List of massacres in Lebanon

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Lebanon (numbers may be approximate):

Name Date Location Deaths Victims Perpetrators Notes
Siege of Tyre (332 BC) 332 BC Tyre 2,000 Tyrians Ancient Macedonian army 2,000 Tyrians crucified on the beach by Alexander the Great's army
1860 Mount Lebanon civil war July 9–11, 1860 Beirut and Damascus, Syria 7,000–25,000 Christians Druze A civil war between Druze and Christians in Mount Lebanon where large massacres of Christians at Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya, Rashaya and elsewhere took place. The conflict spilled over to Damascus where Druze and Sunni Muslim paramilitary groups organized pogroms against Christian residents and refugees; 326 villages, 560 churches, 28 colleges, 42 convents, and 9 other religious establishments were completely destroyed. Many Druze and Muslims were also killed during the conflict.
Hula massacre October 31, 1948 Hula 35–58 Lebanese Carmeli Brigade, Israel Defense Forces Hula, located in Lebanon, was captured on October 24 by the Carmeli Brigade of the Israel Defense Forces without any resistance. The women and children were expelled, most of the men aged between 15 and 60 were shot. In total between 35 and 58 men were executed in a house which was later blown up on top of them.[1]
Bus massacre April 13, 1975 Beirut 300 PLO Phalange 27 Palestinian civilians traveling in a bus through one of the Ain el Rummaneh neighborhoods of Beirut were attacked by Christian Phalangists. Many more people were killed in subsequent fighting in other areas of the city later that day. No specific reason was given for the ambush, but this incident is known to several historians as one of the main reasons that Lebanon was dragged into a long civil war.
Black Saturday December 6, 1975 Beirut 300–350 Muslims, Druze Phalange Four young Christian Phalangists were assassinated on the Fanar (Matn) road in Beirut. In retaliation, Phalangists murdered hundreds of non-Christians. It is estimated that more than 300 civilians were murdered in what was the first Ethnic cleansing of the Lebanese Civil War.
Karantina massacre January 18, 1976 Beirut 300–1,500 Phalange Karantina was a predominantly Muslim slum — with Lebanese and Palestine refugees, and others — in northeastern Beirut, and was overrun by the Lebanese Christian militias.
Damour massacre January 20, 1976 Damour 150–584[2] Christians Palestine Liberation Organisation, Lebanese National Movement PLO and LNM units attacked a Christian town, purportedly as revenge of the earlier Karantina Massacre by Christian militias. Among those killed were Phalangist militiamen and family members of Christian militia leader Elie Hobeika, and his fiancée. Hobeika later led the Phalangists in the Sabra and Shatila massacre, with the aid of the Israeli army.
Tel al-Zaatar massacre August 12, 1976 Beirut 1,500–5,000 Phalange Christian Phalangists and other right wing Christian militias besieged Tel Al-Zaatar with help from Syrian Army units; after heavy fighting, they killed Palestinian civilian refugees and PLO fedayeen or fighters. 4,000 injured
Aishiyeh massacre October 19-21, 1976 Aishiyeh 60–80 Christians Fatah, As-Sa'iqa Fatah and As-Sa'iqa massacred the predominantly Christian village, including seven under 16yo, though it was overshadowed by the massacres of Tel al-Zaatar and Damour earlier the same year.
Ehden massacre June 13, 1978 Ehden 40 Phalange
Safra massacre July 7, 1980 Safra 83 Phalange
Sabra and Shatila massacre September 16, 1982 West Beirut 460–3,500 Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites Phalange Sabra and Shatila were Palestinian refugee camps with both Sunni and Christian Palestinian refugees, as well as some poor Lebanese and Kurds.
Mountain war massacres 1983 South Mount Lebanon 500–1,500 Christians Druze Druze forces massacred hundreds of Christian civilians, ethnically cleansing South Mount Lebanon from Christian presence.
1983 United States embassy bombing April 18, 1983 Beirut 63 Lebanese and Americans Islamic Jihad Organization Islamic militants bombed United States embassy
1983 Beirut barracks bombing October 23, 1983 Beirut 307 Americans, French and Lebanese Islamic Jihad Organization Victims were mostly American Marines.
War of the Camps May 1985 West Beirut 3,781 Sabra, Shatila and Burj el-Barajneh Palestinian refugee camps were besieged and bombed by the Shi'ite Amal militia, with Syrian Army support. 6,787 injured. Some activity occurred after May 1985
October 13 massacre October 13, 1990 Beirut 740–940 Lebanese Syrian Armed Forces 2000 injured; Maronite Lebanese soldiers and civilians were killed by Syrian forces after surrender
Qana Massacre April 18, 1996 Qana 106 Lebanese Israel Defense Forces The Israel Defense Forces fired artillery shells at a United Nations compound, which had given refuge to 800 Lebanese civilians. 116 injured.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tveit, Odd Karsten (2010) Goodbye Lebanon. Israel's First Defeat. Rimal Publication. Translated by Peter Scott-Hansen. ISBN 978-9963-715-03-9. p.368. Quoting General Dov Yermiya.
  2. ^ Nisan, 2003