuroploca lugubris lugubris (Adams, A. & L.A. Reeve in Reeve, L.A., 1847)), Fasciolaria lugubris lugubris
  • Long-siphoned whelk Fusinus ocelliferus Lamarck, 1816 (Namaqualand to central KwaZulu-Natal)[2]

Family Marginellidae – marginellas

Family Mitridae – mitres

  • Brown mitre Mitra picta Reeve, 1844 (Cape Columbine to KwaZulu-Natal south coast)[2]

Family Muricidae

Family Nassariidae

Dogwhelks

Plough shells

Family Turridae

Heterobranchia[edit]

clade Cephalaspideahead shield slugs
Family Cylichnidae

Family Retusidae

  • Retusa truncatula (Bruguiere, 1792) (False Bay to Durban, also northern Europe, Mediterranean, Canary Islands)[34]

Family Philinidae

  • Sand slug Philine aperta (Linnaeus, 1767) (eastern Atlantic Ocean, Northern Europe to southern Africa, also Pacific and Indian Oceans)[2][34][35]

Family Aglajidae

Family Gastropteridae

Family Haminoeidae

Family Bullidae

clade Aplysiomorphasea hares
Family Aplysiidae

clade Sacoglossasap-sucking slugs
Family Oxynoidae

Family Placobranchidae

  • Plant-sucking nudibranch Elysia spp. (Orange River to northern KwaZulu-Natal)[2][34][35]

Family Stiligeridae

Family Hermaeidae

clade Pleurobranchomorphasidegill slugs
Family Pleurobranchidae

clade Nudibranchianudibranchs
subclade Doridaceadorid nudibranchs
Family Dorididae

Family Discodorididae

Family Chromodorididae

Family Dendrodorididae

Family Mandeliidae

Family Onchidorididae

Family Goniodorididae

Family Corambidae

Family Polyceridae

Family Aegiretidae

  • Knobbly nudibranch Aegires ninguis Fahey & Gosliner, 2004 (Atlantic coast Cape Peninsula to Port Elizabeth)[34][35]

Family Gymnodorididae

subclade Dendronotida
Family Scyllaeidae

Family Tethydidae

Family Dotidae

Family Tritoniidae

subclade Euarminida
Family Arminidae

subclade Cladobranchia
Family Lemindidae

Family Proctonotidae

subclade Aeolididaaeolid nudibranchs
Family Flabellinidae

Family Eubranchidae

Family Embletoniidae

Family Tergipedidae

Family Facelinidae

Family Glaucidae

Family Aeolidiidae

  • Indica nudibranch Anteaeolidiella foulisi (Bergh, 1888) syn. Anteaeolidiella indica, Aolidiella indica (Saldanha Bay to southern KwaZulu-Natal, circumtropical)[2][34][35]
  • Sea swallow Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1777 (False Bay to KwaZulu-Natal, circumtropical)

Bivalvia[edit]

Order Mytilida
Family Mytilidae

Order Arcida
Family Arcidae – ark clams

Order Pteriida
Family Pinnidae – pen shells

Order Ostreida
Family Ostreidae – true oysters

Order Pectinida
Family Pectinidae – scallops

Order Limida
Family Limidae – File shells

Order Venerida
Family Mactridae – trough shells

Order Carditida
Family Carditidae

Order unassigned, Euheterodonta
Family Solenidae

Order Venerida
Family Lasaeidae

Tellinidae

family Veneridae – Venus shells

Polyplacophora - Chitons[edit]

Order Chitonida
Family Ischnochitonidae

Family Chitonidae

Family Callochitonidae

Family Acanthochitonidae

Family Chaetopleuridae

Cephalopoda[edit]

Order Octopoda – Octopus
Family Octopodidae

Family Argonautidae

  • Paper nautilus Argonauta argo Linnaeus, 1758 (Cape Point to northern KwaZulu-Natal)[2]

Order TeuthidaSquid
Family Loliginidae

Order SepiolidaBobtail squid

  • Unidentified species (Cape Peninsula, both sides)

Order SepiidaCuttlefish

Brachiopoda - Lampshells[edit]

Order Terebratulida
Family Kraussinidae

Family Cancellothyrididae

Echinoderms[edit]

Crinoidea - Feather stars[edit]

Order Comatulida
Family Comasteridae

Family Tropiometridae

Asteroidea - Starfish[edit]

Order Paxillosida
Family Astropectinidae

Order Valvatida
Family Goniasteridae

Family Ophidiasteridae

Family Asterinidae

Order Forcipulatida
Family Asteriidae

Order Spinulosida
Family Asterinidae

Order Velatida
Family Pterasteridae

Order Spinulosida
Family Echinasteridae

Ophiuroidea - Brittlestars[edit]

Order Euryalida
Family Gorgonocephalidae

  • Basket star, gorgon's head brittle star Astrocladus euryale (Retzius, 1783) (Cape Peninsula to Port Elizabeth)[2]

Order Ophiurida
Family Ophiotrichidae

Family Amphiuridae

Family Ophionereididae

Family Ophiodermatidae

Echinoidea - Sea urchins[edit]

Order Echinoida
Family Echinidae

Order Cassiduloida
Family Echinolampadidae

Order Spatangoida
Family Brissidae

Family Loveniidae

Holothuroidea - Sea cucumbers[edit]

Order Dendrochirotida
Family Cucumariidae

Family Phyllophoridae

  • Golden sea cucumber Thyone aurea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) (Luderitz to False Bay)[2]

Tunicates[edit]

Order Aplousobranchia

Family Clavelinidae

Family Didemnidae

Family Holozoidae

Family Polyclinidae

Order Phlebobranchia

Family Ascidiidae

Family Cionidae

Order Stolidobranchia

Family Pyuridae

Family Styelidae

Vertebrates[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Agnatha – jawless fishes (Cyclostomes)[edit]

Order Myxiniformes – hagfishes
Family: Myxinidae

Gnathostomata – jawed fishes[edit]

Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fishes[edit]

Elasmobranchii – Sharks and Rays
Order Myliobatiformes – stingrays
Family Myliobatidae – eagle rays

Order Rajiformes – rays, skates and guitarfish
Family Dasyatidae – stingrays

Family Rajidae – skates

Family Rhinobatidae – guitarfish

Order Torpediniformes – electric rays
Family Narkidae

  • Onefin electric ray or Torpedo ray Narke capensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Atlantic coast of Cape Peninsula to Madagascar)[46][47]

Family Torpedinidae

Order Carcharhiniformes – ground sharks
Family Carcharhinidae – requiem sharks

Family Scyliorhinidae – catsharks

Family Sphyrnidae – hammerhead sharks

  • Smooth hammerheadSphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) (south Cape to southern Mozambique, occasionally on west coast. Warm temperate waters of both hemispheres)[2][46]

Family Triakidae – houndsharks

Order Hexanchiformes – cow and frill sharks
Family Hexanchidae – cow sharks

Order Lamniformes – mackerel sharks
Family Alopiidae – thresher sharks

  • Thintail thresher Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788) (throughout SA waters, more common in southern part)[46]

Family Cetorhinidae – basking sharks

  • Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765) (temperate waters of all oceans, a few records from south-western Cape)[46]

Family Lamnidae – mackerel sharks

Family Mitsukurinidae – goblin sharks

Family Odontaspididae

  • Ragged-tooth shark or spotted ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Cape Point to Mozambique)[2][46][50] (syn. Eugomphodus taurus)

Family Pseudocarchariidae – crocodile sharks

Order Orectolobiformes – carpet sharks
Family Rhincodontidae – whale sharks

Order Pristiophoriformes – sawsharks
Family Pristiophoridae

Order Squaliformes – dogfish sharks
Family Echinorhinidae – bramble sharks

Family Squalidae – dogfishes

Holocephali – Chimaeras[edit]

Order Chimaeriformes
Family Callorhinchidae – elephantfish

Family Chimaeridae – chimaeras

Family Rhinochimaeridae – longnose chimaeras

Class Actinopterygii – ray finned fishes[edit]
Order Anguilliformes – eels[edit]

Family Anguillidae – freshwater eels

Family Congridae – conger eels

Family Derichthyidae – longneck eels

Family Nemichthyidae – snipe eels

Family: Nettastomatidae – witch eels

Family Ophichthidae – snake-eels and worm-eels

Family Serrivomeridae – sawtooth eels

Family Synaphobranchidae – cutthroat eels

Order Ateleopodiformes[edit]

Family Ateleopodidae – tadpole fishes

Order Atheriniformes
Family Atherinidae – silversides

Order Aulopiformes
Family Alepisauridae – lancetfishes

Family Bathysauropsidae

Family Chlorophthalmidae – greeneyes

Family Evermannellidae – sabretooth fishes

  • Coccorella atlantica (Parr, 1928) (central water areas of all 3 major oceans; off western and south-western Cape coast, 1 specimen from 31°34'S, 30°09'E)[46][66]

Family Ipnopidae

Family Notosudidae – notosudids

Family Paralepididae – barracudinas

Family Scopelarchidae – pearleyes

Order Batrachoidiformes[edit]

Family Batrachoididae – toadfishes

Order Beloniformes[edit]

Family Exocoetidae – flyingfishes

Family Hemiramphidae – halfbeaks

  • Ribbon halfbeak Euleptorhamphus viridis (van Hasselt, 1823) (reported from Table Bay, also known from Algoa Bay and Kei River mouth, tropical and temperate waters of Indo-Pacific))[46]
  • Cape halfbeak Hyporhamphus capensis (Thominot, 1886) (False Bay to southern Mozambique))[2][46]

Family Belonidae – needlefishes

Family Scomberesocidae – sauries

  • Dwarf saury Nanichthys simulans Hubbs and Wisner, 1980 (off the Cape up the west coast, warm temperate waters of the Atlantic and southern Indian oceans)[46]
Order Beryciformes[edit]

Family Berycidae – berycids

Family Monocentridae – pineapple fishes

  • Pineapple fish Monocentris japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782) (Indo-West Pacific and Red Sea south to Mossel Bay)[46](Recorded from False Bay on at least two occasions)[47]

Family Trachichthyidae – slimeheads

Order Clupeiformes[edit]

Family Clupeidae – herrings, sardines and pilchards

Family Dussumieriidae

Family Engraulidae – anchovies

Order Elopiformes
Family Elopidae – ladyfishes

Order Gadiformes
Family: Bregmacerotidae – codlets

Family Gadidae – cods

Family Macrouridae – grenadiers

Family Melanonidae – melanonids

Family Merlucciidae – hakes

Family Moridae – deepsea cods

Order Gonorynchiformes[edit]

Family Gonorynchidae – beaked sandfish

Order Lampriformes[edit]

Family Lampridae – opahs

  • Spotted opah, Jerusalem haddock, moonfish Lampris guttatus (Brünnich, 1788) (all oceans but not in polar waters, occurs throughout South African waters, usually well offshore)[46][101]
  • Southern opah Lampris immaculatus Gilchrist, 1904 (circumglobal south of 30°S)[46]

Family Lophotidae – crestfishes

Family Radiicephalidae – tapertails

Family Regalecidae – oarfishes

Family Trachipteridae – ribbonfishes

Family Lophiidae – monks

  • Blackmouth anglerLophiomus setigerus (Vahl, 1797) (Indo-West Pacific south to False Bay)[46][103]
  • Monkfish, devil anglerfish Lophius vomerinus (Valenciennes, 1837), syn. Lophius upsicephalus (off Cape of Good Hope; eastern South Atlantic and south western Indian ocean off South Africa; Bay of Bengal off Burma)[46][104]

Family Ceratiidae – seadevils

Family Himantolophidae – footballfish

Family Melanocetidae – devil-anglers

Order Lophiiformes – anglerfishes
Family Antennariidae – anglers

Order Myctophiformes[edit]

Family Myctophidae – lanternfishes

  • Bolinichthys supralateralis (Parr, 1928) (off Cape Peninsula and in Agulgas current; Atlantic (40°N – 02°S and 32° to 40°S); Indian ocean (21° – 30°S); west coast of Australia and near Hawaii)[46]
  • Diaphus effulgens (Goode and Bean, 1896) (off all SA coasts)[46]
  • Diaphus mollis Tåning, 1928 (off all SA coasts, broadly tropical distribution in all major oceans)[46]
  • Diaphus taaningi Norman, 1930 (over west coast continental shelf/slope southward to 24°S. Amphitropical species in Atlantic (western sector); tropical waters to 42°N; eastern sector: southward from Mauretanian upwelling region to South African region)[46]
  • Electrona risso (Cocco, 1829) (off east and west coasts of South Africa. Widespread in Atlantic (55°N – 40°S), Mediterranean, Indian ocean (0° – 40°S), Tasman sea and Cook Strait, and eastern Pacific (42°N – 20°S))[46]
  • Gonichthys barnesi Whitley, 1943 (off east and west coasts, south of 30°S. Convergence species in all 3 oceans (30° – 40°S))[46]
  • Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lönnberg, 1905) (circumglobal between Subtropical convergence and Antarctica)[46]
  • Hygophum hanseni (Tåning, 1932) (from 30°S on west coast to 33°S on east coast. Convergence species (30° to 43°S) in all 3 oceans)[46]
  • Hygophum hygomii (Lütken, 1892) (west of Cape Peninsula and off east coast (25° – 37°S))[46]
  • Hygophum proximum Bekker, 1965) (south to about 37°S in Agulhas current; Indian ocean (25°N – 10°S))[46]
  • Lampadena notialis Nafpaktitis and Paxton, 1968 (Off east coast and Cape Peninsula; convergence species in all 3 oceans)[46]
  • Mirror lampfish, mirror lanternfish Lampadena speculigera Goode and Bean, 1896 (off west and southeast coasts. Atlantic (66° – 35°N and 35° – 45°S), Indian ocean (30° to 45°S) and Pacific ocean (30° – 45°S))[46][108]
  • Lampanyctus alatus Goode and Bean, 1896 (off all South African coasts; Atlantic (46°N – 38°S), Indian ocean (0° – 39°S)[46]
  • Southern lanternfish Lampanyctus australis Tåning, 1932 (off all South African coasts; circumglobal convergence species(33° – 43°S with northern extension to about 27°S in eastern boundary currents))[46][109]
  • Lampanyctus festivus Tåning, 1928 (off all South African coasts. Atlantic(53° – 18°N and 28° – 40°S with northern extension to 12°S in Benguela current and Indo-West Pacific.)[46]
  • Lampanyctus lepidolychnus Bekker, 1967 (off all South African coasts, circumglobal convergence species (23° – 48°S))[46]
  • Rakery beaconlamp Lampanyctus macdonaldi (Goode and Bean, 1896) (west of Cape Peninsula, circumglobal between subtropical convergence and Antarctic polar front)[46][110]
  • Lampanyctus pusillus (Johnson, 1890) (off all South African coasts. Bisubtropical species in all major oceans)[46]
  • Lampichthys procerus (Brauer, 1904) (off Cape Peninsula, circumglobal convergence species (32° – 48°S) with extensions into lower latitudes in eastern boundary currents)[46]
  • Lobianchia dofleini (Zugmayer, 1911) (off all South African coasts. Mediterranean, Atlantic (50°N – 40°S), Indian ocean (23° – 38°S), Tasman sea and south Pacific(region of subtropical convergence))[46]
  • Lobianchia gemellarii (Cocco, 1838) (off all South African coasts, worldwide in tropical/subtropical waters)[46]
  • Metelectrona ventralis (Bekker, 1063) (west of Cape Peninsula in southern Benguela upwelling region; circumglobal subantarctic species (36°-51°S))[46]
  • Myctophum phengodes (Lütken, 1892) (off all South African coasts)[46]
  • Myctophum selenops Tåning, 1928 (west of Cape peninsula in Agulhas water pockets)[46]
  • Nannobrachium atrum (Tåning, 1928), syn. Lampanyctus ater (off all South African coasts; Atlantic (58° – 17°N and 15° – 40°S) and Indian ocean (12° – 44°S))[46][111]
  • Notolychnus valdiviae (Brauer, 1904) (off all South African coasts)[46]
  • Patchwork lampfishNotoscopelus resplendens (Richardson, 1845) (off all South African coasts)[46][112]
  • Protomyctophum normani Tåning, 1932 (once west of Slangkop lighthouse; circumglobal convergence species (36° – 43°S))[46]
  • Scopelopsis multipunctatus Brauer, 1906 (off all South African coasts)[46]
  • Symbolophorus barnardi (Tåning, 1932) (off all South African coasts)[46]
Order Notacanthiformes[edit]

Family Halosauridae – halosaurs

Family Notacanthidae – spiny eels

Order Ophidiiformes[edit]

Family Aphyonidae – aphyonids

Family Bythitidae – bythitids or brotulas

Family Ophidiidae – cuskeels

Order Osmeriformes[edit]

Family Alepocephalidae – slickheads

Family Opisthoproctidae – barreleyes

Family Microstomatidae

Family Bathylagidae

Order Perciformes[edit]

Family Luvaridae – louvar

  • Louvar Luvarus imperialis Rafinesque, 1810 (All oceans and Mediterranean sea, not reported in polar seas or near equator)[46]

Family Blenniidae – blennies

Family Clinidae – klipfishes

Family Tripterygiidae – threefin blennies or triplefins

Family Callionymidae – dragonets

Family Gobiesocidae – clingfishes

Family: Gobiidae — Gobies

Subfamily Gobiinae

Suborder Percoidei

Superfamily: Cirrhitoidea

Family: Cheilodactylidae — Fingerfins

Superfamily: Percoidea Family: Acropomatidae — Lanternbellies

Family: Bramidae — Pomfrets

Family: Callanthiidae — Goldies

Family: Carangidae — Kingfishes

Family: Centracanthidae — Picarels

Family: Chaetodontidae — Butterflyfishes

Family: Coryphaenidae — Dolphinfish or Dorades

Family: Dichistiidae — Galjoens

Family: Echeneidae — Remoras

Family: Emmelichthyidae — Rovers

Family: Epigonidae — Cardinal fishes (see also Apogonidae)

Family: Haemulidae — Rubberlips and grunters

Family: Kyphosidae — Sea chubs

Family: Malacanthidae — Tilefishes

Family: Monodactylidae — Moonies

Family: Oplegnathidae — Knifejaws

Family: Parascorpididae — Jutjaw

Family: Pentacerotidae — Armourheads

Family: Polyprionidae — Wreckfishes

Family: Pomatomidae — Elf

Family: Pseudochromidae — Dottybacks Subfamily: Congrogadinae — Snakelets

Family: Rachycentridae — Cobia

Family: Sciaenidae — Kobs

Family: Scombropidae — Gnomefishes

Family: Serranidae — Rockcods (groupers) and seabasses

Subfamily: Epinephelinae

Subfamily: Serraninae

Family: Sparidae — Seabreams

Suborder: Scombroidei

Family: Gempylidae — Snake mackerels

Family: Istiophoridae — Sailfish, spearfishes and marlins

Family: Scombridae — Tunas, mackerels and bonitos Subfamily: Gasterochismatinae

Subfamily: Scombrinae

Family: Trichiuridae — Frostfishes

  • Buttersnoek Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen, 1788) (Mediterranean, eastern Atlantic from Norway to South Africa, Australia and new Zealand)[46]
  • Cutlass fish Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 (Cosmopolitan in tropical and temperate waters)[46]

Family: Xiphiidae — Swordfishes

Suborder: Stromateoidei

Family: Centrolophidae — Ruffs

  • Black ruff Centrolophus niger (Gmelin, 1789) (Temperate waters of Australia, New Zealand, South America and South Africa, also North Atlantic and Mediterranean)[46]
  • Antarctic butterfish Hyperoglypha antarctica (Carmichael, 1818) (Temperate waters; islands of south Atlantic and southern Indian oceans; New Zealand, southern Australia and South Africa)[46]
  • Schedophilus huttoni (Waite, 1910) (Circumglobal in southern ocean, taken off Cape Town, common off Namibia)[46]
  • Black butterfish or Peregrine driftfishSchedophilus velaini (Sauvage, 1879) (Gulf of Guinea, to South Africa)[46](syn. Hyperoglypha moselii (Cunningham, 1910))
  • Flabby driftfish Tubbia tasmanica Whitley, 1943 (Temperate waters of Southern Ocean; New Zealand, Tasmania and South Africa off Natal)[46]

Family: Nomeidae — Driftfishes

Family: Ariommatidae

Family: Tetragonuridae — Squaretails

Family: Stromateidae

  • Blue butterfish Stromateus fiatola Linnaeus, 1758 (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean round the Cape to Natal)[46]

Suborder: Trachinoidei Family: Ammodytidae — Sandlances

Family: Champsodontidae — Gapers

Family: Chiasmodontidae — Swallowers

Family: Uranoscopidae — Stargazers

Suborder: Zoarcoidei

Family: Zoarcidae — Eelpouts

Order Saccopharyngiformes[edit]

Family Cyematidae – arrow eels

Order Scorpaeniformes[edit]

Suborder: Cottoidei

Family: Psychrolutidae — Fatheads

Family: Liparidae — Snailfishes

Suborder: Scorpaenoidei

Family: Congiopodidae — Horsefishes

Family: Scorpaenidae

Family: Sebastidae

Family: Tetrarogidae — Waspfishes

Family: Triglidae — Gurnards

Order Siluriformes – catfishes[edit]

Family Ariidae – sea catfishes

Order Stomiiformes[edit]

Family Gonostomatidae – bristlemouths

Family Phosichthyidae – lightfishes

Family Sternoptychidae – hatchetfishes

Family: Stomiidae

Order Syngnathiformes[edit]

Family Centriscidae – snipefishes and shrimpfishes

Family Fistulariidae – flutemouths

  • Serrate flutemouth Fistularia petimba Lacepède, 1803 (Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific oceans; east coast of Africa south to Mossel Bay; also reported from Walvis Bay and False Bay)[46]

Family Syngnathidae – seahorses and pipefishes

Missing fish[edit]

Family Tetraodontidae - Puffers
Family Soleidae - Soles

Reptiles[edit]

  • Vagrant turtles

Birds[edit]

Class Aves – Birds
Order Charadriiformes
Family: Haematopodidae

  • African oystercatcher Haemotopus moquini (Bonaparte, 1856)[2] (Lüderitz, Namibia to Mazeppa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

Order Sphenisciformes – Penguins
Family: Spheniscidae

Order Suliformes
Family Sulidae – gannets and boobies

  • Cape gannet Morus capensis (Lichtenstein, 1823),(Breeding: three islands off Namibia and three islands off South Africa. Otherwise: coastal waters off the Gulf of Guinea to Mozambique)[2]

Family: Phalacrocoracidae – Cormorants

others?[2]

Mammals[edit]

Order Carnivora
Suborder Pinnipedia – seals
Family Otariidae – eared seals

Family Phocidae – true seals

  • Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 (Antarctica, occasionally washed north by storms)[2]

Family Mustelidae – weasels and others
Subfamily Lutrinae – otters

  • Cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis (Schinz, 1821) (most of Africa with access to fresh water)[2]

Order Cetacea Suborder Mysticeti Family Balaenidae – right whales

  • Southern right whale Eubalaena australis Desmoulins, 1822 (pelagic, Southern Ocean, winters along the South African coast from central Namibia to southern Mozambique )[2]

Family Balaenopteridae – rorquals

Suborder Odontoceti – toothed whales
Superfamily Delphinoidea
Family Delphinidae – oceanic dolphins

Geographical position of places mentioned in species ranges[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sanparks.org/parks/table_mountain/conservation/marine.php
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz Branch, G.M., Branch, M.L, Griffiths, C.L. and Beckley, L.E (2005): Two Oceans: a guide to the marine life of southern Africa ISBN 0-86486-672-0
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Samaai, T. and Gibbons, M.J. 2005. Demospongiae taxonomy and biodiversity of the Benguela region on the west coast of South Africa. Afr. Nat. Hist. 1(1):1–96
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Branch, G.M., Branch, M.L, Griffiths, C.L. and Beckley, L.E. (2010). Two Oceans: a guide to the marine life of southern Africa Struik Nature, Cape Town. ISBN 978 1 77007 772 0
  5. ^ a b Acuna F. & Griffiths C.L. 2004 Species richness, endemicity and distribution patterns of South African sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia) Afr. Zoo. 39(2):193–200
  6. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxlist accessed 10 January 2010
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Jones, Georgina. A field guide to the marine animals of the Cape Peninsula. SURG, Cape Town, 2008. ISBN 978-0-620-41639-9
  8. ^ England K.W. & Robson E.A. 1984 A new sea anemone from South Africa (Anthozoa, Ptychodactiaria) Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 94(5):305–329
  9. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/ search term Ceriantheopsis accessed 8 March 2010
  10. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=212098 accessed 11 January 2010
  11. ^ Williams, G.C. 1990. The pennatulacea of southern Africa (Coelenterata, Anthozoa) Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 100(3):249–358
  12. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=289801 accessed 11 January 2010
  13. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=287223 accessed 11 January 2010
  14. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=135299 accessed 11 January 2010
  15. ^ a b c http://www.marinespecies.org accessed 11 January 2010
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Millard, N.A.H. 1975. Monograph on the Hydroida of Southern Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 68:1–513
  17. ^ Cairns, S. (2012). Stylaster nobilis (Saville Kent, 1871). In: Schuchert, P. (2012) World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=210735 on 2013-04-22
  18. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=291318 accessed 11 January 2010
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Wrobel D. & Mills C. 2003 Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates: a guide to the common gelatinous animals. Sea Challengers. ISBN 0-930118-23-5
  20. ^ http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3377/1562-7020-43.2.237?cookieSet=1&journalCode=afzo accessed 11 January 2010
  21. ^ Day J.H, Field, J.G. & Penrith M.J 1970. The Benthic Fauna and Fishes of False Bay, South Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr, 34(1):1–108
  22. ^ a b Day, J.H. 1967. Polychaeta of South Africa: part 2: Sedentaria British Museum (Natural History)
  23. ^ d'Udekem d'Acoz, C. 2007. New records of Atlantic Hippolyte, with the description of two new species, and a key to all Atlantic and Mediterranean species (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea). Zoosystema 29:1183–207
  24. ^ Branch, G., Branch, M. & Bannister, A. 1981. The Living Shores of southern Africa Struik ISBN 0-86977-115-9
  25. ^ McLaughlin P.A. & Forest, J. 1999. Hermit crabs of the genus Pagurus Fabricus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguridae) from south-eastern Africa Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 105(7):297–344
  26. ^ a b c Barnard, K.H. 1950. Descriptive Catalogue of South African Decapod Crustacea (Crabs and Shrimps) Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 38
  27. ^ Griffiths, C. 1976. Guide to the Benthic Marine Amphipods of Southern Africa Iziko Museum ISBN 0-949940-85-2
  28. ^ Gordon, D. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One: Kingdom Animalia. ISBN 978-1877257-72-8
  29. ^ a b c d e Kilburn R. & Rippey E. 1982 Sea Shells of Southern Africa Macmillan ISBN 0-86954-094-7
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Steyn, D.G. & Lussi, M. 2005. Offshore Shells of Southern Africa ISBN 0-620-33607-2
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Liltved, William Rune. Cowries and their relatives of southern Africa: A study of the southern African Cypraeacean and Velutinacean gastropod fauna, Gordon Verhoef, Seacomber Publications, 2000. ISBN 0908 42089 7
  32. ^ Bouchet, P. (2013). Cypraeovula iutsui Shikama, 1974. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=579184 on 2014-03-20
  33. ^ Bouchet, P. (2013). Triviella magnidentata (Liltved, 1986). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=555711 on 2014-03-20
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr Gosliner, T.M. 1987. Nudibranchs of Southern Africa ISBN 0-930118-13-8
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Zsilavecz, G. 2007. Nudibranchs of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay. ISBN 0-620-38054-3
  36. ^ a b Gosliner, T.M. 1994. New species of Chromodoris and Noumea (Nudibranch: Chromodorididae) from the Western Indian Ocean and Southern Africa. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 12 48:239–252
  37. ^ Gosliner, T.M. 1996. Phylogeny of Ceratosoma (Nudibranchia:Chromorididae), with descriptions of two new species. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 49:115–126
  38. ^ Valdes, A. & Gosliner, T. M. 1999.Phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new genus and a new family.Zoologica Scripta 28 3–4:315–360
  39. ^ Fahey, S.J. and Valdes, A. 2005. Review of Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 with a phylogenetic analysis of Onchidorididae Alder and Hancock, 1845 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56(20): 213–272.
  40. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=181364 accessed 11 January 2010
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Day, J.H. A guide to marine life on South African shores. Balkema, Cape Town, 1969
  42. ^ Bouchet, P. (2014). Eledone schultzei (Hoyle, 1910). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=534522 on 2014-04-29
  43. ^ Roeleveld M.A. & Liltved W.R. 1985. A new species of Sepia (Cephalopoda, Sepiidae) from South Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 96(1):1–18
  44. ^ a b c Clark A. & Courtman-Stock J. 1976. The Echinoderms of South Africa British Museum (Natural History) London ISBN 0-565-00776-9
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Monniot C., Monniot F., Griffiths C. & Schleyer M. 2001. South African Ascidians. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 1081:1–141
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nq nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz oa ob oc od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op oq or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz pa pb pc pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pq pr ps pt pu pv pw px py pz qa qb qc qd qe qf qg qh qi qj qk ql qm qn qo qp qq Ed. Smith, Margaret M, and Heemstra, P. Smith's sea fishes. South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Grahamstown. Struik publishers, Cape Town, 2003.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Zsilavecz, Guido, Coastal fishes of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay: A divers' identification guide. SURG, Cape Town, 2005. ISBN 0-620-34230-7
  48. ^ a b c d e King, D. & Fraser, V. More Reef Fishes and Nudibranchs Struik, Cape Town 2001. ISBN 1-86872-686-X
  49. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Raja straeleni Poll, 1951. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217400 on 2014-03-19
  50. ^ a b King, Dennis. Reef fishes and corals: East coast of southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town, 1996. ISBN 1 86825 981 1
  51. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bassanago albescens (Barnard, 1923). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=313889 on 2013-04-23
  52. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bathyuroconger vicinus (Vaillant, 1888). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126284 on 2013-04-23
  53. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Gnathophis capensis. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217548 on 2013-04-23
  54. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Nessorhamphus ingolfianus (Schmidt, 1912). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126292 on 2013-04-23
  55. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Avocettina acuticeps. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217462 on 2013-04-23
  56. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Nemichthys scolopaceus Richardson, 1848. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126306 on 2013-04-23
  57. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Venefica proboscidea (Vaillant, 1888). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126310 on 2013-04-23
  58. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Ophichthus serpentinus. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217582 on 2013-04-23
  59. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Serrivomer beanii Gill & Ryder, 1883. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126319 on 2013-04-23
  60. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Diastobranchus capensis Barnard, 1923. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158656 on 2013-04-23
  61. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Simenchelys parasitica Gill, 1879. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126327 on 2013-04-23
  62. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson, 1862. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126328 on 2013-04-23
  63. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Alepisaurus ferox Lowe, 1833. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126333 on 2013-04-22
  64. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bathysauropsis gracilis. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217676 on 2013-04-22
  65. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Chlorophthalmus punctatus. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217679 on 2013-04-22
  66. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Coccorella atlantica (Parr, 1928). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126337 on 2013-04-22
  67. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bathypterois filiferus Gilchrist, 1906. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=221393 on 2013-04-22
  68. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bathypterois phenax Parr, 1928. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126345 on 2013-04-22
  69. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Ipnops agassizii Garman, 1899. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=221395 on 2013-04-22
  70. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Scopelosaurus ahlstromi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall, 1976. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=272079 on 2013-04-22
  71. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Scopelosaurus hamiltoni (Waite, 1916). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=234731 on 2013-04-22
  72. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Scopelosaurus herwigi. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=272083 on 2013-04-22
  73. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Scopelosaurus meadi. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=272086 on 2013-04-22
  74. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lestidiops jayakari jayakari (Boulenger, 1889). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=236452 on 2013-04-22
  75. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Macroparalepis affinis Ege, 1933. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126356 on 2013-04-22
  76. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Magnisudis prionosa (Rofen, 1963). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=234591 on 2013-04-22
  77. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte, 1840). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126352 on 2013-04-22
  78. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Sudis hyalina Rafinesque, 1810. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126362 on 2013-04-22
  79. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Benthalbella infans Zugmayer, 1911. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126365 on 2013-04-22
  80. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Benthalbella macropinna Bussing & Bussing, 1966. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217722 on 2013-04-22
  81. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Scopelarchus analis (Brauer, 1902). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126367 on 2013-04-22
  82. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Chatrabus felinus. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=712493 on 2013-04-27
  83. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126422 on 2013-04-22
  84. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217452 on 2013-04-22
  85. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Etrumeus whiteheadi Wongratana, 1983. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217441 on 2013-04-22
  86. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=219984 on 2013-04-22
  87. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode & Bean, 1886. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126431 on 2013-04-27
  88. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Bregmaceros mcclellandi Thompson, 1840. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217740 on 2013-04-27
  89. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Coelorinchus acanthiger Barnard, 1925. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=280242 on 2013-04-27
  90. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Coelorinchus braueri Barnard, 1925. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=280257 on 2013-04-27
  91. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Coryphaenoides armatus (Hector, 1875). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158952 on 2013-04-27
  92. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Macrourus holotrachys Günther, 1878. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=234831 on 2013-04-27
  93. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Malacocephalus laevis (Lowe, 1843). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=272392 on 2013-04-27
  94. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Kuronezumia leonis (Barnard, 1925). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217771 on 2013-04-27
  95. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque, 1810). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126482 on 2013-04-27
  96. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Melanonus gracilis Günther, 1878. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=221402 on 2013-04-27
  97. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Merluccius capensis Castelnau, 1861. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217746 on 2013-04-27
  98. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Merluccius paradoxus Franca, 1960. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217745 on 2013-04-27
  99. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Antimora rostrata (Günther, 1878). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126486 on 2013-04-27
  100. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Guttigadus globiceps (Gilchrist, 1906). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=275875 on 2013-04-27
  101. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lampris guttatus (Brünnich, 1788). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126522 on 2013-04-25
  102. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Agrostichthys parkeri (Benham, 1904). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=279523 on 2013-04-25
  103. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lophiomus setigerus. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217838 on 2013-04-27
  104. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lophius vomerinus Valenciennes, 1837. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217839 on 2013-04-27
  105. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Ceratias holboelli Krøyer, 1845. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126537 on 2013-04-27
  106. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Cryptopsaras couesii Gill, 1883. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126538 on 2013-04-27
  107. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Himantolophus groenlandicus Reinhardt, 1837. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126545 on 2013-04-27
  108. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lampadena speculigera Goode & Bean, 1896. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126608 on 2013-04-28
  109. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lampanyctus australis. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217708 on 2013-04-28
  110. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Lampanyctus macdonaldi (Goode & Bean, 1896). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126617 on 2013-04-28
  111. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Nannobrachium atrum (Tåning, 1928). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158909 on 2013-04-28
  112. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Notoscopelus resplendens (Richardson, 1845). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158916 on 2013-04-28
  113. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Aldrovandia affinis (Günther, 1877). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126637 on 2013-04-23
  114. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Aldrovandia phalacra (Vaillant, 1888). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126638 on 2013-04-23
  115. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126639 on 2013-04-23
  116. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Polyacanthonotus rissoanus (De Filippi & Verany, 1857). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126645 on 2013-04-23
  117. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Dicrolene multifilis. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217799 on 2013-04-28
  118. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Porogadus miles Goode & Bean, 1885. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=158775 on 2013-04-28
  119. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Selachophidium guentheri Gilchrist, 1903. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=217820 on 2013-04-28
  120. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Xenodermichthys copei (Gill, 1884). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126714 on 2013-04-28
  121. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Melanolagus bericoides (Borodin, 1929). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126721 on 2013-04-28
  122. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Branch, G.M. Griffiths, C.L. Branch, M.L. Beckley, L.E. Two Oceans: A guide to the marine life of southern Africa. 5th impression, David Philip, Cape Town, 2000. ISBN 0-86486-250-4
  123. ^ a b c Heemstra, Phil & Heemstra, Elaine. Coastal Fishes of Southern AfricaNISC/SAIAB Grahamstown, 2004. ISBN 1-920033-01-7
  124. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Neocyema erythrosoma Castle, 1978. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=221437 on 2013-04-25
  125. ^ Bailly, N. (2009). Chelidonichthys kumu (Cuvier, 1829). In: Nicolas Bailly (2009). World Database of Marine Pisces. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=218122 on 2010-01-18
  126. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Cyclothone microdon (Günther, 1878). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127286 on 2013-04-29
  127. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Sigmops bathyphilus (Vaillant, 1884). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=398363 on 2013-04-30
  128. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Vinciguerria attenuata (Cocco, 1838). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127302 on 2013-04-30
  129. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin, 1789). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127312 on 2013-04-30
  130. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Valenciennellus tripunctulatus (Esmark, 1871). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127316 on 2013-04-30
  131. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Argyropelecus aculeatus Valenciennes, 1850. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127306 on 2013-04-30
  132. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Argyropelecus gigas Norman, 1930. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127308 on 2013-04-30
  133. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Argyropelecus hemigymnus Cocco, 1829. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127309 on 2013-04-30
  134. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Sternoptyx diaphana Hermann, 1781. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127314 on 2013-04-30
  135. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Stomias boa boa (Risso, 1810). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=234601 on 2013-05-03
  136. ^ Bailly, N. (2013). Stomias longibarbatus (Brauer, 1902). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2013) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127376 on 2013-05-03
  137. ^ Kuiter, R.H. 2009. Seahorses and their Relatives ISBN 9780977537211
  138. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Spheniscus demersus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012.