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List of massacres in China

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China. The massacres are grouped for different time periods.

Imperial China (before 1912)[edit]

Name Date (Dynasty) Location Deaths Notes
Massacre of the Eunuchs 189, 22 September Luoyang 2,000+
Yongjia disaster 304–316 (Jin) Luoyang 30,000, exaggerated[1] and many Sogdian and Indian foreigner diaspora residing in Luoyang also died in the disaster. The capital was sacked in the disaster, an landmark incident in the Upheaval of the Five Barbarians. The deaths of 30,000 was based on the Book of Jin compiled in 648.[1] All Sogdians and Indians living in Luoyang were killed during the disaster.
Jie genocide in the Ran Wei–Later Zhao War 350–352 (Later Zhao and Ran Wei) Northern China More than 200,000 Jie people and other "barbarians" Ran Min massacred over 200,000 Jie people and other "barbarians". Non-Han in general were targeted by Ran Min's forces.
Yangzhou merchants massacre 760 (Tang) Yangzhou thousands Merchants from the Abbasid Caliphate such as Arabs, Persians and other foreigners were killed. It coincided with the An Lushan Rebellion.[2][3]
Fanyang massacre 761 (Tang) Fanyang (Jicheng (Beijing)) ? Many foreign Sogdians and other Central Asians (known as "Hu" barbarians) were massacred by Gao Juren, a general of Goguryeo origin.
Massacre of Uyghur Manichaeans and Huichang persecution of Buddhism 13 February 843-845 Shahu in 10,000 Uyghurs were killed at Shahu by Tang armies, more Manichaean priests massacred after Shahu and more Uyghurs were killed by the Yenisei Kyrgyz Tang dynasty general Shi Xiong slaughtered 10,000 Uyghur Manichaeans at Shahu on 13 February 843 and then the Tang dynasty launched the Huichang persecution of Buddhism where Manichaean priests were slaughtered. Another Tang dynasty general Liu Mian massacred the remaining Uyghur troops. The Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate helped the Tang dynasty massacre Uyghurs on the Mongolia steppe.
Guangzhou merchants massacre 878–879 (Tang) Guangzhou Tens of thousands.

(modern estimate) 120-200,000 (primary source)[4]

Merchants from the Abbasid Caliphate such as Muslim Arabs, Persians, Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians were killed.
Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty 1211–1234 (Song) Northern China Several million Jurchen people Genghis Khan and his sons waged war against the Jurchens in the Jin dynasty and after Mongol siege of Kaifeng they massacred Jurchens of the imperial family, Wanyan.
Mongol conquest of Western Xia 1225–1227 now Ningxia and Gansu Several million Tangut people Genghis Khan ordered genocidal extermination of the Tangut people in Western Xia after they betrayed him and rebelled.
First Sichuan massacre 1221–1264 (Song) Sichuan 2 million est.[5] Part of Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty.
Ispah Quanzhou massacres 1357–1366 (Yuan) Quanzhou ? Yuan dynasty loyalists led by Chen Youding massacred Hui Semu Muslims who rebelled against Yuan rule.
Gure (古哷 Gǔlè) massacre 1583 (Ming) Gure (古哷 Gǔlè) ? The Jianzhou Jurchens Giocangga and his son Taksi are massacred by Nikan Wailan. Taksi's son Nurhaci blames the Jianzhou Jurchen's Ming rulers for the massacre and starts building up his followers in preparation for revolt against the Ming.
Second Sichuan massacre 1645–1646 (Qing) Sichuan 1 million est.[5] There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese were massacred mainly by the army of Zhang Xianzhong.[5]
Yangzhou massacre 1645 (Qing) Yangzhou 300,000 (modern estimate)[6] The Yangzhou massacre in May, 1645 in Yangzhou, Qing dynasty China, refers to the mass killings of innocent civilians by Manchu and defected Han Chinese soldiers, commanded by the Manchu general Dodo. Defected southern Han Chinese made up the majority in addition to the Eight Banner Han forces. The massacre is described in a contemporary account, A Record of Ten Days in Yangzhou, by Wang Xiuchu which is the account that exaggerated the figure to 800,000.
Three massacres in Jiading 1645 (Qing) Jiading District 100,000[7] People living in Jiading due to refusal to switch to the queue hairstyle were slaughtered by Han defectors in the Green Standard army led by Li Chengdong
Jinhua massacre 1646 (Qing) Jinhua 60,000 People living in Jiading due to refusal to switch to the queue hairstyle were slaughtered by Han defectors in the Green Standard army led by Li Chengdong[8][9]
Massacre of Muslims loyal to the Ming in Gansu 1649 (Qing) Gansu 100,000 Muslims loyal to the Ming 100,000 Muslims loyal to the Ming dynasty were massacred by Qing Eight banner armies.
Sino-Russian border conflicts 1650–1653 (Qing) Dauriya Several thousand Daur people Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov leads Russian Cossacks to massacre Daur men and take Daur girls and women as concubines before being fought off by the Qing.
massacre of Dutch prisoners 1661–1662 (Southern Ming) Taiwan ? Koxinga ordered the mass execution of Dutch male prisoners on Taiwan
Chahar Mongol rebellion 1675 (Qing) Inner Mongolia Several thousand Chahar Mongols Manchus massacred Chahar Mongol rebels led by Abunai and his son Borni. Abunei was Ejei Khan's brother. Manchus then massacred all male members of Abunai and Borni's particular branch of the Borjigin family after killing them.
Tibetan civil war of 1727-1728 1727-1728 (Qing) Tibet ? Tibetan rebels were massacred by Manchus
Lhasa riot of 1750 1750 (Qing) Tibet ? Tibetan rebels massacred Manchu officials and soldiers and Manchus crushed the uprising and executed the Tibetan rebels by torture.
Dzungar genocide 1755–1757 (Qing) Dzungar Khanate 480,000[10] The Qing Dynasty's army slaughtered 80% of the Oirat Mongols.
Uqturpan massacre 1765 (Qing) Uqturpan County Several thousand Uyghurs Manchu army slaughtered several thousand Uyghurs.
Jahriyya revolt 1781 (Qing) Qinghai and Gansu Several thousand Muslims Manchu army slaughtered several thousand Muslims.
Nerbudda incident 10 August 1842 Taiwan Prefecture 197 British and Indian prisoners of war On 10 August 1842, 187 British and Indian prisoners of war captured by Chinese forces from the troopship Nerbudda and brig Ann were summarily executed on the orders of the Daoguang Emperor in retaliation for the Chinese defeat at the Battle of Ningpo.
Taiping massacres of Manchus December 1850 – August 1864 (Qing) mid and lower Yangtze valley tens of thousands of Manchus Taiping rebels slaughtered Manchus and wiped them out entirely in many garrisons in the Yangtze region.
Ningpo massacre 26 June 1857 Ningbo 40 Portuguese pirates Cantonese pirates led by Ah Pak killed 40 Portuguese pirates.
Dungan Revolt 1862–1873 (Qing) Provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu ? Due to a combination of massacres, famine, war/famine migration and corpse-transmitted plague,[11] Gansu lost 74.5% (14.55 million)[12] of its population while Shaanxi lost 44.6% (6.2 million)[11] of its population. Not all "loss" were massacres. Besides the dead, some Hui from Shaanxi permanently moved to Gansu while other Hui from both Shaanxi and Gansu permanently left China and moved to Russian controlled Central Asia.
Suzhou massacre December 1863 Suzhou, Jiangsu 20,000[13]-40,000[14] Massacre of POWs by Huai Army led by Li Hongzhang[15][16][17][18]
Jindandao incident 1891 (Qing) Inner Mongolia 150,000 – 500,000 Hundreds of thousands of Mongols of Inner Mongolia were slaughtered in the Jindandao incident
Port Arthur massacre 1894, 21 November (Qing) Lüshunkou, Liaoning 2600–20,000 2,600 civilians were slaughtered within the city, while those slaughtered in the hills surrounding the city had no reliable count. In November 1948, the Chinese Communist Party built a cemetery and marked the total deaths to be 20,000, which include soldiers killed in action and fleeing soldiers disguised as civilians. The 20,000 figure became the orthodox figure in communist sources.[19]
Kucheng massacre August 1, 1895 Gutian (at that time known in the west as Kucheng), Fujian 11 A Fasting folk religious group attacked British missionaries who were then taking summer holidays at Gutian Huashan, killing eleven people and destroying two houses.
Second Dungan Revolt 1895–1896 (Qing) Provinces of Qinghai and Gansu 100,000 Second Dungan Revolt (Chinese: 乙未河湟事变) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi-inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

In Xunhua, Qinghai, masses of Hui, Dongxiang, Bao'an, and Salars were incited to revolt against the Qing by the Multicoloured Mosque leader Ma Yonglin. Soldiers were ordered to destroy the rebels by Brigadier General Tang Yanhe. Ma Dahan arranged a deal with the fellow Dongxiang Ma Wanfu when rebelling against the Qing dynasty. In Hezhou, Didao, and Xunhua they directed their adherents to join the rebellion.

Massacres of Manchus in Beijing during the Boxer rebellion and Blagoveshchensk massacre and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River massacre 1900 (Qing) Beijing, Aigun, Blagoveshchensk Tens of thousands of Manchus and Daur people Boxer rebels massacre foreigners, then the foreign Eight Nation Alliance massacres Manchus in Beijing and a separate all Russian force massacres Manchus in Aigun and massacres Manchus and Daur people in Blagoveshchensk during the Russian invasion of Manchuria
Shaanxi Uprising 1911–1912 (Qing) Wuhan in Hubei, Zhenjiang in Jiangsu, Taiyuan in Shanxi and Xi'an in Shaanxi Tens of thousands of Manchus Hui and Han Chinese revolutionaries massacred Manchus in Zhenjiang, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Wuhan and many other places across China, with the death toll of Manchus at Xi'an in the tens of thousands.

Republic of China (since 1912)[edit]


Name Date Location Victims Notes
Longjing Manse Movement March 13, 1919 Longjing, Jilin, Republic of China 17 or 19 Unarmed Korean peaceful protestors were fired on by Chinese soldiers under warlord Zhang Zuolin, which caused 17 or 19 deaths and around 30 injuries
Gando massacre October 1920 – April 1921 Jiandao, Eastern Manchuria 5,000 During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Korean civilians who numbered an estimated at least 5,000 and perpetrated widespread rape.
Shakee Massacre 23 June 1925 Shaji, Guangzhou 50 50 direct deaths. On June 21, 1925, workers in Hong Kong and Canton went on strike in support of the May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai. Two days later, on June 23, over 100,000 people convened in Eastern Jiaochang (today, the Guangdong Provincial People's Stadium), announcing their plans to expel the foreign powers, cancel the unequal treaties and walk to the Shakee in protest. At 3 am when the protest had moved to the west bridge, the conflict began. British and French soldiers, perceiving gunshots being fired at them, began to fire on the protesters. In addition, British warships fired on the north coast of Shamian (then spelled Shameen). Over 50 were killed and more than 170 people were seriously injured.
March 18 Massacre 18 March 1926 Beijing 47 47 direct deaths. Duan Qirui, who was worried about the situation becoming destabilized, ordered armed military police to disperse the protesters. The confrontation led to violence, in which 47 protesters were killed and more than 200 injured.
Shanghai massacre of 1927 1927, 12 April Shanghai 1200 300–400 direct deaths. Five thousand missing
Autumn Harvest Uprising September 7, 1927 Hunan, Jiangxi and Hubei 390,000
Kuomintang anti-communist massacre 1928 Nationwide in China 40,643~310,000[20]
Muslim massacres of Tibetans in Jonê and Xiahe 1928 Jonê County and Xiahe County Gansu ? Tibetans in Labrang Monastery were massacred by Muslim Hui and Salar soldiers.
Golok massacres 1917–1949 Qinghai and Gansu ? Tibetan Goloks and Hui Muslims repeatedly fought each other for decades with huge massacres of Goloks occurring several times
Anti-Bolshevik League incident May 1930 - 1931 Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet 5000 5000 direct deaths conducted by Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong accused his political rivals of belonging to the Kuomintang intelligence agency "Anti-Bolshevik League". Mao's political purge resulted in killings at Futian and elsewhere, and the trial and execution of Red Army officers and soldiers.
Futian incident December 1930 - December 1931 Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet 200 200 direct deaths conducted by Mao Zedong. The Futian battalion's leaders had mutinied against Mao Zedong's purge of the Jiangxi Action Committee, ordered on the pretext of its alleged connection to the Anti-Bolshevik League and ties to Trotskyism.
Communist purge in Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet 1931–1935 Provinces of Jiangxi and Fujian <700,000[21][better source needed] According to census, 700,000 died in the 15 counties under the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet. Some scholars attribute all the deaths to the regime.[21]
Pingdingshan massacre 1932, 16 September Pingdingshan 800-1200 800–1200 direct deaths conducted by Japanese military.
Kizil massacre 1933, June near Kashgar, Xinjiang 800 An estimated 800 Chinese Muslim and Chinese civilians were killed by Turkic Muslim fighters.
Minsaengdan incident 1933 to 1936 Manchuria 500 The Minsaengdan incident, or Min-Sheng-T'uan Incident, was a series of purges occurring between 1933 and 1936 in which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) arrested, expelled, and killed Koreans in Manchuria, based on the suspicion that the purged Koreans were supporting the Japanese occupiers as part of the pro-Japanese and anti-communist group, Minsaengdan. The CCP arrested and expelled over 1,000 of its Korean members and killed 500 during the purges.
Kashgar massacre 1934 Kashgar, Xinjiang 2,000–8,000 Estimates are that 2,000 to 8,000 Uighur civilians were killed in revenge by Hui Muslims for the Kizil massacre.

1937–1945 (Second Sino-Japanese War)[edit]

Name Date Location Victims Notes
Tongzhou mutiny 29 July 1937 Tongzhou District, Beijing ? Chinese collaborationist troops of the East Hebei Army turned against the Japanese and massacre Japanese forces in revenge for Japanese planes bombing their barracks when they refused to attack fellow Chinese.
1938 Changsha fire 13 November 1938 Changsha 30,000[22] Kuomintang officials ordered the city be set on fire to prevent the Japanese from benefiting from its capture.[23]
Datong Mass Grave 1937–1945 Datong, Shanxi 155,000+ Japanese military caused deaths of between 60,000 to over 155,000 laborers working in coal mines around Datong.
Nanjing Massacre 13 December 1937 to 1938 Nanjing, Jiangsu 100,000~200,000 40,000 were massacred within Nanjing City Walls, mostly within the first five days; while the total victims massacred as of the end of March 1938 in both Nanjing and its surrounding six rural counties "far exceed 100,000 but fall short of 200,000".[24][25]
Three Alls Policy 1940–1942 North China 2.7 million Scorched earth policy conducted by Japanese military.
Panjiayu Massacre 1941, 25 January Panjiayu, Hebei 1298 Scorched earth policy conducted by Japanese military as part of the Three Alls Policy.
St. Stephen's College massacre 1941, 25 December Hong Kong 100 100 people killed by Japanese military.
Zhejiang-Jiangxi massacres 1942, 15 May – 4 September Provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi 250,000 Conducted by Japanese military as retaliation for Chinese civilians giving shelter to American pilots after the Doolittle Raid.
Changjiao massacre 1943, 9–12 May Changjiao, Hunan 30,000 Conducted by the Japanese military.
Nanshitou Massacre 1942–1945 Nanshitou Refugee Camp, Guangzhou 100,000 At least 100,000 deaths caused by Japanese military. Biological weapons and human experimentation involved.
Yan'an Rectification Movement 1942–1945 Yan'an, Shaanxi 10,000[26] Launched by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party. Regarded by many as the origin of Mao Zedong's cult of personality.
Gegenmiao massacre 14 August 1945 Gegenmiao, Horqin Right Front Banner of the Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia. 1,000 The Red Army murdered over 1,000 Japanese refugees by the end of the massacre.

1945–1949 (Civil War)[edit]

Name Location Date Victims Notes
February 28 incident Taiwan Province 1947, 28 February – 16 May 20,000 to 28,000 Beginning of the White Terror campaign. The Chinese Kuomintang-led government imposed martial law until 1987.
Siege of Changchun Jilin Province 1948, 23 May – 19 October 1948 120,000 to 160,000 civilian deaths due to starvation[27][28][29] In the siege, in order to exhaust the food supply of the defenders, the communist rebels did not let civilians evacuate until very late so that the civilians and the defending government troops competed for food.


Name Date Location Victims Notes
Lieyu massacre 1987, 7–8 March Fujian Province 19 Targeted Vietnamese boat people. Conducted by the Republic of China Army.

People's Republic of China (since 1949)[edit]


Name Date Location Victims Notes
Chinese land reform 1949–1953 Nationwide 1 million – 4.7 million[30] Launched by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Liquidation of the landlord class in struggle sessions.
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 1950–1953 Nationwide 712,000 – 2 million[31][32] Launched by Mao Zedong and CCP.
Three-anti and Five-anti campaigns 1951–1952 Nationwide 100,000+ Exact death toll is unknown. In Shanghai alone, from 25 January to 1 April 1952, at least 876 people committed suicide.[33][34][35] Launched by Mao Zedong and CCP.
1954 Cathay Pacific Douglas DC-4 shootdown 1954, 23 July South China Sea, off the coast of Hainan Island 10 Airliner shootdown By People's Liberation Army Air Force, 10 of the 19 on board died
Sufan movement 1955–1957 Nationwide 53,000[36][37] Launched by Mao Zedong and CCP
Anti-Rightist Campaign 1957–1959 Nationwide 550,000 – 2 million Exact death toll is unknown. Official statistics shows that at least 550,000 people were purged and many died.[38][39][40] Launched by Mao Zedong and CCP.
Xunhua Incident 1958 Qinghai 435 The massacre was conducted by People's Liberation Army towards local civilians.[41]
1959 Tibetan uprising 1959 Tibet 87,000[42][43][44] The exact number of deaths has been disputed.[45]
Violence in the Great Chinese Famine 1959–1961 Nationwide 2.5 million[46][47] Killings occurred during the Great Chinese Famine.[48][49] According to Frank Dikötter, at least 2.5 million (2–3 million) people were beaten or tortured to death, which accounted for 6–8% of the total deaths in the famine.[47][49][50]
Socialist Education Movement 1963–1965 Nationwide 77,560[51] Launched by Mao Zedong.

1966–1976 (Cultural Revolution)[edit]

Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong in May 1966, with the help of the Cultural Revolution Group. Estimates of total deaths during the Cultural Revolution generally range from 500,000 to 2,000,000.[52]

Some Chinese researchers have estimated that at least 300,000 people were killed in massacres during the Cultural Revolution.[53][54] Massacres in Guangxi Province and Guangdong Province were among the most serious: in Guangxi, the official annals of at least 43 counties report massacres with 15 of them recording a death toll of over 1,000, while in Guangdong at least 28 counties report massacres with 6 of them seeing over 1,000 deaths.[55][56] The following table only includes major massacres which have been well documented in literature.

Name Date Location Victims Notes
Red August August – September 1966 Beijing 1,772[57] Origin of the Red Terror in Chinese Cultural Revolution, triggering "Daxing Massacre" which killed 325 people in a few days. Statistics from 1985 showed a death toll of over 10,000 due to the Red August.[58]
Guangxi Massacre 1966–1976 Guangxi 100,000 – 150,000[59][60] Massive cannibalism occurred.[59][60]
Inner Mongolia incident 1967–1969 Inner Mongolia 16,632 – 100,000[56] Mostly Mongols.
Qinghai Massacre February 1967 Qinghai 173[56] Conducted by People's Liberation Army.[56][61][62]
Guangzhou Laogai Fan Incident August 1967 Guangzhou,


187–197[63][64] Part of the Guangdong Massacre. Caused by the rumor that Laogaifan (prisoners of Laogai) were released. Local citizens began massive killings as self-defense.[63][64]
Anti-Peng Pai Incident August 1967 Shanwei, Guangdong >160[65] Targeted the relatives of Peng Pai.
Qingtongxia Incident August 1967 Qingtongxia, Ningxia 101[56][66] Conducted by People's Liberation Army.[56][66]
Yangjiang Massacre 1967–1969 Yangjiang, Guangdong 3,573[56][67] Part of the Guangdong Massacre. Mainly in Yangjiang and Yangchun.[56][67]
Daoxian massacre August – October


Daoxian, Hunan 9,093[68] Took place in more than 10 counties, mainly in Dao County.
Shaoyang County Massacre July – September




991[56][69] Influenced by Daoxian Massacre.
Dan County Massacre August 1968 Danzhou, Hainan >700[56][70] Part of the Guangdong Massacre. Over 50,000 people were jailed and thousands were permanently disabled. Conducted by People's Liberation Army and local militias.[56][70]
Ruijin Massacre September –October 1968 Ruijin, Jiangxi >1000[56][71] Took place in Ruijin County, Xingguo County, and Yudu County.[56][71]
Zhao Jianmin Spy Case 1968–1969 Yunnan 17,000[56] Over 1.3 million people persecuted. Part of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
Shadian incident July – August


Yunnan 1,600[72] Uprising of Hui people. Conducted by People's Liberation Army.


Name Date Location Victims Notes
Rape and murder case in Xiguitu Banner of Hulunbuir League 1983, 16 June Yakeshi, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia 27[73] 8 minors commit murders and rapes in Hongqigou Farm,[74][75][76][77] The incident directly triggered the Anti-crime Campaign[78]
Tibetan unrest 1987–1989 Tibet 10–400 Official source states the death toll between 10–20, but other estimates range from dozens to hundreds.[79]
1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre 1989, 4 June Tiananmen Square, Beijing 200–10,000[80][81] Between 200 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.[82][83] Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000.[84] As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.[85]
Chongqing shooting 1993, 5 April Chongqing 9 (including the perpetrator) 3 Injured
Thousand Island Lake robbery killings 1994, 31 March Zhejiang Province 32 Twenty-four Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the Hai Rui sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.[86]
Jianguomen Incident 1994, 20 September Jianguomen, Beijing 30 dead, 30-100+ wounded Tian Mingjian, angered by the death of his wife during a forced abortion, retrieved an assault rifle from the weapons vault in his army base, and shot to death 6 soldiers and officers. He then stole a jeep and drove to Jianguo Gate, where he shot and killed 23 civilians, and injured at least 30 others, before being shot by a military sniper.[87]
Zhaodong massacre 1995, 18 November Zhaodong, Heilongjiang province 34 dead, 16 injured On the night of November 18, 1995, a mass shooting occurred in Zhaodong, Heilongjiang. Two suspects, 26-year-old Feng Wanhai and 22-year-old Jiang Liming, armed with a double-barreled shotgun and a small-bore rifle, opened fire at 48 people, killing 32 people and wounding 16 others. 37 families were affected by the incident.[88]
Ghulja massacre 1997, February 3–5 Yining, Xinjiang 10–200 Government sources state the death toll at 10, but other estimates range into the hundreds.[89][90]
1997 Ürümqi bus bombings 1997, February 25 Ürümqi, Xinjiang 9 (including 3 children) Uyghyr separatists bombed three buses, killing 9 people, including 3 children, and injuring 28. Another bomb was found at the main railway station but was defused. The bombings were a response to the Ghulja incident in which the Chinese army killed several Uyghur protestors
Long wins round robbery 1998, November 15 Shanwei 23 Guangdong Province, Shanwei City, the territory of an armed robbery case, the Hong Kong shipping company "Changsheng" million tons of cargo ship on which 23 Chinese expatriate crew were all killed and their corpses dumped into the sea.[clarification needed][91][92][93][94]


Name Date Location Victims Notes
2001 Shijiazhuang bombings 2001, 16 March Shijiazhuang, Hebei 108 Jin Ruchao motivated by hatred of his ex-wife and her family detonated ammonium nitrate bombs at four locations across Shijiazhuang, killing 108 people and injuring 38 others
Mafang Village explosion 2001, 16 July Mafang Village, Nanniwan, Baota District, Yan'an, Shaanxi 89+ On July 16, 2001, an embittered villager Ma Hongqing ignited ammonium nitrate explosives in a rival's warehouse. The explosion leveled much of the village and killed at least 89 people, and injured 98 others
2008 Tibetan unrest 2008, 16 March Tibet 23–400 In order to commemorate the 49th anniversary of the armed uprising on 10 March 1959, some Tibetan demonstrators protested collectively in Tibetan areas of China and parts of southern Tibet. However, it later evolved into Tibetan attacks on civilians such as Han and Hui civilians and shops, cars, the Lhasa Great Mosque and other civilian facilities.
2008 Kashgar attack 2008, 4 August Kashgar, Xinjiang 17 Two men drove an attack on the armed police of the border guard detachment of Kashgar, which was in operation. A total of 17 People's Armed Police were killed and 15 injured.
July 2009 Ürümqi riots 2009, 5 July Ürümqi 197 At first it was just a demonstration, which later evolved into a series of violent attacks by Uyghurs against non-Muslim ethnic groups such as the Han. At least more than 1,000 Uyghurs participated in the riot on the first day of the incident. A total of 197 people died, most of whom were Hans,[95] with 1,721 others injured,[96] and a large number of vehicles and buildings were destroyed.
2011 Hotan attack 2011, 18 July Hotan, Xinjiang 18 18 young Uyghur men stormed a police station and killed two security guards by stabbing and lobbing molotov cocktails. They occupied the police station, took eight hostages, and smashed and set fire to the station. Shouting slogans and unfurling banners with Jihadi writing, they refused to negotiate and engaged in a firefight with police.[97] The attack ended within 90 minutes when police shot 14 attackers dead. Authorities detained four attackers and rescued six hostages, however two were killed.[98][99]
2012 Yecheng attack 2012, 28 February Yecheng, Xinjiang 13 A group of eight Uyghur men led by religious extremist Abudukeremu Mamuti attacked pedestrians with axes and knives on Happiness Road. Seven terrorists were killed on the spot by the police, while the other one was injured and died after rescue. One police officer died and 4 police were injured, while 15 pedestrians died from Mamuti's assault and 14 more civilians were injured.[100]
April 2013 Bachu unrest 2013, 24 April Selibuya, Bachu, Xinjiang 21 It was an incident of ethnic clash that took place between Muslim Uyghur and Han Chinese community. As reported by BBC[101] nearly 21 people were killed in the incident including 15 police officers and local government officials.
June 2013 Shanshan riots 2013, 26 June Shanshan, Xinjiang 35 On 26 June 2013, 35 people died in the riots, including 22 civilians, two police officers and eleven attackers.
2013 Tiananmen Square attack 2013, 28 October Beijing 5 A car crashed in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China, as a terrorist suicide attack. Five people died in the incident; 3 inside the vehicle and 2 civilian nearby.
2014 Kunming attack 2014, 1 March Kunming 35 Eight Uighur terrorists stabbed 31 civilians to death and left 141 injured.[102] On the afternoon of 3 March, the official announced the resolution of the case. A total of 8 people were killed. Of the 5 directly involved in the attack, 4 were killed on the spot and 1 was captured on the spot.
May 2014 Ürümqi attack 2014, 22 March Ürümqi, Xinjiang 43 Two sport utility vehicles (SUVs) carrying five assailants were driven into a busy street market in Ürümqi, the capital of China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Up to a dozen explosives were thrown at shoppers from the windows of the SUVs. The SUVs crashed into shoppers then collided with each other and exploded. Forty-three people were killed, including 4 of the assailants, and more than 90 wounded. The event was designated as a terrorist attack.
2015 Aksu colliery attack 2015, 18 September Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang 16 A group of armed separatists attacked coal miners and security personnel, murdering 16 people and injuring 18 others. When the local police arrived at the scene, the attacker used a truck full of coal to hit the police vehicle and then fled into the mountains. The majority of the victims of this attack were Han people.
Yema stabbings 2016, September 29 Yema, Qujing, Yunnan Province 19 Yang Qingpei killed his parents in an argument over money and then murdered 17 neighbours in an attempt to cover up his crime.
Ju County attack 2024, February 10 Juxian County, Rizhao, Shandong 21+ killed, many wounded 21+ people, including a doctor who arrived at the scene to provide medical assistance, were killed in a village massacre in Juxian County, Shandong.[103][104]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Volume 102: 劉聰載記". Book of Jin. 648. p. 2659. 曜於是害諸王公及百官已下三萬餘人
  2. ^ Wan, Lei (2017). The earliest Muslim communities in China. Qiraat. Vol. 8. Riyadh: King Faisal Center for research and Islamic Studies. p. 11. ISBN 978-603-8206-39-3. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  3. ^ Qi, Dongfang (2010). "Gold and Silver Wares on the Belitung Shipwreck". In Krahl, Regina; Guy, John; Wilson, J. Keith; Raby, Julian (eds.). Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds. Washington, DC: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. pp. 221–227. ISBN 978-1-58834-305-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  4. ^ Rossabi, Morris (2013). A History of China. John Wiley & Sons. p. 198. ISBN 9781118473450. Archived from the original on 15 February 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2022. An Arab account written by Abu Zaid of Siraf within a couple of decades of Huang's rebellion estimated that Huang's forces massacred 120,000 Muslims, Jews, Zoroastrians, Christians and other foreigners. Arab historian al-Mas'udi, in a text written in the mid-tenth century, put the figure at 200,000. Both numbers are inflated, but they nonetheless indicate that the rebels attributed some of China's problems to the exploitation of foreigners, particularly merchants.
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  6. ^ Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
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