List of massacres in China
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China (numbers may be approximate or exaggerated):
|Guangzhou massacre||878–879||Guangzhou||120,000||Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.|
|Yangzhou massacre||1645||Yangzhou||citation needed]As many as 800,000[|
|Dzungar genocide||1755–1757||Dzungar Khanate||480,000 to 600,000||80% of population killed|
|Jindandao incident||1891||Inner Mongolia||150,000 Mongols||Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 Mongols.|
|Ningpo Massacre||1800s||Ningbo||40||Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.|
|Port Arthur massacre||1894, November 21||Lüshunkou, Liaoning||citation needed]1000–20,000[|
|Kucheng Massacre||1895, August 1||Gutian, Fujian||11||Killed by a kitchen knife by the chef on the night he was slaughtered.|
|Taiyuan Massacre||1900, July||Taiyuan, Shanxi|
|Shanghai massacre of 1927||1927, April 12||Shanghai||300–400||5000 missing|
|Kizil massacre||1933, June||near Kashgar, Xinjiang||800|
|Nanking Massacre||1937, December 13||Nanjing||40,000–300,000||The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred, to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000. Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict, and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40,000–60,000, which corresponds to the figures from three sources.|
|Changjiao massacre||1943, May 9–12||Changjiao, Hunan||30,000|
|Landlord Classicide under Mao Zedong||1948–1950||Nationwide in China||
800,000 to 28,000,000|
mean estimate of 4,500,000
|Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries||1950–1951||Nationwide in China|| to 2,000,000712,000|
|Great Leap Forward||1958–1961||Nationwide in China||3,500,000 to 5,500,000||Millions were tortured to death or committed suicide during the Great Leap Forward. Excludes those who perished of starvation.|
|Cultural Revolution||1969–1979||Nationwide in China|| to 10,000,000400,000|
|Daoxian massacre||1967, August 13 – October 17||Daoxian, Hunan||4519||A massacre during the Cultural Revolution.|
|Tiananmen Square protests of 1989||1989, June 4||Beijing||241–10,000||Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded. Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000. As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.|
|Thousand Island Lake robbery killings||1994, March 31||Zhejiang Province||32||24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.|
|Guangxi Annotation Bombings||1994 2 August||Guangxi||82|
|Ghulja Incident||1997, February 5||Ghulja, Xinjiang||9–100+||Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9. |
|Kunming massacre||2014, March 1||Kunming||33 (including four perpetrators)|
- Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
- "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
- "''The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable''". Wellesley.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (2007). China's bloody century: genocide and mass murder since 1900. Transaction Publishers. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4128-0670-1.
- Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064.(subscription required)summary at China Change blog
- Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF).
- Dikötter (2010). pp. 298, 304.
- Maurice Meisner (1999). Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic (3rd ed.). Free Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0684856353.
- The Chinese Case: Was It Genocide or Poor Policy?
Tuesday, December 5, 1995
"The Cultural Revolution was modern China’s most destructive episode. It is estimated that 100 million people were persecuted and about five to ten million people, mostly intellectuals and party officials lost their lives."
- Zhang 2001, p. 436.
- 第67期：千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
- "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27.
- "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-21.