List of massacres in France

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in France (numbers may be approximate):

Celtic Gaul[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
1st Cenabum massacre 53 BC Cenabum Unknown Carnutes Carnutes massacre Roman civilians and soldiers
2nd Cenabum massacre 53 BC Cenabum Unknown Roman army Julius Caesar's soldiers massacre the population of Cenabum.
Siege of Avaricum 52 BC Avaricum 39,200 Roman army Julius Caesar's soldiers massacre the population of Avaricum.

Roman Gaul[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Sack of Metz 7 April 451 Metz Unknown Huns City sacked and burned and all inhabitants killed by Hun troops under Attila

Merovingian Francia[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Vienne massacre 501 Vienne Unknown Forces of Gundobad and Godegisel Townspeople slaughtered during battle between competing Burgundian factions. Hostile Gallo-Roman senators and Godegisel's supporters executed by Gundobad's troops.
Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges massacre 585 Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges Unknown Kingdom of Orléans All inhabitants, including priests, put to the sword by royal troops of Guntram

Carolingian Francia[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Sack of Nantes 24 June 843 Nantes Unknown Vikings Town population and monks massacred and burned alive in a church by raiding Vikings. Others captured as slaves.
Marmoutier massacre 853 Marmoutier Abbey 126 Vikings 126 monks killed by Vikings. 20 survivors escaped.

Capetian France[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Orléans heresy 28 December 1022 Orléans 10–20 Catholic Church 10–20 priests, nuns and lay people burned at the stake on orders of King Robert II of France
Rouen massacre September 1096 Rouen Unknown Crusaders Jews of Rouen rounded up in the synagogue and systematically massacred by Crusaders
Tournai-sur-Dive massacre 1105 Tournai-sur-Dive 45 Troops of Robert of Bellême 45 people burned alive in a church by forces of Robert of Bellême
Bougy-sur-Risle massacre 1136 Romilly-la-Puthenaye Unknown Troops of Waleran and Robert de Beaumont Men and women burned alive in a church by forces of Waleran and Robert de Beaumont
Vitry massacre 1142 Vitry-en-Perthois 1,300 Royal Army 1,300 people burned alive in a church by forces of King Louis VII of France
Ham massacre 1143 Ham 150 Unknown 150 Jews massacred
Vézelay massacre 1167 Vézelay 7 Abbot of Vézelay Seven Burgundian Cathars burned at the stake
Blois massacre 26 May 1171 Blois 31 Soldiers of Theobald V, Count of Blois 31 Jews, including 17 women, locked in and burned alive in a house by Theobald V, Count of Blois on accusations of blood libel
Bray-sur-Seine massacre 18 March 1192 Bray-sur-Seine 80 Royal Army 80 Jews burned by French troops, acting on command of King Philip II of France
Massacre at Béziers 22 July 1209 Béziers 20,000 Crusaders First major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.[1]
Siege of Minerve 22 July 1210 Minerve 140 Crusaders Cathars burned at the stake by Crusaders.
Alayrac massacre 1210 Alayrac Unknown Crusaders Stronghold garrison captured and massacred by Crusaders
Lavaur massacre 3 May 1211 Lavaur 480 Crusaders 80 knights hanged and stabbed to death, 400 Cathars burned by Crusaders
Les Cassés massacre 20 May 1211 Les Cassés 60–94 Crusaders 60–94 Cathars burned alive by Simon de Montfort's Crusaders
Saint Marcel massacre 12 May 1212 Saint–Marcel 28 Crusaders 28 male civilians killed or drowned by Crusaders
Lavelanet massacre 1212 Lavelanet Unknown Crusaders Inhabitants put to the sword by Crusader forces under Guy de Montfort, Lord of Sidon
Moissac massacre 8 September 1212 Moissac 300 Crusaders 300 garrison soldiers executed without trial by Crusaders
Pujol massacre May 1213 Sainte-Foy-d'Aigrefeuille 60 Toulousain militia 60 Crusaders killed in Pujol Castle by mob of soldiers under Roger-Bernard
Casseneuil massacre 18 August 1214 Casseneuil Unknown Crusaders Population and garrison massacred
Massacre at Marmande 10 June 1219 Marmande 5,000 Royal Army All men, women and children in the town killed with swords and the town razed and burned to the ground by royal army under prince Louis.[2]
Labécède massacre 1227 Labécède Unknown Crusaders Men killed and Cathar Perfect burnt to death by Crusader forces of Humbert V de Beaujeu
Moissac massacre 1234 Moissac 210 Papal Inquisition 210 Cathars burned at the stake by Inquisitors William Arnald and Peter Seila
Jewish massacres July 1236 Poitou, Anjou and Brittany 2,500–3,000 Crusaders Jews killed by Crusaders
Montwimer massacre 29 May 1239 Montwimer 183 Papal Inquisition/Crusaders 183 Cathars burned at the stake by Robert le Bougre and Thibaut IV of Champagne
Carcassone massacre 8 September 1240 Carcassone 33 Army of Raymond II Trencavel 33 clerics massacred by forces of Trencavel after being promised safe passage from the besieged city.
Avignonet massacre 28 May 1242 Avignonet 11 Cathars Two Inquisitors and their nine followers massacred in their sleep by Cathar rebels under Pierre-Roger de Mirepoix
Siege of Montségur 16 March 1244 Château de Montségur 210–215 Royal Army Cathars burned in a bonfire by the Royal Army.
Agen massacre 1249 Agen 80 Papal Inquisition 80 heretics burned at the stake
Dijon massacre 1251 Dijon 139 Shepherd Crusaders 139 Jews massacred
Troyes massacre 24 April 1288 Troyes 13 Papal Inquisition 13 Jews burned at the stake by the Inquisition, supported by King Philip IV of France
Castelsarrasin massacre 12 June 1320 Castelsarrasin 152 Shepherd Crusaders 152 Jews massacred by Pastoureaux
Toulouse massacre 15 June 1320 Toulouse 115–150 Shepherd Crusaders 115–150 Jews massacred by Pastoureaux
Vitry massacre 1321 Vitry-en-Perthois 77 Unknown 77 Jews massacred during the 1321 leper scare. Forty Jews imprisoned and committed mass suicide.
Chinon massacre 21 August 1321 Chinon 120–160 Royal authorities 120–160 Jews burned at the stake on accusation of well poisoning

Valois France[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Battle of Caen (1346) 26 July 1346 Caen 2,500–3,000 English Army Town sacked and population massacred by the English under King Edward III of England
Toulon massacre 13 April 1348 Toulon 40 Mob Jewish community of Toulon killed as part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions
Jacquerie June 1358 Northern France 20,000 Aristocracy and nobility Peasant Jacquerie rebels exterminated by nobles
Siege of Limoges 19 September 1370 Limoges 200–400 English Army Town sacked and hundreds of civilians killed by the English under Edward the Black Prince[3]
Maillotins Revolt 3 March 1382 Paris 30 Maillotins 30 people, including 16 Jews, killed by mob[4]
Siege of Caen 4 September 1417 Caen 2,000 English Army 2,000 men, women and children rounded up in the marketplace and killed by English soldiers under King Henry V of England. Population plundered and raped.
Paris massacres 12 June 1418
21 August 1418
Paris 1,000–5,000 Parisian mob Armagnacs slaughtered by Parisian mob
Sézanne massacre 24 June 1424 Sézanne Unknown English Army Most inhabitants of the town massacred by the English under Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury. Women raped, fortifications razed, town looted and burned. 178 survivors.
Vicques massacre August 1434 Vicques Unknown Mercenaries in English pay Soldiers in English pay massacre a large number of Normans
Lihons massacre February 1440 Lihons 300 English Army 300 men, women and children burned alive in a church by English forces of John Talbot.
Nesle massacre 14 June 1472 Nesle Unknown Burgundian Army Entire population of Nesle slaughtered and town razed to the ground by Burgundian Army under Duke Charles the Bold
Lectoure massacre 5 March 1473 Lectoure Unknown Royal Army Population massacred and city looted, burned and methodically razed to the ground by royal troops under Cardinal Jean Jouffroy. Defeat of the house of Armagnac.
Massacre of Mérindol April 1545 Mérindol 3,000 Provençal/Papal troops 3,000 Waldensians killed on order of Francis I of France. 670 sold as slaves, crops destroyed, herds killed and unknown number of peasants dead of hunger
Amboise conspiracy 19 March 1560 Château d'Amboise 1,200–1,500 Royal Army 1,200–1,500 Protestant conspirators executed en masse[5]
Cahors massacre 19 November 1561 Cahors 40–50 Catholics Huguenots burned alive in their place of worship by Catholics
Grenade massacre November 1561 Grenade Unknown Catholics Huguenots massacred by Catholics
Carcassone massacre 15 December 1561 Carcassone 8 Catholics 3 Huguenots and 5 non-religious people massacred by Catholics
Massacre of Vassy 1 March 1562 Wassy 80 Catholics Murder of Huguenots by forces of the Duc de Guise.[6]
Castelnaudary massacre 22 March 1562 Castelnaudary 60 Catholics Huguenots burned alive in their place of worship by Catholics.
Sens massacre 12 April 1562 Sens 100 Catholics 100 Huguenots tied to poles and drowned by Catholics
Orange massacre 6 May 1562 Orange Unknown Catholics Population massacred by Catholics
Gaillac massacre 18 May 1562 Gaillac 60–80 Catholics Huguenots captured and thrown in the river by Catholics
Mornas massacre July 1562 Mornas 200 Protestants 200 soldiers executed by Protestants
Tours massacre 15 July 1562 Tours 200 Catholics 200 Huguenots bludgeoned to death and thrown in the Loire by Catholics
Lauzerte massacre 15 August 1562 Lauzerte 94 Catholics 94 Huguenots burned alive in a church by Catholics.
Bar-sur-Seine massacre 24 August 1562 Bar-sur-Seine 300 Catholics Catholic soldiers massacre 300 people after reconquering the citadel from the Huguenots
Michelade 30 September 1567 Nîmes 80–90 Protestants Catholics killed by Protestants
Bondeville massacre 18 March 1571 Notre-Dame-de-Bondeville 40 Catholics Protestants attacked by Catholic crowd. 40 killed.
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre 24 August 1572 Paris 5,000–30,000 French state/Catholics Huguenots (French Protestants) were massacred
Aups massacre 16 August 1574 Aups 18 Protestants 18 killed by Protestant troops. Town looted and burned.
First Issoire massacre 15 October 1575 Issoire Unknown Protestants Catholics killed by Protestant troops under Matthieu Merle. Town looted.
Second Issoire massacre 12 June 1577 Issoire 3,000 Royal Army 3,000 surrendering Protestants massacred by royal troops under Francis, Duke of Anjou following orders from King Henry III of France. Town razed.
Cuers massacre 10 April 1579 Cuers 600 Peasant rebels 600 nobles and gentlemen massacred by peasants
Mende massacre 24 December 1579 Mende 300 Protestants 300 townspeople massacred, mostly in the cathedral, by Protestant troops under Matthieu Merle
Romans massacre 16 February 1580 Romans-sur-Isère 20 Local patricians 20 people massacred by patricians
Moirans massacre 26 March 1580 Moirans 1,000 Royal Army 1,000 peasants massacred by royal troops
Réquista massacre June 1581 Réquista Unknown Catholics Catholics kill Protestants

Bourbon France[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
La Châtaigneraie massacre 13 August 1595 La Châtaigneraie 31 Catholics 31 Protestants out of 230 massacred by 45 cavalrymen
Siege of Nègrepelisse 11 June 1622 Nègrepelisse 800 Royal Army All inhabitants of the Huguenot stronghold killed, all women raped and the town looted and burned to the ground on order of King Louis XIII of France
Massacre at the Hôtel de Ville 4 July 1652 Hôtel de Ville, Paris 150 Parisian mob 150 people, including judges, massacred by a mob during the Fronde
Serre massacre 19 February 1689 Saint-Genest-Lachamp Unknown Royal Army Protestant gathering massacred by royal troops. 400 killed and wounded.[7]
Belvezet massacre 5 January 1703 Belvezet 20–25 Camisards 20–25 inhabitants massacred by Camisards
Chamborigaud massacre 17 February 1703 Chamborigaud 26 Camisards 26 Catholics massacred by Camisards[8]
Fraissinet massacre 26 February 1703 Fraissinet-de-Fourques 33 Camisards 33 inhabitants massacred by Camisards[9]
Moulin de l’Agau massacre 1 April 1703 Nîmes 21–50 Royal Army 21–50 Protestants locked in a barn and burned alive by royal troops[10]
Valsauve massacre 5 July 1703 Verfeuil 16–17 Camisards 16–17 Catholics massacred by Camisards
Potelières massacre 12 September 1703 Potelières 22–31 Camisards 22 Catholics massacred by Camisards[11]
Saint-Sériès massacre 20 September 1703 Saint-Sériès 11 Camisards 11 Catholics massacred by Camisards[12]
Saturargues massacre 20 September 1703 Saturargues 59 Camisards 59 Catholics massacred by Camisards[12]
Sainte-Cécile-d'Andorge massacre 11 October 1703 Sainte-Cécile-d'Andorge 9 Camisards 9 Catholics massacred by Camisards[11]
Branoux massacre 30 October 1703 Branoux-les-Taillades 47–52 Catholic vigilantes 47–52 inhabitants massacred by 600–700 Catholic vigilantes[13]
Cévennes massacres January 1704 Cévennes 600 Royal Army Over 600 people massacred in a rampage by royal troops under general Planque.[14]
Franchassis massacre 24 February 1704 Pranles Unknown Royal Army All inhabitants killed by royal troops under general Julien. Village looted, burned and razed to the ground.[15]
Cévennes massacres April 1704 Cévennes 1,000 Royal Army/Catholic vigilantes Over 1,000 people massacred in a killing spree by 4,000 royal troops and Catholic vigilantes under Lieutenant General marquis La Lande.[16]
Villars' terror campaign August 1704 Cévennes Unknown Royal Army Dozens of villages burned and their inhabitants massacred by royal forces under Marshal Claude Louis Hector de Villars[17]
Vernoux massacre 12 December 1745 Vernoux 30 Bourgeois militia/Royal Army 30 Protestants killed by bourgeois militia and soldiers

Revolutionary and Imperial France[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Champ de Mars Massacre 17 July 1791 Paris 12–50 Royal Army 12–50 republicans killed by royalist troops under Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Massacres of La Glacière 17 October 1791 Avignon 60 Patriots 60 papists massacred by patriots
September Massacres September 1792 Paris 1,500 National Guard Multiple massacres with varying death tolls during French Revolution
First Massacre of Machecoul 11 March 1793 Machecoul 200 Catholic and Royal Army Royalist rebels massacre Republican civilians and soldiers
First Battle of Noirmoutier 12 October 1793 Noirmoutier 200 Catholic and Royal Army Republican prisoners executed by rebels
Drownings at Nantes November 1793 / February 1794 Nantes 4,800 French Revolutionary Army Multiple massacres by drownings by revolutionaries
Massacre of Avranches 21 November 1793 Avranches 800 French Revolutionary Army 800 counter-revolutionary rebels executed by firing squad.
Lyon Revolt 4 December 1793 Lyon 60 French Revolutionary Army 60 rebels massacred by soldiers
Lyon Revolt 5 December 1793 Lyon 209 French Revolutionary Army 209 rebels massacred by soldiers
Battle of Savenay December 1793 Savenay 663–2,000 French Revolutionary Army Rebel prisoners executed by Republicans
Thermidorian Reaction 28 July 1794 Paris 169 Thermidorians 169 Robespierrists, Communards and Montagnards executed by Thermidorians
Lyon massacre 4 April 1795 Lyon 99 Mob 99 Jacobin prisoners killed by rioters
Aix-en-Provence massacre 11 May 1795 Aix-en-Provence 30 Mob 30 Jacobin prisoners killed
Fort Saint-Jean massacre 5 June 1795 Lyon 100 Mob 100 Jacobin prisoners out of 127 killed by armed band
Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise 24 December 1800 Paris 22 (+50 injured) Chouannerie Royalists Failed Royalist assassination attempt by bombing on First Consul Napoleon
Mameluke massacre 25 June 1815 Marseille 18 Royalists Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard massacred in their barracks in Marseille by Royalists

July Monarchy[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Massacre de la rue Transnonain 13 April 1834 Paris 19 National Guard Insurrectionists and civilians killed by the National Guard in Rue Transonain number 12
Attentat de Fieschi 28 July 1835 Paris 18 (+22 injured) Giuseppe Marco Fieschi Attempted assassination of King Louis Philippe I with volley gun
Massacre of Boulevard des Capucines 23 February 1848 Paris 52–65 French Army Regular soldiers fire on crowd during the French Revolution of 1848

Second Republic[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Rouen riots April 1848 Rouen 59 French Army Insurrection suppressed after 59 rioters were killed by soldiers
June Days uprising June 1848 Paris 1,500–3,000 French Army Suppression of June Days uprising. 1,500–3,000 rebels summarily executed and 12,500 arrested, of whom 4,500 deported to Algeria.

Second Empire[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Orsini affair 14 January 1858 Paris 8 (+102 injured) Felice Orsini Attempted assassination of Emperor Napoleon III by Italian revolutionary
Fusillade d'Aubin 8 October 1869 Aubin, Aveyron 14 (+20 wounded) French Army French soldiers fire on striking miners.
Passavant massacre 25 August 1870 Passavant-en-Argonne 49 Prussian Army 49 Garde Mobile prisoners of war shot by Prussian troops

Third Republic[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Suppression of the Paris Commune May 1871 Paris 6,000–20,000 French Army Prisoners shot by the army of the Versailles government
Hostage shooting during the Paris Commune 24 May 1871 Paris 6 Paris Commune Six hostages, including Archbishop Georges Darboy shot by members of the National Guard of the Paris Commune.
Fusillade de Fourmies 1 May 1891 Fourmies 9 (+35 injured) French Army French troops shot at peaceful strikers during the International Workers' Day
Carmaux mining company bombing 8 November 1892 Paris 5 Émile Henry Five police officers killed by bomb planted by anarchist Émile Henry.
Massacre of Italians at Aigues-Mortes 17 June 1893 Aigues-Mortes 17 (+150 injured) French villagers and labourers Italian migrant workers massacred by French mob
Gerbéviller massacre 24 August 1914 Gerbéviller 64 Imperial German Army 64 civilians killed by German soldiers, including 15 mutilated or burned alive.
6 February 1934 crisis 6 February 1934 Place de la Concorde, Paris 16 (+2000 injured) French police French police shot at far-right demonstrators, mostly members of Action Française
Assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia 9 October 1934 Marseille 6 (+5 injured) Vlado Chernozemski Bulgarian revolutionary Vlado Chernozemski shoots King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and French foreign minister Louis Barthou

Second World War[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Abbeville massacre 20 May 1940 Abbeville 22 French Army French soldiers shot a number of Flemish nationalists and members of the Belgian Communist Party as the German army cut off the area during the Battle of France
Le Paradis massacre 27 May 1940 Le Paradis village, commune of Lestrem, Northern France 97 (+2 injured) SS Totenkopf shooting of British POWs by German troops (SS Totenkopf)
Wormhoudt massacre 28 May 1940 Wormhoudt 80 (+15 injured) Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler shooting of British and French POWs by German troops (SS Adolf Hitler)
Massacre of the Bois d'Eraine 11 June 1940 Cressonsacq 64 Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland Senegalese Tirailleurs and their white officers executed by Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland.
Karl Hotz reprisals 22 October 1941 Châteaubriant, Nantes, Paris 48 German forces 48 French hostages executed as reprisal for the French resistance killing of Karl Hotz
Ascq massacre 1 April 1944 Ascq, France 86 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend murder of French civilians by German troops (SS Hitlerjugend)
Audouville massacre 6 June 1944 Audouville-la-Hubert 30 101st Airborne Division 30 Wehrmacht prisoners of war executed by US paratroopers
Ardenne Abbey massacre June 1944 Abbey d'Ardenne 20 12th SS Hitlerjugend 20 Canadian POWs massacred by 12th SS Hitlerjugend
Tulle massacre 9 June 1944 Tulle, Corrèze 120 killed, 149 deported 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich murder and deportation to Dachau of French civilians by German troops (SS Das Reich)
Oradour-sur-Glane massacre 10 June 1944 Oradour-sur-Glane 642 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich murder of French civilians by German troops (SS Das Reich)
Dun-les-Places massacre 28 June 1944 Dun-les-Places 27 German security forces 27 villagers taken as hostages and executed by German forces
Guerry wells tragedy July 1944/August 1944 Savigny-en-Septaine 36 Sicherheitsdienst
Milice
36 Jews slain by Milice under SD command
Penguerec massacre 7 August 1944 Gouesnou 44 Kriegsmarine 3rd anti-air brigade 44 French civilians massacred by Kriegsmarine personnel
First Saint-Julien massacre 9 August 1944 Saint-Julien-de-Crempse 17 German Army 17 villagers executed by German troops as reprisal for French resistance activity
Saint-Genis-Laval massacre 20 August 1944 Saint-Genis-Laval 120 Sicherheitspolizei
Milice
120 prisoners executed by Sipo and Milice
Maillé massacre 25 August 1944 Maillé, Indre-et-Loire 124 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen murder of French civilians by German troops (17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen)
Affair of 27 martyrs 25 August 1944 Chatou 27 German forces 27 Frenchmen executed as reprisal for French Resistance attack.
Massacre de la vallée de la Saulx 28 August 1944 Vallée de la Saulx 86 3rd Panzergrenadier Division 86 French villagers massacred by 3rd Panzergrenadier Division
Second Saint-Julien massacre 10 September 1944 Saint-Julien-de-Crempse 17 French resistance 17 Wehrmacht prisoners of war executed by villagers as revenge for first massacre

Post-War[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
14 July 1953 demonstration 14 July 1953 Paris 7 (+50 demonstrators, 16 police wounded) French police Seven people, including 6 Algerians, killed by French police
1961 Vitry-Le-François train bombing 18 June 1961 Blacy, Marne 24–28 (+132–170 injured) Organisation armée secrète Train derailed by OAS explosive, killing up to 28.
Paris massacre of 1961 17 October 1961 Paris 40 (government sources) ~200 (opposition sources) French police Algerian demonstrators killed by French police
The Charonne Metro Station Massacre 8 February 1962 Charonne 9 French police CGT Trade union members and communists killed by French police
Marseille bar massacre 3 October 1978 Marseille 7 Armed gunmen Organized crime war
Sofitel massacre 5 August 1983 Avignon 7 Robbers Four luxury hotel employees and three customers killed by robbers
Ille-et-Vilaine massacre 19 June 1985 Ille-et-Vilaine 7 Guy Martel spree killing
Luxiol massacre 12 July 1989 Luxiol 14 Christian Dornier spree killing, 3 family members and random inhabitants
Besançon massacre 1 July 1992 Besançon 7 (+5 wounded) Franck Zoritch 7 people killed Franck Zoritch
Cuers massacre 24 September 1995 Cuers 16 Éric Borel spree killing, 3 family members and random inhabitants, perpetrator committed suicide.
Tours massacre 29 October 2001 Tours 4 (+7 wounded) Jean-Pierre Roux-Durrafourt 4 people killed by Jean-Pierre Roux-Durraffourt
Nanterre massacre 27 March 2002 Nanterre 9 (+19 injured) Richard Durn spree killing, perpetrator committed suicide.
2012 Midi-Pyrénées massacre 19 March 2012 Midi-Pyrénées region 7 (+5 injured) Mohammed Merah A French radical Islamist man attacks a Jewish school, he murders 3 young children and a rabbi at the school, and also kills 3 French soldiers.
Annecy shootings 5 September 2012 Chevaline, Haute-Savoie 4 Unknown 3 Britons and 1 Frenchman killed in shooting
2015 Charlie Hebdo massacre 7 January 2015 Paris 12 (+11 injured) Chérif and Saïd Kouachi Two French radical Islamist brothers attack an office, they murder 11 at the office and kill a French police officer on the street.
2015 Porte de Vincennes massacre 9 January 2015 Paris 5 (+11 injured) Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant A French radical Islamist man attacks a Jewish supermarket and murders 4, a French policewoman is also killed on the street the previous day.
Germanwings Flight 9525 deliberate crash 24 March 2015 Prads-Haute-Bléone, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 150 Andreas Lubitz Andreas Lubitz, the German co-pilot, deliberately crashed the plane on the French Alps, killing all passengers and crew.
November 2015 Paris attacks 13 November 2015 Paris 130 (+368 injured) ISIL Eight radical Islamists men of ISIL perform coordinated attacks upon the French public at various locations in Paris using assault rifles and explosives;[18]
2016 Nice attack 14 July 2016 Nice 86 (+434 injured) Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel A Tunisian/French radical Islamist man attacks the French public celebrating Bastille Day, he drives a 19 tonne cargo truck through the public on the street thereby killing indiscriminately.
Carcassonne and Trèbes attack 23 March 2018 Trèbes and Carcassonne 4 (+15 injured) Redouane Lakdim Islamist terrorist Redouane Lakdim shoots and stabs four people to death.

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Strayer 1971, p. 62.
  2. ^ Strayer 1971, p. 118.
  3. ^ Jones 2017, pp. 405–408.
  4. ^ Sumption 2009, p. 446.
  5. ^ Pierre Miquel, 1980, p.213, Robert Laffont. ed. Histoire et dictionnaire des guerres de religion 1998:61.
  6. ^ Lindsay, Thomas M. (2003) [1906]. History of the Reformation Reformation in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Scotland and England. Charles Scribner's Sons; Kessinger Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7661-6367-6. OCLC 3960339.
  7. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 41.
  8. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 112.
  9. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 110.
  10. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 123.
  11. ^ a b Monahan 2014, p. 154.
  12. ^ a b Monahan 2014, p. 153.
  13. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 155.
  14. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 179.
  15. ^ Monahan 2014, p. 181.
  16. ^ Monahan 2014, pp. 187–188.
  17. ^ Monahan 2014, pp. 220–221.
  18. ^ "Paris attacks death toll rises to 130". RTE News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.

References[edit]