List of maritime features in the Spratly Islands

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This page features a series of lists of maritime features in the Spratly Islands:

Features by area[edit]

Of the hundreds of maritime features in the Spratly Islands, relatively few have land permanently above sea-level that is larger than protruding rocks. There are only 13 islands and cays with a natural area above sea-level larger than one hectare.[1] With the exception of Swallow Reef, prior to 2014 there had been no large-scale land reclamation beyond building breakwaters and piers, and extending runways.

This changed dramatically in 2014 with the PRC embarking on large-scale reclamations of the lagoons of Johnson South Reef (~10ha) and Fiery Cross Reef (~230ha), and other reclamations of then unknown extent at the Gaven Reefs and Cuarteron Reef.[2] Reports of the extent of land reclaimed on Swallow Reef vary. The PRC land reclamations have continued on a total of seven sites. In 2015, Subi Reef, Hughes Reef and Mischief Reef were added.[3] Refer to the table below for the most recently available data. In summary, there have been reclamations of very large areas (>640 acres = 1 sq mile) at three sites by the PRC, reclamations of large areas (10-100 acres) at 8 sites (4 by PRC, 3 by Vietnam and 1 by Malaysia) and reclamations of lesser areas at a number of sites. There does not appear to have been any reclamation of Philippine occupied areas. There have been small Taiwanese reclamations at Itu Aba, very small but functionally significant reclamations at six Malaysian sites, and a number small but significant reclamations at Vietnamese sites in 2016, most particularly at Spratly Island where the runway has been extended and a sheltered harbour added.

The following table contains the 16 largest "natural" features, (i.e. not including reclaimed land),[4] plus the features with significant amounts of reclaimed land:

# Feature in Atoll "Natural" Area Location Currently occupied by Reclaimed Area[2]
1 Itu Aba Island Tizard Bank 46.00 hectares (113.7 acres) 10°23′N 114°21′E / 10.383°N 114.350°E / 10.383; 114.350 ROC (Taiping Island) ~0,008 acres (3.2 ha)[5]
2 Thitu Island Thitu Reefs 37.20 hectares (91.9 acres) 11°03′N 114°17′E / 11.050°N 114.283°E / 11.050; 114.283 Philippines (Pagasa Island)
3 West York Island West York Island 18.60 hectares (46.0 acres) 11°05′N 115°01′E / 11.083°N 115.017°E / 11.083; 115.017 Philippines (Likas Island)
4 Spratly Island Spratly Island 13.00 hectares (32.1 acres) 08°38′N 111°55′E / 8.633°N 111.917°E / 8.633; 111.917 Vietnam (Trường Sa Island) ~0,037 acres (15 ha)[6]
5 Northeast Cay North Danger Reef 12.70 hectares (31.4 acres) 11°28′N 114°21′E / 11.467°N 114.350°E / 11.467; 114.350 Philippines (Parola Island)
6 Southwest Cay North Danger Reef 12.00 hectares (29.7 acres) 11°26′N 114°20′E / 11.433°N 114.333°E / 11.433; 114.333 Vietnam (Song Tử Tây Island) ~0,007 acres (2.8 ha)[7]
7 Sin Cowe Island Union Banks 08.00 hectares (19.8 acres) 09°52′N 114°19′E / 9.867°N 114.317°E / 9.867; 114.317 Vietnam (Sinh Tồn Island) ~0,026 acres (11 ha)[8]
8 Nanshan Island Loaita Bank 07.93 hectares (19.6 acres) 10°45′N 115°49′E / 10.750°N 115.817°E / 10.750; 115.817 Philippines (Lawak Island)
9 Sand Cay Tizard Bank 07.00 hectares (17.3 acres) 10°23′N 114°28′E / 10.383°N 114.467°E / 10.383; 114.467 Vietnam (Son Ca Island) ~0,009 acres (3.6 ha)[9][10]
10 Loaita Island Loaita Bank 06.45 hectares (15.9 acres) 10°40′N 114°25′E / 10.667°N 114.417°E / 10.667; 114.417 Philippines (Kota Island)
11 Swallow Reef Swallow Reef 06.20 hectares (15.3 acres) 07°22′N 113°50′E / 7.367°N 113.833°E / 7.367; 113.833 Malaysia (Layang-Layang Reef) ~0,095 acres (38 ha)
12 Namyit Island Tizard Bank 05.30 hectares (13.1 acres) 10°11′N 114°22′E / 10.183°N 114.367°E / 10.183; 114.367 Vietnam (Nam Yet Island)
13 Amboyna Cay Amboyna Cay 01.60 hectares (4.0 acres) 07°51′N 112°55′E / 7.850°N 112.917°E / 7.850; 112.917 Vietnam (An Bang Island)
Grierson Reef Union Banks 01.60 hectares (4.0 acres) 09°51′N 114°29′E / 9.850°N 114.483°E / 9.850; 114.483 Vietnam ~0,003 acres (1.2 ha)[11][12]
West (London) Reef London Reefs 01.10 hectares (2.7 acres) Vietnam ~0,070 acres (28 ha)[9][11][12][13]
Central (London) Reef London Reefs 00.88 hectares (2.2 acres) Vietnam ~0,004 acres (1.6 ha)[11][12]
14 Flat Island Loaita Bank 00.57 hectares (1.4 acres) 10°49′N 115°49′E / 10.817°N 115.817°E / 10.817; 115.817 Philippines (Patag Island)
15 Loaita Cay Loaita Bank 00.53 hectares (1.3 acres) 10°43′43″N 114°21′09″E / 10.72861°N 114.35250°E / 10.72861; 114.35250 Philippines (Melchora Aquino Island)
16 Lankiam Cay Loaita Bank 00.44 hectares (1.1 acres) 10°43′N 114°32′E / 10.717°N 114.533°E / 10.717; 114.533 Philippines (Panata Island)
Mischief Reef Mischief Reef 00.00 09°56′N 115°32′E / 9.933°N 115.533°E / 9.933; 115.533 PRC ~1,379 acres (558 ha)[14][15]
Subi Reef Thitu Reefs 00.00 10°55′N 114°04′E / 10.917°N 114.067°E / 10.917; 114.067 PRC ~0,976 acres (395 ha)[14][16]
Fiery Cross Reef Fiery Cross Reef 00.00 09°36′N 111°57′E / 9.600°N 111.950°E / 9.600; 111.950 PRC ~0,677 acres (274 ha)[14][17]
Cuarteron Reef London Reefs 00.00 08°52′N 112°50′E / 8.867°N 112.833°E / 8.867; 112.833 PRC ~0,056 acres (23 ha)[18]
Gaven Reefs Tizard Bank 00.00 10°13′N 114°13′E / 10.217°N 114.217°E / 10.217; 114.217 PRC ~0,034 acres (14 ha)[19]
Johnson South Reef Union Banks 00.00 09°43′N 114°17′E / 9.717°N 114.283°E / 9.717; 114.283 PRC ~0,027 acres (11 ha)[20]
Hughes Reef Union Banks 00.00 PRC ~0,019 acres (7.7 ha)[21][22]
Pearson Reef SW Dangerous Ground 00.00 Vietnam ~0,006 acres (2.4 ha)[23]
Cornwallis South Reef SW Dangerous Ground 00.00 08°43′N 114°11′E / 8.717°N 114.183°E / 8.717; 114.183 Vietnam ~0,002 acres (0.81 ha)[11][12]

Features by major reef / bank / etc.[edit]

Map of the South China Sea area showing the location of Dangerous Ground

The boundaries of the Spratly Islands are not firmly defined. West-to-east, the islands range from the coastal waters of Vietnam to the east of Dangerous Ground and the Palawan Passage (approx. 106-117°E), and south-to-north from the coastal waters of Borneo and the southern South China Sea to the north of Dangerous Ground and the Reed Bank (approx. 3-12°N).

The major feature of the area is Dangerous Ground, an oblong area approximately 340 nautical miles (630 km; 390 mi) SW-NE, 175 nautical miles (324 km; 201 mi) at its widest, with an area of about 52,000 nm² (178,000 km²).[24] It lies approximately between 7.5–12°N, 113–117°E, and US NGA literature[24][25][26]etc. seems to consider its centre as 10°N 115°E / 10°N 115°E / 10; 115. The remainder of the Spratly Islands are mainly to the west and south of Dangerous Ground, with some features to the east.

The Spratly Islands can be roughly divided into seven sub-areas relative to Dangerous Ground:[24]

  • NW of Dangerous Ground (approx. 10-12°N, 113-115°E)[25]
  • NE Dangerous Ground (approx. 10-12°N, 115-117°E)[26]
  • SE Dangerous Ground (approx. 7-10°N, 115-117°E)[27][28][29]
  • SW Dangerous Ground (approx. 7-10°N, 113-115°E)[30]
  • E of Dangerous Ground (approx. 3-12°N, east of 117°E)[26][27][29]
  • S of Dangerous Ground (approx. 3- 7°N, 113-117°E)[29][31] and
  • W of Dangerous Ground (approx. 3-12°N, west of 113°E)[32]

Within these sub-areas there are a number of major reefs and banks, as well as ungrouped maritime features.[4]

Starting in the NW, and progressing in a generally SW direction, the features include:

Sub-area Group Vicinity Contains:
NW North Danger Reef 11°25′N 114°21′E / 11.417°N 114.350°E / 11.417; 114.350 North Reef; Northeast Cay; Shira Islet; Southwest Cay; Jenkins Patches; South Reef; Sabine Patches; Farquharson Patches; Day Shoal; Iroquois Ridge
NW Trident & Lys Trident Shoal, Lys Shoal
NW Thitu Reefs 11°03′N 114°17′E / 11.050°N 114.283°E / 11.050; 114.283 Thitu Island; Thitu Reef; Sandy Cay
NW (Near Thitu Reefs) 10°55′N 114°04′E / 10.917°N 114.067°E / 10.917; 114.067 Subi Reef
NW Loaita Banks 10°45′N 114°30′E / 10.750°N 114.500°E / 10.750; 114.500 Lankiam Cay; Loaita Cay; Loaita Nan; Loaita Island
NW (East of Loaita Banks) 10°55′N 114°45′E / 10.917°N 114.750°E / 10.917; 114.750 Menzies Reef, Irving Reef, West York Island
NW Tizard Banks 10°15′N 114°30′E / 10.250°N 114.500°E / 10.250; 114.500 Ban Than Reef (Zhongzhou); Eldad Reef; Gaven Reefs; Namyit Island; Petley Reef; Sand Cay; Taiping Island (Itu Aba)
NW (West of Tizard Bank) Western Reef, Discovery Great Reef, Discovery Small Reef
W (West of Union Bank) 9°30′N 112°30′E / 9.500°N 112.500°E / 9.500; 112.500 Fiery Cross Reef, Dhaulle Reef, Coronation Bank
SW Union Banks 09°50′N 114°30′E / 9.833°N 114.500°E / 9.833; 114.500 Collins Reef (Johnson North); Edmund Reef; Empire Reef; Grierson Reef; Hallett Reef; Higgins Reef; Holiday Reef; Hughes Reef; Johnson South Reef; Jones Reef; Lansdowne / Landsdown / etc. Reef; Loveless Reef; Kennan / McKennan Reef; Sin Cowe Island; Sin Cowe East; Whitson Reef; Zhangxi Jiao
NE Reed Tablemount 11°20′N 116°50′E / 11.333°N 116.833°E / 11.333; 116.833 Reed Bank; Nares Bank; Marie Louise Bank
NE NE Dangerous Ground 11°N 116°E / 11°N 116°E / 11; 116 Jackson Atoll, Nanshan Island, Flat Island, Third Thomas Shoal, Hopkins Reef, Amy Douglas, Hirane Shoal, Hardy Reef, Sandy Shoal, Lord Auckland Shoal, Carnatic Shoal
NE Southampton Reefs Hopps Reef; Livock Reef
E (East & SE of Dangerous Ground) Seahorse Shoal/Seashore Shoal/Routh Shoal, Bombay Shoal, Royal Captain Shoal, Half Moon Shoal, Viper Shoal
SE SE Dangerous Ground 9°N 116°E / 9°N 116°E / 9; 116 Sabina Shoal, Boxall Reef, Second Thomas Shoal, Mischief Reef, First Thomas Shoal, Alicia Annie Reef, Commodore Reef, North Viper Shoal, Northeast Shea, Director Reef, Glasgow Bank, Investigator Northeast Shoal, Sand Cay
SW SW Dangerous Ground 9°N 114°E / 9°N 114°E / 9; 114 Bittern Reef, Allison Reef, Cornwallis South Reef, Pearson Reef, Pigeon Reef, Investigator Shoal, Ardasier Reef, Ardasier Bank, Erica Reef, Mariveles Reef, Dallas Reef, Barque Canada Reef
W London Reefs 08°50′N 112°30′E / 8.833°N 112.500°E / 8.833; 112.500 Central London Reef; Cuarteron Reef; East London Reef; West London Reef
W (Spratly Island vicinity) 08°40′N 111°45′E / 8.667°N 111.750°E / 8.667; 111.750 Spratly Island, Ladd Reef, Jubilee Seamount
W (West Spratlys) Scawfell Shoal, Charlotte Bank, Vanguard Bank, Julia Shoal, Royal Bishop Shoal
W Southwest Bank Alexandra Bank; Grainger Bank; Prince of Wales Bank; Prince Consort Bank
W Rifleman Bank 07°50′N 111°40′E / 7.833°N 111.667°E / 7.833; 111.667 Bombay Castle (bãi Ba Kè); Johnson Patch (tức là Bãi Vũng Mây); Kingston Shoal (Bãi Đinh); Orleana Shoal (Bãi Đất), Bãi Ráng Chiều, bãi Ngũ Sắc, bãi Xà Cừ, bãi Vũ Tích
S Amboyna Cay; Swallow Reef; Louisa Reef
S Luconia Shoals 05°30′N 112°30′E / 5.500°N 112.500°E / 5.500; 112.500 North Luconia Shoals: Friendship Shoal, Hardie Reef, Aitken Reef, Buck Reef, Moody Reef, Seahorse Breakers, Tripp Reef, Hayes Reef

South Luconia Shoals: Stigant Reef, Connell Reef, Herald Reef, Comus Shoal, Richmond Reef, Luconia Breakers

Features by name[edit]

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
P
R
S
T
U
W
Z

Features by occupier and/or claimant[edit]

A feature is occupied by a country if one of the following is true:

  • Soldiers and/or civilian citizens of a country are present in the feature, either by building structures over the feature to house the citizens (most features are of this type) or by manning a ship anchored over the feature (Philippine-occupied Irving Reef is of this type).
  • Regularly visited by soldiers of a country, not necessarily having soldiers present in it 24 hours. These features must lie near (within 9 miles (14 km)) a feature occupied by the country in the way of the first condition. Presence of structures is not necessary. This is the case of Philippine-occupied Flat Island and Lankiam Cay where soldiers stationed at Nanshan Island and Loaita Island respectively, regularly visit on a daily basis.[citation needed]

The effective visible distance of horizon from a 15-meter (typical large structure) height above sea-level is 9 miles (14 km). This makes features occupied by the second condition to be also labeled as "occupied" since they can be guarded far away. However, not all features within the 9-mile (14 km) radius can be considered as absolutely occupied. This is especially true for features that lie between and within 9 miles (14 km) of two or more features occupied by different countries.[citation needed] (See Virtually Occupied or Controlled table)

Summary[edit]

Int'l Name Co-ords Sub-group Occupant/s Since Notes
Itu Aba 10°22′N 114°22′E / 10.367°N 114.367°E / 10.367; 114.367 Tizard Bank ROC (Taiwan) 1946
Ban Than Reef 10°23′N 114°24′E / 10.383°N 114.400°E / 10.383; 114.400 Tizard Bank ROC (Taiwan) 1946
Cuarteron Reef 08°53′N 112°51′E / 8.883°N 112.850°E / 8.883; 112.850 London Reefs PRC (China) 1988
Fiery Cross Reef 09°37′N 112°58′E / 9.617°N 112.967°E / 9.617; 112.967 W of Union Banks PRC (China) 1988 Military Garrison
Gaven Reefs 10°13′N 114°13′E / 10.217°N 114.217°E / 10.217; 114.217 Tizard Bank PRC (China) 1988
Hughes Reef 09°55′N 114°30′E / 9.917°N 114.500°E / 9.917; 114.500 Union Banks PRC (China) 1988 Lighthouse
Johnson South Reef 09°42′N 114°15′E / 9.700°N 114.250°E / 9.700; 114.250 Union Banks PRC (China) 1988
Mischief Reef 09°55′N 115°32′E / 9.917°N 115.533°E / 9.917; 115.533 SE Dangerous Ground PRC (China) 1995 Airfield
Subi Reef 10°55′N 114°04′E / 10.917°N 114.067°E / 10.917; 114.067 W of Thitu Reefs PRC (China) 2013 Military Garrison
First Thomas Shoal 09°19′N 115°57′E / 9.317°N 115.950°E / 9.317; 115.950 SE of Mischief Reef - -
Whitson Reef 10°00′N 114°42′E / 10.000°N 114.700°E / 10.000; 114.700 Union Banks - -
Flat Island 10°49′N 115°49′E / 10.817°N 115.817°E / 10.817; 115.817 SE Dangerous Ground PH 1974
Lankiam Cay 10°43′N 114°32′E / 10.717°N 114.533°E / 10.717; 114.533 Loaita Banks PH -
Loaita Cay 10°43′43″N 114°21′09″E / 10.72861°N 114.35250°E / 10.72861; 114.35250 Loaita Banks PH -
Loaita Island 10°40′N 114°25′E / 10.667°N 114.417°E / 10.667; 114.417 Loaita Banks PH -
Nanshan Island 10°45′N 115°49′E / 10.750°N 115.817°E / 10.750; 115.817 Loaita Banks PH -
Northeast Cay 11°28′N 114°21′E / 11.467°N 114.350°E / 11.467; 114.350 North Danger Reef PH -
Thitu Island 11°03′N 114°17′E / 11.050°N 114.283°E / 11.050; 114.283 Thitu Reefs PH -
West York Island 11°05′N 115°01′E / 11.083°N 115.017°E / 11.083; 115.017 NNW Dangerous Ground PH -
Commodore Reef 11°05′N 115°01′E / 11.083°N 115.017°E / 11.083; 115.017 PH -
Irving Reef 10°52′N 114°55′E / 10.867°N 114.917°E / 10.867; 114.917 NNW Dangerous Ground PH -
Second Thomas Shoal 09°44′N 115°52′E / 9.733°N 115.867°E / 9.733; 115.867 NE Dangerous Ground PH 2012 Navy Outpost
Amboyna Cay 07°51′N 112°55′E / 7.850°N 112.917°E / 7.850; 112.917 Viet - Lighthouse
Namyit Island 10°11′N 114°22′E / 10.183°N 114.367°E / 10.183; 114.367 Tizard Bank Viet 1975
Sand Cay 10°23′N 114°29′E / 10.383°N 114.483°E / 10.383; 114.483 Tizard Bank Viet 1974
Sin Cowe Island 09°52′N 114°19′E / 9.867°N 114.317°E / 9.867; 114.317 Union Banks Viet 1974
Southwest Cay 11°28′N 114°21′E / 11.467°N 114.350°E / 11.467; 114.350 North Danger Reef Viet 1975
Spratly Island 08°38′N 114°25′E / 8.633°N 114.417°E / 8.633; 114.417 Viet 1974
Alison Reef 08°51′N 114°00′E / 8.850°N 114.000°E / 8.850; 114.000 Viet -
Barque Canada Reef 08°10′N 113°18′E / 8.167°N 113.300°E / 8.167; 113.300 Viet 1987
Central London Reef London Reefs Viet 1978
Collins Reef 09°46′N 114°15′E / 9.767°N 114.250°E / 9.767; 114.250 Union Banks Viet -
Cornwallis South Reef Viet 1988
Discovery Great Reef Viet 1988
East London Reef London Reefs Viet 1988
Grierson Reef Viet -
Higgens Reef Union Banks Viet -
Ladd Reef 08°41′N 111°40′E / 8.683°N 111.667°E / 8.683; 111.667 Viet 1988 Lighthouse
Landsdowne Reef Viet -
Pearson Reef Viet 1988
Petley Reef Tizard Bank Viet 1988
Pigeon Reef Viet 1988
South Reef Viet 1988
West London Reef London Reefs Viet 1988 Lighthouse
Bombay Castle Rifleman Bank Viet 1989 Lighthouse
Prince of Wales Bank Southwest Bank Viet 1989 Lighthouse
Grainger Bank Southwest Bank Viet 1991 Lighthouse
Alexandra Bank Southwest Bank Viet 1991 Lighthouse
Prince Consort Bank Southwest Bank Viet 1990 Lighthouse
Vanguard Bank West Spratlys Viet 1989 Lighthouse
Swallow Reef Mysia 1983 RMN offshore EEZ station "Lima"
Ardasier Reef 07°38′N 113°56′E / 7.633°N 113.933°E / 7.633; 113.933 Mysia 1986 RMN offshore EEZ station "Uniform"
Dallas Reef - -
Erica Reef Mysia 1999 RMN offshore EEZ station "Sierra"
Investigator Shoal Mysia 1999 RMN offshore EEZ station "Papa"
Louisa Reef - -
Mariveles Reef Mysia 1986 RMN offshore EEZ station "Mike"
Loaita Cay
Loaita Nan
North Reef
Sandy Cay
McKennan Reef
Edmund Reef
Hallet Reef
Holiday Reef
Empire Reef
Eldad Reef
Amy Douglas Bank
Bombay Shoal 9°26′N 116°55′E
Boxall Reef 8°51′N 114°00′E
Carnadic Shoal
Director Shoal
Ganges Reef
Glasgow Bank
Half Moon Shoal
Hardy Reef
Hopkins Reef
Investigator Northeast Shoal
Iroquois Reef
Leslie Bank
Lord Auckland
Lys Shoal
North East Shea
Pennsylvania North Reef
Pennsylvania South Reef
Reed Tablemount
Nares Bank
Marie Louise Bank
Royal Captain Shoal
Sabina Shoal
Sandy Shoal
Seahorse Shoal
Stag Shoal
Southern Bank
Magat Salamat
Tagpi
Hubo Reef
Katimugan Banks
Templar Bank
Trident Shoal
Viper North Shoal
Viper Shoal
North Luconia Shoals
South Luconia Shoals
James Shoal
Alicia Annie Reef
Coronation Bank
Discovery Small Reef
Dhaulle Shoal
Hopps Reef
Jackson Atoll
Jones Reef
Livock Reef
Menzies Reef
Owen Shoal
Thitu Reef

Occupied features[edit]

Republic of China (Taiwan)[edit]

Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Taiping Island / Itu Aba[4][33] Taiwan 太平島 Tàipíng Dǎo 10°22′30″N 114°22′0″E / 10.37500°N 114.36667°E / 10.37500; 114.36667 - Part of Tizard Banks.

The largest of the Spratly islands, and one of the few islands in the South China Sea with its own source of fresh water. Located about 22 miles (35 km) south-southwest of Philippine-occupied Loaita (Kota) Island and about 6 miles (10 km) west of Vietnam-occupied Sand Cay. Covered with shrubs, coconut and mangroves. 600 soldiers stationed, lighthouse,[34] radio and weather stations, concrete landing jetty and two wells at the SW end. Guano deposits, fringing reef. Hainan fishermen used to visit annually. In August 1993, plans were announced for a 2 km-long airstrip and a fishing port. The now only 1150-meters-long airstrip was completed in January 2008.[35] Pineapple was once cultivated here. Occupied since September 1956, four months after Filipino Tomas Cloma claimed the islands.

46
Philippines Ligaw[36]
Vietnam Đảo Ba Bình
Other names: Ligao, Huángshānmǎ Jiāo (黃山馬礁), Huángshānmǎ Zhì (黃山馬峙), Nagashima (長島)
Ban Than Reef / Zhongzhou Reef[4] Taiwan 中洲礁 Zhongzhou Jiao 10°23′10″N 114°24′49″E / 10.38611°N 114.41361°E / 10.38611; 114.41361 - Part of Tizard Banks.

Lies 3 miles (5 km) east of Itu Aba Island and 3 miles (5 km) west of Vietnamese occupied Sand Cay. Small drying reef.[4] "Construction project" underway since March 1995.[37]

0
Vietnam Bãi Bàn Than
Total 1 island, 1 reef 46

People's Republic of China[edit]

China People's Republic of China
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Cuarteron Reef[4][33] China 华阳礁 Huayang Jiao 8°53′00″N 112°51′05″E / 8.88333°N 112.85139°E / 8.88333; 112.85139 - Part of London Reefs.

Natural features
Coral rocks only. Highest are 1.5 m high, on the north.
Occupation before land reclamation
Occupied by PRC since 1988. As of 2011, has permanent reef fortresses and supply platforms able to resist winds up to 71 knots and equipped with VHF / UHF communications equipment, search radars as well as naval guns and anti-aircraft guns, which can serve as docks for Chinese navy patrol boats.[38]
Land reclamation
Intelligence reports of November 2014 suggest the reef has been transformed into an island of yet unknown size, due to PRC's land reclamation activities.[2] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 0.231 km2 and appeared complete.[39]

0 23.1 ha[39]
Philippines Calderon
Vietnam Đá Châu Viên
Fiery Cross Reef / Northwest Investigator Reef[4][33] China 永暑礁 Yongshu Jiao 9°37′N 112°58′E / 9.617°N 112.967°E / 9.617; 112.967 - West of Union Banks

Natural features
Rocks up to 1 m high. [5] says all below high tide, but guano deposits disagree.
Occupation before land reclamation
Occupied by PRC since 1988. "Marine observation station" built by PRC in 1988; PRC built a navy harbor by blasting, piling up and cementing coral; coconut, fir, and banyan trees planted. As of 2011, designated the PRC main command headquarters; equipped with satellite data transmission, surface and air search radars; armed with at least four high-powered naval guns and several gun emplacements.[38]
Land reclamation
Intelligence reports of November 2014 observed that the reef has been transformed into an island 3,000m long and 200-300m wide due to PRC land reclamation activities.[2]
In February 2015, land reclamation was already estimated having reached 2.3 km2, turning the reef to the largest landmass in Spratly islands.[40] The reclaimed area was estimated to have grown to 2.65 km2 in April 2015.[14] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 2.74 km2 and appeared complete.[39]

0 274 ha[39]
Philippines Kagitingan
Vietnam Đá Chữ Thập
Gaven Reefs[4][33] China 南薰礁 Nanxun Jiao (Northern reef) / Xinan or Duolu Jiao
(Southern reef)
10°12′48″N 114°13′9″E / 10.21333°N 114.21917°E / 10.21333; 114.21917 - Part of Tizard Banks.

Natural features
A sand dune, 2 m high. Has fringing reef plus a reef 2 miles (3 km) to the south, both covered at high tide.
Occupation before land reclamation
Southern reef was occupied by PRC on 7/4/92. Occupied since 1988. As of 2011, has permanent reef fortresses and supply platforms able to resist winds up to 71 knots and equipped with VHF / UHF communications equipment, search radars as well as naval guns and anti-aircraft guns, which can serve as docks for Chinese navy patrol boats.[38]
Land reclamation
Intelligence reports of November 2014 observed that the reef has been transformed into an island of yet unknown size due to PRC land reclamation activities.[2] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 0.136 km2 and appeared complete.[39]

0 13.6 ha[39]
Philippines Burgos
Vietnam Đá Ga Ven (N. reef) / Đá Lạc (S. reef)
Hughes Reef[4][33] China 东门礁 Dongmen Jiao 9°55′N 114°30′E / 9.917°N 114.500°E / 9.917; 114.500 - Part of Union Banks.

Natural features
Lies 9 miles (14 km) to the east of Sin Cowe Island. Naturally above water at least at low tide.
Occupation before land reclamation
Occupied since 1988. Has a lighthouse[41] on top of a two storied Chinese defence outpost.[42]
Land reclamation
Imagery captured on 24 January 2015 shows 0.75 km2 of reclaimed land and the construction of a large facility in progress.[43] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 0.76 km2 and appeared complete.[39]

0 7.6 ha[39]
Vietnam Đá Tư Nghĩa
Johnson South Reef[4][33] China 赤瓜礁 Chigua Jiao 9°42′50″N 114°17′10″E / 9.71389°N 114.286°E / 9.71389; 114.286 - Part of Union Banks.

Natural features
Contiguous with Vietnam-occupied Collins Reef which lies 4 miles (6 km) away northwest. Naturally above water only at low tide, but many rocks above water at high tide.
Occupation before land reclamation
Site of 1988 PRC/Vietnam clash. Occupied since 1988. As of 2011, has permanent reef fortresses and supply platforms able to resist winds up to 71 knots and equipped with VHF / UHF communications equipment, search radars as well as naval guns and anti-aircraft guns, which can serve as docks for Chinese navy patrol boats.[38]
Land reclamation
Intelligence reports of November 2014 observed that the reef has been transformed into an island about 500m by 200m due to PRC land reclamation activities.[2] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 0.109 km2 and appeared complete.[39]

0 10.9 ha[39]
Philippines Mabini
Vietnam Đá Gạc Ma
Mischief Reef[4][33] China 美济礁 Meiji Jiao 9°55′N 115°32′E / 9.917°N 115.533°E / 9.917; 115.533 - East of the centre of Dangerous Ground.

Natural features
Some rocks above water at low tide. Has a large lagoon.
Occupation before land reclamation
In February 1995, PRC had built a wooden complex on stilts here, starting its formal occupation of the feature. In 1999, the Philippines protested over the expanded structures claiming that it is a military outpost and it poses danger to Philippine security and national defense, being 130 miles (209 km) from Palawan. PRC claimed it was a shelter for fishermen. By 2011, the "shelters" were equipped with satellite communications and radars, and the reef had four building complexes with 13 multi-storey buildings. Fifty Chinese Marines are permanently stationed there.[38]
Land reclamation
In March 2015, it was detected that the PRC had started land reclamation activities on the reef.[44] By April 2015, the reclaimed area had rapidly grown to almost 2.5 km2, and further reclamation was on-going around the reef.[14] By June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 5.58 km2 and appeared nearing completion.[39]

0 558 ha[39]
Philippines Panganiban[36]
Vietnam Đá Vành Khăn
Subi (Zhubi) Reef [4][33] China 渚碧礁 Zhubi Dao 10°54′48″N 114°03′43″E / 10.9133°N 114.062°E / 10.9133; 114.062 - West of Thitu Reefs.

Natural features
Lies 16 miles (26 km) southwest of Philippine-occupied Thitu Island (Pagasa Island). Naturally above water only at low tide. Surrounds a lagoon.
Occupation before land reclamation
As of 2011, PRC has built a permanent reef fortress and supply platform that can house 160 troops. This garrison has a helipad and is armed with four twin barrel 37-millimeter naval guns. Houses a doppler weather radar.[38]
Land reclamation
Intelligence reports of March 2015 observed that the reef has been transformed into an island about 1.8 km2 due to PRC land reclamation activities.[3] In April 2015, the reclaimed area was about 2.27 km2 and growing.[14] Two months later, the reclaimed area had grown to 3.87 km2.[45] Later in June 2015, the land reclamation had reached 3.95 km2 and appeared nearing completion.[39]

0 395 ha[45]
Philippines Zamora
Vietnam Đá Xu Bi
First Thomas Shoal China 信义礁 Xinyi Jiao

Taiwan 信義暗沙 Xinyi Ansha

9°19′N 115°57′E / 9.317°N 115.950°E / 9.317; 115.950 - SE of Mischief Reef

A few rocks are permanently above sea level. Much of the reef is above water at low tide. Encloses a lagoon.

0
Philippines Bulig[36]
Vietnam Bãi Suối Ngà
Whitson Reef[4] China 牛轭礁 Niu'e Jiao Part of Union Banks.

Some rocks naturally above water at high tide. Part of Union Banks.

0
Vietnam Đá Ba Đầu
Total 9 reefs of which 7 have artificial islands 0 1350.6 ha

Republic of the Philippines[edit]

Philippines Republic of the Philippines
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Flat Island[33][4] Philippines Patag[36] 10°49′00″N 115°49′20″E / 10.81667°N 115.82222°E / 10.81667; 115.82222
The fourteenth largest Spratly island. About 6 miles (10 km) southwest of Philippine-occupied Lawak Island (Nanshan Island). It changes its shape seasonally; the sand build up depends largely on the direction of prevailing wind and waves - the island has taken an elongated shape, the shape of a crescent moon, and the shape of a letter "S". Like Panata Island (Lankiam Cay), it is also barren of any vegetation. No underground water source is found in the island. Presently, the island serves as a military observation post for the Municipality of Kalayaan. A low, flat, sandy cay, 240m by 90m, subject to erosion. No vegetation. Several soldiers stationed.
0.57
China 费信岛

Taiwan 費信島
Feixin Dao

Vietnam Đảo Bình Nguyên
Lankiam Cay[4][33] Philippines Panata[36] The sixteenth largest and the smallest Spratly island. Located 8 miles (13 km) northeast of Philippine-occupied Kota Island (Lankiam Cay). A few years ago this island has a surface area of more than 5 hectares but strong waves brought by a strong typhoon washed out the sandy surface (beach) of the island leaving behind today the calcarenite foundation that can be seen at low tide. Several soldiers stationed. Part of Loaita Banks. 0.44
China 杨信沙洲

Taiwan 杨信沙洲
Yangxin Shazhou

Vietnam đá An Nhơn
Loaita Cay[4][33] Philippines Melchora Aquino[36] The fifteenth largest Spratly island. its located about 5 nautical miles (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) northwest of Philippine-occupied Loaita Island, just west of the north of Dangerous Ground ItThe island is a low, flat, sandy cay, and is subject to erosion. It changes its shape seasonally. The sand build up depends largely on the direction of prevailing winds and waves; it has taken an elongated shape for some years. Several soldiers stationed. Occupied since 1968. Part of Loaita Banks. 0.53
China 南钥沙洲

Taiwan 南钥沙洲
Nanyao Shazhou

Vietnam Đảo Loại Ta Tây
Loaita Island[4][33] Philippines Kota[36] The tenth largest Spratly island. Located 22 miles (35 km) southeast of Philippine-occupied Pag-asa Island (Thitu Island) and 22 miles (35 km) north-northeast of the ROC-occupied Taiping Island. It fringes the Laoita bank and reef. Its calcarenite outcrop is visible along its western side at low tide. The present shape of the island indicates sand buildup along its eastern side. The anchor-shaped side will eventually connect with the northern portion as the sand buildup continues thereby creating another mini-lagoon in the process. The presence of migrating sea birds adds to the high phosphorus contents of the sand found in the island. Occasionally, giant sea turtles are reported to be laying their eggs in the island. Covered with mangrove bushes, above which rose coconut palms and other small trees. Several soldiers stationed. Occupied since 1968. Part of Loaita Banks. 6.45
China 南钥岛

Taiwan 南鑰島
Nanyue Dao

Vietnam Đảo Loại Ta
Nanshan Island[4][33] Philippines Lawak[36] 10°45′N 115°49′E / 10.750°N 115.817°E / 10.750; 115.817
The eighth largest Spratly island. Located 98.0 miles (157.7 km) east of Pag-asa (Thitu Island). This island is a bird sanctuary. Its surroundings are highly phosphatized that superphosphate materials can be mined out on a small-scale basis. Near the fringes of the breakwaters (approx. 2 miles (3 km) from the island), intact hard coral reefs were observed to retain their natural environment and beautiful tropical fishes were seen colonizing these coral beds of varying colors. Covered with coconut trees, bushes and grass. 580 m long, on the edge of a submerged reef. Several soldiers stationed. Has a small airstrip.
7.93
China 马欢岛

Taiwan 馬歡島
Mahuan Dao

Vietnam Đảo Vĩnh Viễn
Northeast Cay[4][33] Philippines Parola[36] 11°28′N 114°21′E / 11.467°N 114.350°E / 11.467; 114.350
The fifth largest Spratly island. Only 1.75 miles (2.82 km) north of Vietnamese-occupied Southwest Cay and can be seen before the horizon. Located 28 miles (45 km) northwest of Philippine-occupied Pag-asa (Thitu Island). Some of its outcrops are visible on its western side. It has high salinity groundwater and vegetation limited to beach type of plants. The corals around the island were mostly destroyed by rampant use of dynamite fishing and cyanide method employed by foreign fishing boats in the past. Covered with grass and thick trees. Much of the ringing reef is above water at high tide. Supported a beacon in 1984. Has Guano deposits. Several soldiers stationed. Satellite photography suggests it may have an airstrip.[46] Occupied since 1968. Part of North Danger Reef.
12.7
China 北子岛 Beizi Dao

Taiwan 北子礁 Beizi Jiao

Vietnam Đảo Song Tử Đông
Thitu Island[4][33] Philippines Pag-asa[36] The second largest Spratly island. Serves as the poblacion for the Municipality of Kalayaan, Palawan, Phils. It is covered with trees and has a variety of fauna. It is home to some 300+ civilians (including children) and over 50 soldiers. Other islands are expected to be populated before 2010. Population is regulated to protect the islands' flora and fauna and to avoid tension with other countries. It has 1.4 km airstrip, a marina, water filtering plant, power generator and a commercial communications tower (by Smart Communications), school, and television channel. The Philippines' Department of Tourism is making improvements to the island to make it profitable. Occupied since 1968. Part of Thitu Reefs. 37.2
China 中业岛

Taiwan 中業島
Zhongye Dao

Vietnam Đảo Thị Tứ
West York Island[4][33] Philippines Likas[36] 11°05′N 115°01′E / 11.083°N 115.017°E / 11.083; 115.017
The third largest Spratly island. This island is located 47 miles (76 km) northeast of Pag-asa (Thitu Island). Outcrops are visible on the southern and eastern portion of the island during low tides. This island is considered a sanctuary for giant sea turtles that lay their eggs on the island all year round. The high salinity of the ground water in the island retards the growth of introduced trees like coconuts, ipil-ipil, and other types. Only those endemic to the area that are mostly beach type of plants thrive and survive the hot and humid condition especially during the dry season. Has an observation post. Several soldiers stationed.
18.6
China 西月岛

Taiwan 西月島
Xiyue Dao

Vietnam Đảo Bến Lạc, Đảo Dừa
Commodore Reef[4][33] Philippines Rizal[36] A sand "cay", 0.5 m high, surrounded by two lagoons. Parts of reef above water at high tide. It is a typical reef lying underwater and is now being manned by a military contingent based and established in the area. Some structures. Several soldiers stationed. Occupied since 1978. 0
China 司令礁

Taiwan 司令礁
Siling Jiao

Vietnam Đá Công Đo
Malaysia Terumbu Laksamana
Irving Reef[4] Philippines Balagtas Naturally above water only at low tide. A very small cay lies at northern end. Some structures. Several soldiers stationed. 0
China 火艾礁

Taiwan 火艾礁
Huo'ai Jiao

Vietnam Đá Cá Nhám
Second Thomas Reef / shoal[47] Philippines Ayungin[36] A shallow reef. It is close to Chinese-occupied Mischief Reef. It was occupied by the Philippines in 1999, after the 1995 controversial Chinese occupation of Mischief Reef, to put pressure on China not to occupy any features further which lie near the Philippines. 0
China 仁爱礁 Ren'ai Jiao

Taiwan 仁愛暗沙 Ren'ai Ansha

Vietnam Bãi Cỏ Mây
Total 8 islands, 3 reefs 84.42

Socialist Republic of Vietnam[edit]

Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Amboyna Cay[4][33] Philippines Datu Kalantiaw[36] 07°51′N 112°55′E / 7.850°N 112.917°E / 7.850; 112.917
The thirteenth largest Spratly island. 2m high. Two parts: East part consists of sand and coral, west part is covered with guano. Has fringing reef. An obelisk, about 2.7 m high, stands on the SW corner. Little vegetation. Lighthouse operational since May 1995.[34] Heavily fortified.[4]
1.6
China 安波沙洲 Anbo Shazhou
Vietnam Đảo An Bang
Malaysia Pulau Amboyna Kecil
Namyit Island[4][33] Philippines Binago[36] The twelfth largest Spratly island. Covered with small trees, bushes and grass. Has a fringing reef and is inhabited by sea birds. The island is inhabited by an unknown number of Vietnamese soldiers and in the deep waters fronting the south side it is said that a submarine base is situated.[citation needed] Occupied since 1975.Part of Tizard Banks. 5.3
China 鸿庥岛 Hongxiu Dao
Vietnam Đảo Nam Yết
Sand Cay[4][33] Philippines Bailan The ninth largest Spratly island. Lies 6 miles (10 km) to the east of Taiwan-occupied Taiping Island. Covered with trees and bushes. Fringing reef partly above water at low tide. This feature is commonly confused with Sandy Cay. Occupied since 1974. Part of Tizard Banks. 7
China 敦谦沙洲

Taiwan 敦謙沙洲
Dunqian Shazhou

Vietnam Đảo Sơn Ca
Sin Cowe Island[4][33] Philippines Rurok[36] 9°52′N 114°19′E / 9.867°N 114.317°E / 9.867; 114.317
The seventh largest. Has fringing reef which is above water at low tide. Occupied since 1974. Part of Union Banks.
8
China 景宏岛 Jinghong Dao
Vietnam Đảo Sinh Tồn
Southwest Cay[4][33] Philippines Pugad 11°28′N 114°21′E / 11.467°N 114.350°E / 11.467; 114.350
The sixth largest Spratly island. Only 1.75 miles (2.82 km) from Northeast Cay and can be seen before the horizon. Previously a breeding place for birds and covered with trees and guano. Export of guano was once carried out "on a considerable scale." Fringing reef partly above water at high tide. Vietnam erected its first lighthouse in the Spratlys here in October 1993[34] and built an airstrip. Has a three-story building, garrisoned by soldiers. Philippine military controlled the island before the early 1970s. South Vietnamese forces (Republic of Vietnam) invaded the island in 1975, when Filipino soldiers guarding the island attended the birthday party of their commanding officer based in the nearby Northeast Cay. A confirmed report came out that Vietnamese prostitutes were sent by Vietnamese officials to the birthday party, supposedly a sign of good brotherhood between the forces, but was actually used to lure the Filipino soldiers guarding the island. Filipino forces apparently planned on attacking the island, thus it would have led to a war, but Vietnamese forces were able to erect a huge garrison in the island within few weeks, forcing Filipino officials to abort the plan. Since then, more soldiers were assigned to Parola Island (North East Cay), to avoid it from happening again. This was confirmed by interviews with soldiers involved in an episode of the defunct ABS-CBN's Magandang Gabi Bayan (Good Evening Nation) program. See Policies, activities and history of the Philippines in Spratly Islands#Southwest Cay invasion for more details. Part of North Danger Reef.
12
China 南子岛 Nanzi Dao

Taiwan 南子礁 Nanzi Jiao

Vietnam Đảo Song Tử Tây
Spratly Island / Storm Island[4][33] Philippines Lagos 8°38′N 114°25′E / 8.633°N 114.417°E / 8.633; 114.417
The fourth largest Spratly island. 2.5 m high, flat. Covered with bushes, grass, birds and guano. 5.5 m-high obelisk at southern tip. Has landing strip, and a fishing port. Fringing reef is above water at low tide. Some structures with soldiers stationed. Occupied since 1974.
13
China 南威岛 Nanwei Dao
Vietnam Đảo Trường Sa
Alison Reef[4][33] Philippines De Jesus[36] 8°51′N 114°00′E / 8.850°N 114.000°E / 8.850; 114.000
Naturally above water only at low tide. Encloses a lagoon.[4]
0
China 六门礁 Liumen Jiao
Vietnam Đá Tốc Tan
Barque Canada Reef / Lizzie Weber Reef[4][33] Philippines (Barque Canada Reef) Magsaysay 8°10′N 113°18′E / 8.167°N 113.300°E / 8.167; 113.300
Coral. Highest rocks are 4.5 m high, at SW end. Much of reef is above water at high tide. Some sandy patches. 18 miles (29 km) long. Its military structures have been upgraded. Occupied since 1987.[4]
0
Philippines (Lizzie Weber Reef) Mascarado
China 柏礁 Bai Jiao, Liwei Dao
Vietnam Bãi Thuyền Chài
Malaysia Terumbu Perahu
Central London Reef[4][33] Philippines Gitnang Quezon[36] SW part is a sandbank which barely submerges at high tide. The rest is coral reef, awash, surrounding a lagoon. Occupied since 1978. Part of London Reefs. 0
China 中礁 Zhong Jiao
Vietnam Đảo Trường Sa Đông
Collins Reef / Johnson North Reef[4] Philippines Roxas Lies 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Vietnam-occupied Sin Cowe Island. Connected to Johnson South Reef. A "coral dune" is located at the southeast corner, above the high tide line. Part of Union Banks. 0
China 鬼喊礁 Guihan Jiao
Vietnam Đá Cô Lin
Cornwallis South Reef[4][33] Philippines Osmeña Naturally above water only at low tide. Encloses a lagoon. Occupied since 1988. 0
China 南华礁 Nanhua Jiao
Vietnam Đá Núi Le
Great Discovery Reef[4][33] Philippines Paredes Several rocks are above water at high tide. Most of reef is above water at low tide. Has lagoon. Occupied since 1988. 0
China 大现礁 Daxian Jiao
Vietnam Đá Lớn
East London Reef[4][33] Philippines Silangang Quezon[36] Rocks up to 1 m high. Encloses a lagoon. Occupied since 1988. Part of London Reefs. 0
China 东礁 Dong Jiao
Vietnam Đá Đông
Grierson Reef[4] Philippines Julian Felipe A sand cay with fringing reef.[48] (Despite some ambiguity in various references, this is NOT Sin Cowe East Island.[49]) Its sand bar area is about 12 hectares. Part of Union Banks. 0
China 染青沙洲 Ranqing Shazhou
Vietnam Đảo Sinh Tồn Đông
Higgens Reef[33] China 屈原礁 Quyuan Jiao Lies 6 miles (10 km) southeast of Vietnam-occupied Sin Cowe Island. Only above water at low tide. Part of Union Banks. 0
Vietnam Đá Phúc Sĩ
Ladd Reef[33] China 日积礁 Riji Jiao Naturally above water at low tide. Has coral lagoon. Occupied since 1988. 0
Vietnam Đá Lát
Lan(d)sdowne Reef[4][33] Philippines Pagkakaisa Sand dune, with fringing reef. Part of Union Banks. 0
China 琼礁 Qiong Jiao
Vietnam Đá Len Đao
Pearson Reef[4][33] Philippines Hizon[36] Two sand "cays", 2 m and 1 m high, lie on the edges of a lagoon. Parts of the surrounding reef are above water at high tide. Occupied since 1988. 0
China 毕生礁 Bisheng Jiao
Vietnam Đảo Phan Vinh
Petley Reef[4][33] Philippines Juan Luna Naturally above water only at low tide, some small rocks might stand above high water. Occupied since 1988. Part of Tizard Banks. 0
China 舶兰礁 Bolan Jiao
Vietnam Đá Núi Thị
Pigeon Reef / Tennent Reef[4][33] Philippines Lopez-Jaena Numerous rocks are naturally above the high tide line. Encloses a lagoon. Occupied since 1988. 0
China 无乜礁 Wumie Jiao
Vietnam Đá Tiên Nữ
South Reef[4][33] Philippines Timog Lies about 2.5 miles (4 km) southwest of Vietnam-occupied Southwest Cay. A tiny cay appears atop this reef on the most detailed map available. On the southwest end of North Danger Reef. Fringing reef is above water at low tide. Occupied since 1988. Part of North Danger Reef. 0
China 奈罗礁 Nailuo Jiao
Vietnam Đá Nam
West London Reef[4][33] Philippines Kanlurang Quezon[36] East part is sand "cay", 0.6 m high. West part is coral reef which is above water only at low tide. Between them is a lagoon. Vietnam erected a lighthouse here in May or June 1994.[34] Part of London Reefs. 0
China 西礁 Xi Jiao
Vietnam Đá Tây
Rifleman Bank (containing Bombay Castle)[4] China 南薇滩 Nanwei Tan Shallowest natural depth is 3 m, called Bombay Castle. Sand and coral. Occupied since 1989. 0
Vietnam Bãi Vũng Mây
Prince of Wales Bank China 广雅滩 Guangya Tan Shallowest natural depth is 7 m. Has corals. Occupied since 1989. 0
Vietnam Bãi Phúc Tần
Grainger Bank[4] China 李准滩 Lizhun Tan Shallowest natural depth is either 9 m or 11 m. Occupied since 1991. 0
Vietnam Bãi Quế Đường
Alexandra Bank China 人骏滩 Renjun Tan Shallowest natural depth is 5 m. Occupied since 1991. 0
Vietnam Bãi Huyền Trân
Prince Consort Bank[4] China 西卫滩 Xiwei Tan Shallowest natural depth is 9 m. Occupied since 1990. 0
Vietnam Bãi Phúc Nguyên
Vanguard Bank[4] China 万安滩 Wan'an Tan Shallowest natural depth is 16 m. Vietnam has run three "economic technological service stations" in this area since July 1994. Occupied since 1989. 0
Vietnam Bãi Tư Chính
Total 6 islands, 16 reefs, 6 banks 46.9

Malaysia[edit]

Note that the Royal Malaysian Navy have established 5 Offshore naval stations (Offshore EEZ Stations) on reclaimed land:[50]

Malaysia Malaysia
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Swallow Reef/ Island[4][33] Philippines Celerio The eleventh largest Spratly island. Treeless cay and rocks up to 3 m high surround a lagoon. Malaysia has drawn territorial seas around this and Amboyna Cay. Some 70 plus soldiers stationed at Royal Malaysian Navy offshore EEZ station "Lima". Has a 1.4 km airstrip, jetty and dive resort. Occupied since 1983. 6.2 ~35ha
Vietnam Đá Hoa Lau
China 弹丸礁

Taiwan 彈丸礁
Danwan Jiao

Malaysia Terumbu Layang Layang
Ardasier Reef[4][33] Philippines Antonio Luna[36] 07°38′N 113°56′E / 7.633°N 113.933°E / 7.633; 113.933
Naturally above water only at low tide. Encloses a lagoon. Has a few sandy patches. Several soldiers stationed at Royal Malaysian Navy offshore EEZ station "Uniform". Occupied since 1986.[4]
0
China 光星仔礁

Taiwan 光星仔礁
Guangxingzai Jiao

Vietnam Bãi Kiêu Ngựa
Malaysia Terumbu Ubi
Dallas Reef[4] Philippines Rajah Matanda Naturally above water only at low tide. Encloses a lagoon. Several soldiers stationed. Malaysia is also using this reef for tourism. 0
China 光星礁 Guangxing Jiao
Vietnam Đá Suối Cát
Malaysia Terumbu Laya
Erica Reef / Enloa Reef[51] Philippines Gabriela Silang[36] Above water only at low tide. Some isolated rocks on the eastern edge stand above high water. Several soldiers stationed at Royal Malaysian Navy offshore EEZ station "Sierra". Occupied since 1999. 0
China 簸箕礁

Taiwan 簸箕礁
Boji Jiao

Vietnam Đá Én Ca
Malaysia Terumbu Siput
Investigator Shoal[51] Philippines Pawikan[36] Above water only at low tide. Some large rocks at the western end are visible at high water. Encloses a lagoon. Several soldiers stationed at Royal Malaysian Navy offshore EEZ station "Papa". Occupied since 1999. 0
China 榆亚暗沙

Taiwan 榆亞暗沙
Yuya Ansha

Vietnam Bãi Thám Hiểm
Malaysia Terumbu Peninjau
Louisa Reef[4] China 南通礁

Taiwan 南通礁
Nantong Jiao

Rocks 1 m high. Malaysia operates a lighthouse here.[34] 0
Malaysia Terumbu Semarang / Barat Kecil
Mariveles Reef[4][33] Philippines Mariveles A sand cay, 1.5–2 m high, surrounded by two lagoons, parts of which are above water at high tide. Several soldiers stationed at Royal Malaysian Navy offshore EEZ station "Mike". Occupied since 1986. 0
China 南海礁

Taiwan 南海礁
Nanhai Jiao

Vietnam Đá Kỳ Vân
Malaysia Terumbu Mantanani
Total 1 island, 5 reefs, 1 shoal 6.2

Unoccupied features[edit]

Philippines Unoccupied but Largely Controlled by the Philippines
The reefs, shoals, etc. to the east of the 116°E meridian are closely guarded by the Philippine Navy and Air Force. Though not occupied, the Philippines asserts control over these features which are less 100 miles (160 km) from the Palawan west coast (note: Scarborough Shoal is 100 miles (160 km) from Zambales west coast). There are many Filipino fishermen in this region, who cooperate closely with the Philippine Navy. Non-Filipino fishermen are tolerated in this region, provided that they comply with Philippine laws. The press in the Philippines have reported many arrests of Chinese fishermen by the Philippine Navy because of illegal fishing methods and catching of endangered sea species, both in this region and in the Sulu Sea. Philippine military presence in this region intensified after the 1995 Mischief Reef incident. The Philippine Air Force has been active in striking even the markers set up by other countries to guide the latter's naval forces in this region.
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.) Reclaimed area
Amy Douglas Bank / Reef Philippines Mahiwagang Diwata Lies north of Palawan Passage. Awash at low tide. 0
China 安塘滩 Antang Tan,
安塘礁 Antang Jiao
Bombay Shoal Philippines Abad Santos[36] 9°26′N 116°55′E / 9.433°N 116.917°E / 9.433; 116.917
Several rocks are exposed at low tide. Surrounds a lagoon.[4]
0
China 蓬勃暗沙 Pengbo Ansha
Boxall Reef Philippines Rajah Sulayman 8°51′N 114°00′E / 8.850°N 114.000°E / 8.850; 114.000
Above water only at low tide. No lagoon.[4]
0
China 牛车轮礁 Niuchelun Jiao
Carnatic Shoal Philippines Sikatuna 0
China 红石暗沙 Hongshi Ansha
Director Shoal / Reef Philippines Tamban 0
China 指向礁 Zhixiang Jiao
Ganges Reef Philippines Palma 0
China 恒礁 Heng Jiao
Glasgow Bank Philippines Aguinaldo Some sources say[citation needed] this area is occupied by the Philippines due to its proximity to the Commodore Reef. 0
China 双礁 Shuang Jiao
Half Moon Shoal Philippines Hasa-hasa[36] Several rocks on the eastern side rise one to two feet above high tide. Encloses a lagoon. Reports in February 2016 indicate the Philippine control of the reef might have ended.[52] 0
China 半月礁 Banyue Jiao
Vietnam Bãi Trăng Khuyết
Hardy Reef Philippines Sakay Naturally above water only at low tide. Surrounds a narrow strip of sand. 0
China 半路礁 Banlu Jiao
Hopkins Reef China 火星礁 Huoxing Jiao 0
Investigator Northeast Shoal Philippines Dalagang Bukid Lies only a few miles west of Palawan. Naturally above water at low tide. 0
China 海口礁 Haikou Jiao
Iroquois Reef Philippines Del Pilar Lies east of both Philippine-occupied Nanshan Island and Flat Island. Above water only at low tide. 0
China 鲎藤礁 Houteng Jiao
Leslie Bank Philippines Urduja 0
China 勇士滩 Yongshi Tan
Lord Auckland Shoal Philippines Lapu-Lapu 0
China 莪兰暗沙 Elan Ansha
Lys Shoal Philippines Bisugo 0
Vietnam Bãi Núi Cầu
China 乐斯暗沙 Lesi Ansha
Northeast Shea Reef Philippines Ponce Lies only a few miles north of Commodore Reef. Above water only at low tide. 0
China 校尉暗沙 Xiaowei Ansha
Pennsylvania North Reef China 阳明礁 Yangming Jiao
Pennsylvania South Reef China 孔明礁 Kongming Jiao 0
Reed Tablemount (including Nares Bank and Marie Louise Bank) Philippines Recto[36] Shallowest natural depth is 9 m. About 2,500 square miles (6,500 km2) in area. The Philippines occupied this feature in 1971 and a Philippine-Sweden joint oil-exploration followed afterwards.[4] However, China protested this act of the Philippines saying that this tablemount which center lies 100 miles (160 km) from the Philippines is part of China's territories. After that, the Philippines tried asking China for a joint effort but China declined, arguing that the Philippines has no right in this feature. Presently, this feature is largely controlled by the Philippines. 0
China 礼乐滩 Liyue Tan
Vietnam Bãi Cỏ Rong
Royal Captain Shoal Philippines Kanduli[36] A few rocks are above water at low tide. Surrounds a lagoon. 0
China 舰长礁 Jianzhang Jiao
Sabina Shoal Philippines Escoda It encloses two lagoons, naturally above water at low tide. Lies east of the Philippine-occupied Second Thomas Reef. 0
China 仙宾礁 Xianbin Jiao
Sandy Shoal Philippines Mabuhangin 0
China 神仙暗沙 Shenxian Ansha
Seahorse Shoal / Seashore Shoal / Routh Bank Philippines Baybayin Dagat Lies north of Palawan Passage 0
China 海马滩 Haima Tan
Stag Shoal Philippines Panday Pira 0
China 隐遁暗沙 Yindun Ansha
Southern Bank / Reef Philippines Katimugan A group of features located south of Reed Tablemount. The reef includes: Magat Salamat, Tagpi, Hubo Reef, and Katimugan Banks/Reef. The area is largely controlled and used for fishing by the Philippines due to its proximity to Flat Island and Nanshan Island. 0
China 南方浅滩 Nanfang Qiantan
Templar Bank Philippines Dalag[36] 0
China 忠孝滩 Zhongxiao Tan
Trident Shoal Philippines Tatlong-tulis 0
China 永登暗沙 Yongdeng Ansha
Viper North Shoal Philippines Maya-maya 0
China 都护暗沙 Duhu Ansha
Viper Shoal Philippines Tomas Claudio 0
China 保卫暗沙 Baowei Ansha
Malaysia Unoccupied but Largely Controlled by Malaysia
Malaysia claims a portion of the South China Sea together with 11 islands and other marine features in the Spratly group on the basis that they are within its continental shelf. These shoals lie off the North-Western coast of Sarawak over an area of 100 km;[dubious ] as such, they are largely controlled by Malaysia.[citation needed]
Int'l Name Local Names Description Sea area Land area
North Luconia Shoals China 北康暗沙 Beikang Ansha submerged 1,400 square kilometres (540 sq mi)[53] 0
Malaysia Gugusan Beting Raja Jarum
South Luconia Shoals China 南康暗沙 Nankang Ansha submerged 900 square kilometres (350 sq mi)[53] 0
Malaysia Gugusan Beting Patinggi Ali
James Shoal[54] China 曾母暗沙 Zengmu Ansha Shallowest natural depth is 17.5 m. 0 0
Malaysia Beting Serupai
Not Occupied by any Country
These are the unoccupied features. Some sources say that some of these features are occupied by Vietnam or China, but most sources say that they are not occupied. "Occupation" is possibly confused because the said reefs are very close to other occupied features. There are many unoccupied features in the Spratly chain. The current Code of Conduct prohibits any country from acquiring new features. Many of these features are actually in between and/or near two or more occupied features of different countries. Thus, they serve like buffer zones. Example of this is Jones Reef which lies almost exactly between PRC-occupied Hughes Reef and Vietnamese-occupied Higgens Reef.[citation needed]
Int'l Name Local Names Description Area (ha.)
Alicia Annie Reef Philippines Arellano[36] 09°25′N 115°26′E / 9.417°N 115.433°E / 9.417; 115.433
A sand "cay", 1.2 m high. Many rocks above high tide line. Reef encloses a lagoon.[4]
0
China 仙娥礁 Xian'e Jiao
Vietnam Đá Suối Ngọc
Coronation Bank China 康泰滩 Kangtai Tan 0
Discovery Small Reef Philippines Burgos Reef Above water only at low tide. 0
China 小现礁 Xiaoxian Jiao
Vietnam Đá Nhỏ
Dhaulle Shoal China 逍遥暗沙 Xiaoyao Ansha 0
Hopps Reef Philippines Diego Silang Above water only at low tide. Part of Southampton Reefs. 0
China 禄沙礁 Lusha Jiao
Vietnam Đá Lục Giang
Jones Reef China 漳溪礁 Zhangxi Jiao Lies 5 miles (8 km) south of McKennan Reef. Small reef, partly above water only at low tide. Part of Union Banks. 0
Vietnam Đá Văn Nguyên
Livock Reef Philippines (NE part) Jacinto Above water only at low tide. Some rocks still visible at high tide. Part of Southampton Reefs. 0
Philippines (SW part) Bonifacio
China 三角礁 Sanjiao Jiao
Vietnam Đá Long Hải
Menzies Reef Philippines Rajah Lakandula[36] Awash at low tide. Part of Loaita Bank. 0
China 蒙自礁 Mengzi Jiao
Vietnam Đá An Lão
Owen Shoal China 奥援暗沙 Aoyuan Ansha Shallowest natural depth is 6 m. 0
Vietnam Bãi Chim Biển
Thitu Reef China 铁峙礁 Tiezhi Jiao Above water only at low tide. Located northeast of Thitu Island and unnamed on most maps. Part of Thitu Reefs 0

Claimed features by country but occupied by other country[edit]

Claimed features by country but occupied by other country
The PRC, the ROC and Vietnam claim all of the Spratly Island Chain, including some features that are just 50 km from other countries like the Philippines and Malaysia. The Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei have claims on parts of the area. Here are the islands claimed but are not occupied by these three countries (flags refer to the country currently occupying the feature):
Philippines: Itu Aba Island Taiwan, Amboyna Cay Vietnam, Namyit Island Vietnam, Sand Cay Vietnam, Sin Cowe Island Vietnam, Sin Cowe East Island Vietnam, Southwest Cay Vietnam, Spratly Island Proper Vietnam, Pigeon Reef Vietnam, South Reef Vietnam, Ardasier Reef Malaysia, Erica Reef Malaysia, Investigator Shoal Malaysia, Mariveles Reef Malaysia, Swallow Reef/Island Malaysia, Mischief Reef China, Subi Reef China and all of features to the east of the 116°E meridian (unoccupied) (see Unoccupied but Largely Controlled by the Philippines subtable).
Malaysia: Amboyna Cay Vietnam, Barque Canada Reef Vietnam, Commodore Reef Philippines and Royal Charlotte Reef (unoccupied)
Brunei: Rifleman Bank Vietnam, Louisa Reef Malaysia and Owen Shoal (uncertain)

Others[edit]

Baker Reef / Gongzhen Jiao 10°43.5′N 116°10′E / 10.7250°N 116.167°E / 10.7250; 116.167 Awash at low tide.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ At one time Lankiam Cay (Panata) had an area of more than 5 hectares, but a severe typhoon and accompanying strong waves washed away the sand on the cay leaving behind the underlying coral base with an area of less than half a hectare.[citation needed]
  2. ^ a b c d e f AFP and Minnie Chan (22–23 Nov 2014). "US asks China to stop building Spratlys island which could host airfield". Retrieved 22 Nov 2014.
  3. ^ a b China Daily Mail (11 March 2015). "South China Sea: China reclaims land on yet another reef, to show disregard to US, Vietnam and Philippines". Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi "Digital Gazetteer of Spratly Islands". www.southchinasea.org. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
    - Version dated 19 August 2011 is available at: "Digital Gazetteer of Spratly Islands". www.southchinasea.org. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2014. This list includes the names of all Spratly features known to be occupied and/or above water at low tide.
  5. ^ https://amti.csis.org/itu-aba-tracker/
  6. ^ https://amti.csis.org/spratly-island/
  7. ^ https://amti.csis.org/southwest-cay/
  8. ^ https://amti.csis.org/sin-cowe-island/
  9. ^ a b "Sandcastles of their own: Vietnamese Expansion in the Spratly Islands".
  10. ^ https://amti.csis.org/sand-cay/
  11. ^ a b c d https://amti.csis.org/vietnams-island-building/
  12. ^ a b c d http://www.businessinsider.com/vietnam-building-islands-in-south-china-sea-2016-5/#sin-cowe-island-2006-2016-3
  13. ^ https://amti.csis.org/west-reef/
  14. ^ a b c d e f Victor Robert Lee (25 April 2015). "South China Sea: China's Unprecedented Spratlys Building Program". The Diplomat. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  15. ^ http://amti.csis.org/mischief-reef-tracker/
  16. ^ http://amti.csis.org/subi-reef-tracker/
  17. ^ http://amti.csis.org/fiery-cross-reef/
  18. ^ http://amti.csis.org/cuarteron-reef/
  19. ^ http://amti.csis.org/gaven-reefs/
  20. ^ http://amti.csis.org/johnson-reef-tracker/
  21. ^ "China builds fortress on disputed reef". The Times. 20 Feb 2015.
  22. ^ http://amti.csis.org/hughes-reef/
  23. ^ https://amti.csis.org/pearson-reef/
  24. ^ a b c Sailing Directions (Enroute), Pub. 161: South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand (PDF). Sailing Directions. United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2017. p. 11-17.
  25. ^ a b http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=93044 NW of Dangerous Ground
  26. ^ a b c http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=93045 NE Dangerous Ground
  27. ^ a b http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=93046 Most of the SE of Dangerous Ground. The missing portion of the SE is covered by chart 93048 and the top corner of chart 92006.
  28. ^ Chart 93048 is not easily available on-line
  29. ^ a b c http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=92006 SE Spratlys, Brunei, North Borneo and Southern Philippines
  30. ^ http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=93047 SW Dangerous Ground
  31. ^ http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=93049 South and West of Dangerous Ground
  32. ^ Note that the sea in the area 10-12°N, west of 113°E is mostly at least 1000m deep until approaching the Vietnam coast, and hence contains no maritime features of interest. Refer to charts: 93020, 93022, 93030, and 93044. Areas south of 10°N and west of 113°E are covered by charts 93020, 93022, 93030 and 93049.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "Territorial claims in the Spratly and Paracel Islands". GlobalSecurity.org. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  34. ^ a b c d e Russ Rowlett (15 November 2013). "Lighthouses of the Spratly Islands". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  35. ^ CNA (Central News Agency) (29 January 2008). "Taiwan completes military airstrip on Spratly Islands". Taiwan News. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Place Keywords by Country/Territory– Pacific Ocean (without Great Barrier Reef)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2003. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ "No Spratlys agreement between ASEAN, PRC", FBIS-EAS-95-065, 5 Apr 1995, p.41
  38. ^ a b c d e f DJ Sta. Ana, China builds more Spratly outposts, May 24, 2011, The Philippine Star.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative - Island Tracker. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
  40. ^ Ethan Rosen (22 Feb 2015). "What is China Building in the South China Sea?". www.bellingcat.com. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  41. ^ "Lighthouses maintained by China". Lighthouses of the Spratly Islands. University of North Carolina. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  42. ^ "Photo : Hughes reef outpost and lighthouse". Panoromio. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  43. ^ Imagery shows progress of Chinese land building across Spratlys. Retrieved 06 April 2015.
  44. ^ China starts work on Mischief Reef land reclamation. Retrieved 06 April 2015.
  45. ^ a b Victor Robert Lee (19 June 2015). "South China Sea: Satellite Images Show Pace of China's Subi Reef Reclamation". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  46. ^ Possible airstrip on Northeast Cay at 11°27'12.79"N 114°21'21.61"E
  47. ^ No comprehensive list of Philippine-occupied Spratly islands is easily available. A web search can confirm that Ayungin Reef is occupied by the Philippines
  48. ^ [1] redirects to "Aerial photo [114.5614E, 9.9010N], [114.5665E, 9.9038N] (Grierson Reef)". nlc.maps.arcgis.com.
  49. ^ [2] redirects to "Aerial photo [114.4814E, 9.8461N], [114.5019E, 9.8573N] (Sin Cowe East Island)". nlc.maps.arcgis.com.
  50. ^ "Royal Malaysian Navy - Offshore EEZ Stations". 9 May 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  51. ^ a b Erica Reef and Investigator shoal were occupied by Malaysia in 1999. A web search can confirm the occupation of these two features
  52. ^ China takes another fishing ground near Palawan. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
  53. ^ a b Hancox, David; Prescott, Victor (1995). A geographical description of the Spratly Islands and an account of hydrographic surveys amongst those islands (Maritime briefing). University of Durham, International Boundaries Research Unit. p. 21. ISBN 978-1897643181.
  54. ^ In January 2014, PRC entered James Shoal unopposed. Chinese ships patrol area contested by Malaysia. Retrieved 2014-02-11.

External links[edit]

  • Department of Land Administration (2005). "2005-19. 海南諸島礁名稱 Location of Islands on South China Sea" (in Chinese and English). Department of Social Affairs, Ministry of the Interior (Republic of China). Archived from the original (MS Excel) on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2014. An MS Excel file containing a list of 170 maritime features in the South China Sea, including their latitudes and longitudes. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)