List of massacres in Palestine
The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Palestine prior to the establishment of the British Mandate for Palestine. For massacres that took place prior to the name Palestine being adopted, see List of massacres in ancient Israel. For massacres that took place in the British Mandate for Palestine, see List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine. For massacres that took place during the 1948 Palestine War, see Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine War. For massacres that took place prior to the British Mandate, see List of massacres in Palestine. For massacres that have occurred in Israel following its declaration of independence, see List of massacres in Israel. For massacres that have occurred in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip since 1948, see List of massacres in Palestinian Territories.
Palestine is a name, among others, for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands. The region is also known as the Land of Israel and the Holy Land.
|Siege of Jerusalem (614)||614||Jerusalem||Persian Amy ordered by Shahrbaraz||66,509||Christians were massacred by Persian invaders|
|Siege of Jerusalem (1099)||15 July 1099||Jerusalem||European Crusaders||over 10,000 Muslims, Jews and Christians|
|1517 Hebron attacks||1517||Hebron||Turkish soldiers||Unknown||Jews were attacked, beaten, and raped, and many were killed in their homes|
|1517 Safed attacks||1517||Safed||Muslim mobs||Unknown||Many Jews subsequently fled the city|
|1660 destruction of Tiberias||1660||Tiberias||Druze rebels||Unknown||Resulted in Jewish population abandoning Tiberias|
|1660 destruction of Safed||1660||Safed||Arab rioters||Unknown, estimated thousands|
|Siege of Jaffa||7 March 1799||Jaffa||Napoleon's Army||2,440-4,100||Ottoman prisoners were executed on the beaches south of the town|
|Taking of Hebron by Egypt/ 1834 Hebron massacre||1834||Hebron||Egyptian troops||Over 500||Egyptian soldiers did not distinguish between inhabitants; for three hours, troops plundered, killed, raped and maimed Muslim and Jew alike.|
|1834 looting of Safed||1834||Safed||Arab rioters||unknown||Reports detail torture and mass-rape of Jewish population|
|1838 Druze attack on Safed||1838||Safed||Druze rebels||Unknown||Druze rebels and Muslim mobs plundered Jewish quarters for three days|
- For massacres, taking place during Ottoman times, see List of massacres in Ottoman Syria.
- Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Gideon Biger (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. RoutledgeCurzon. passim.
- de Geus, 2003, p. 7.
- "Human Skeletal Remains from the Mamilla cave, Jerusalem" by Yossi Nagar.
- The Solomon Goldman lectures. Spertus College of Judaica Press. 1999. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-935982-57-2.
The Turks' conquest of the city in 1517, was marked by a violent pogrom of murder, rape, and plunder of Jewish homes. The surviving Jews fled to Beirut, not to return until 1533.
- Moses ben Mordecai Bassola; Avraham Daṿid (31 December 1999). In Zion and Jerusalem: the itinerary of Rabbi Moses Basola (1521-1523). C. G. Foundation Jerusalem Project Publications of the Martin (Szusz) Department of Land of Israel Studies of Bar-Ilan University. p. 62. ISBN 978-965-222-926-7.
The demographic data noted here must also be examined against the background of outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence shortly after the Ottoman conquest that caused many of Safed's Jews to flee the city in early 1517.
- Joel Rappel, History of Eretz Israel from Prehistory up to 1882 (1980), Vol.2, p.531. 'In 1662 Sabbathai Sevi arrived to Jerusalem. It was the time when the Jewish settlements of Galilee were destroyed by the Druze: Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former Safed residents had returned..."
- Barnay, Y. The Jews in Palestine in the eighteenth century: under the patronage of the Istanbul Committee of Officials for Palestine (University of Alabama Press 1992) ISBN 978-0-8173-0572-7 p. 149
- Jacob De Haas (1934). History of Palestine. p. 345.
Safed, hotbed of mystics, is not mentioned in the Zebi adventure. Its community had been massacred in 1660, when the town was destroyed by Arabs, and only one Jew escaped.
- Sherman Lieber (1992). Mystics and missionaries: the Jews in Palestine, 1799-1840. University of Utah Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-87480-391-4.
During a ferocious onslaught of three hours, Ibrahim Pasha allowed his troops to slaughter Muslims, plunder the population, and defile the women. When Muslims sought safety in the Jewish quarter of Hebron, the soldiers pursued them, indiscriminately killing and looting all in their path.Cite error: Invalid
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- Martin Sicker (1999). Reshaping Palestine: from Muhammad Ali to the British Mandate, 1831-1922. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-275-96639-3.
However, the insurrection soon lost its original purpose and turned into bloody rioting and excesses directed against the Jewish population. Arab villagers joined with the townspeople to attack the Jews, raping, looting and destroying synagogues. The rioting was most severe in Safed, where assaults and vandalism forced many Jews to flee to safety amount the friendly Arabs of the nearby village of Ein Zetim. Others were afraid to remain in the remote area and decided to relocate to Jerusalem. During the course of the disturbances, some 500 Torah scrolls were destroyed in Safed alone. The rioting continued for thirty-three days, until a contingent of Druse troops from Ibrahim's army arrived to restore order. The governor of Safed and thirteen of the ringleaders were taken captive, summarily tried, and put to death.
- Louis Finkelstein (1960). The Jews: their history, culture, and religion. Harper. p. 679.
In the summer of 1838 the Druses revolted against Ibrahim Pasha, and once more the Jews were the scapegoat. The Moslems joined the Druses in repeating the slaughter and plunder of 1834.