List of massacres in China

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China.

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Guangzhou massacre 878–879 Guangzhou 120,000 Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.[citation needed]
Sichuan massacre 1645-1646 Sichuan, China 1,000,000 est.[1] There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese were massacred mainly by the army of Zhang Xianzhong.[1]
Yangzhou massacre 1645 Yangzhou =?< 300,000 (modern estimate)[2]
Dzungar genocide 1755–1757 Dzungar Khanate 540,000[3] 480,000 to 600,000 deaths. 80% of population killed[citation needed]
Ningpo Massacre 1800s Ningbo 40 Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.
Jindandao incident 1891 Inner Mongolia 150,000 - 500,000 Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 - 500,000 Mongols.
Port Arthur massacre 1894, November 21 Lüshunkou, Liaoning 4500 1000–20,000[citation needed]
Kucheng Massacre 1895, August 1 Gutian, Fujian 11 11 British Missionaries killed by a fasting folk religious group on August 1, 1895
Taiyuan Massacre 1900, July Taiyuan, Shanxi 45
Shanghai massacre of 1927 1927, April 12 Shanghai 1200 300–400 direct deaths. 5000 missing
Kuomintang Anti-Communist massacre 1928 Nationwide in China 300,000[4] Mass executions of both alleged and actual communists by the nationalist Kuomintang.
Communist purge in Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet 1931-1935 Most parts of Ganzhou and every part of Tingzhou 700,000[5] Occurred in the mountainous parts which are almost entirely only populated by Hakkas of Jiangxi and Fujian.
Kizil massacre 1933, June near Kashgar, Xinjiang 800
Kashgar massacre 1934 Kashgar, Xinjiang 2,000-8,000
Nanjing Massacre 1937, December 13 Nanjing 110,000[6] 40,000–300,000 deaths.The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred,[7] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000.[8] Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict.
Changjiao massacre 1943, May 9–12 Changjiao, Hunan 30,000
1947–1951 landlord purges 1948-1951 Nationwide in China 1,000,000 to 4,500,000 Liquidation of the landlord class in struggle sessions.
February 28 incident 1947, February 28–May 16 Taiwan 5,000 to 28,000 Beginning of the White Terror campaign. The Chinese Kuomintang-led government imposed martial law until 1987.
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 1950–1951 Nationwide in China 1,200,000[9] 712,000[10] to 2,000,000[11]
Daoxian massacre 1967, August 13 – October 17 Daoxian, Hunan 4,519 A massacre during the Cultural Revolution.
Qitaihe prosperous club explosion 1979, December 1 Qitaihe 86 Qitaihe Dongfeng commune rich and powerful brigade club workers in the screening of the film suddenly exploded, the house collapsed, killing 86 people on the spot, wounded 222 people. After the case, the Public Security Bureau lasted 55 days, cracked the big bloody murder case, criminal Xu Fenghao, Xu Fengde was arrested according to law.[12]
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 1989, June 4 Tiananmen Square, Beijing 1,000-10,000 Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.[13][citation needed]Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000.[citation needed] As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.[citation needed]
Thousand Island Lake robbery killings 1994, March 31 Zhejiang Province 32 24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.[14]
Ghulja Incident 1997, February 5 Ghulja, Xinjiang 9 Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9. [15]
Long wins round robbery 1998 November 15 Shanwei 23 Guangdong Province, Shanwei City, the territory of an armed robbery case, the Hong Kong shipping company "Changsheng" million tons of cargo ship on the 23 Chinese expatriate crew were all killed after the corpse of the sea.[16]
Kunming massacre[17] 2014, March 1 Kunming 33 (including four perpetrators)


  1. ^ a b James B. Parsons (May 1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. JSTOR 2941233.
  2. ^ Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
  3. ^ Geometric mean of 480 and 600 thousand rounded up to nearest ten thousand.
  4. ^ Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved at <> on March 12, 2011. p.38
  5. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story. p. 133.
  6. ^ Geometric mean of 40 and 300 thousand rounded to nearest 10 thousand.
  7. ^ Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
  8. ^ "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
  9. ^ Geometric mean 712,000 and 2 million rounded to nearest 100 thousand.
  10. ^ Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064.(subscription required)summary at China Change blog
  11. ^ Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2009.
  12. ^ 富强俱乐部爆炸案, (October 12, 2006)
  13. ^ Zhang 2001, p. 436.
  14. ^ 第67期:千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
  15. ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27.
  16. ^ 长胜轮23人惨案一主犯落网 大海盗张军红即将受审, (June 24, 2002)
  17. ^ "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Retrieved 2017-02-21.

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