List of massacres in China

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China (numbers may be approximate or exaggerated):

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Guangzhou massacre 878–879 Guangzhou 120,000 Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.[citation needed]
Yangzhou massacre 1645 Yangzhou As many as 800,000[citation needed]
Dzungar genocide 1755–1757 Dzungar Khanate 480,000 to 600,000 80% of population killed[citation needed]
Jindandao incident 1891 Inner Mongolia 150,000 Mongols Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 Mongols.
Ningpo Massacre 1800s Ningbo 40 Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.
Port Arthur massacre 1894, November 21 Lüshunkou, Liaoning 1000–20,000[citation needed]
Kucheng Massacre 1895, August 1 Gutian, Fujian 11 Killed by a kitchen knife by the chef on the night he was slaughtered.
Taiyuan Massacre 1900, July Taiyuan, Shanxi
Shanghai massacre of 1927 1927, April 12 Shanghai 300–400 5000 missing
Kizil massacre 1933, June near Kashgar, Xinjiang 800
Nanking Massacre 1937, December 13 Nanjing 40,000–300,000 The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred,[1] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000.[2] Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict, and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40,000–60,000, which corresponds to the figures from three sources.[3]
Changjiao massacre 1943, May 9–12 Changjiao, Hunan 30,000
Landlord Classicide under Mao Zedong 1948–1950 Nationwide in China 800,000 to 28,000,000
mean estimate of 4,500,000
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 1950–1951 Nationwide in China 712,000[5] to 2,000,000[6]
Great Leap Forward 1958–1961 Nationwide in China 3,500,000 to 5,500,000 Millions were tortured to death or committed suicide during the Great Leap Forward.[7] Excludes those who perished of starvation.
Cultural Revolution 1969–1979 Nationwide in China 400,000[8] to 10,000,000[9]
Daoxian massacre 1967, August 13 – October 17 Daoxian, Hunan 4519 A massacre during the Cultural Revolution.
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 1989, June 4 Beijing 241–10,000 Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.[10] Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000.[citation needed] As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.[citation needed]
Thousand Island Lake robbery killings 1994, March 31 Zhejiang Province 32 24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.[11]
Guangxi Annotation Bombings 1994 2 August Guangxi 82
Ghulja Incident 1997, February 5 Ghulja, Xinjiang 9–100+ Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9. [12]
Kunming massacre[13] 2014, March 1 Kunming 33 (including four perpetrators)


  1. ^ Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
  2. ^ "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
  3. ^ "''The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable''". Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J. (2007). China's bloody century: genocide and mass murder since 1900. Transaction Publishers. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4128-0670-1. 
  5. ^ Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064. (subscription required)summary at China Change blog
  6. ^ Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Dikötter (2010). pp. 298, 304.
  8. ^ Maurice Meisner (1999). Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic (3rd ed.). Free Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0684856353. 
  9. ^ The Chinese Case: Was It Genocide or Poor Policy?
    Merrill Goldman
    Tuesday, December 5, 1995
    Lydia Perry
    "The Cultural Revolution was modern China’s most destructive episode. It is estimated that 100 million people were persecuted and about five to ten million people, mostly intellectuals and party officials lost their lives."
  10. ^ Zhang 2001, p. 436.
  11. ^ 第67期:千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
  12. ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27. 
  13. ^ "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Retrieved 2017-02-21.