List of massacres in Turkey
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article needs to be updated.August 2016)(
|Fall of Miletus||494 BC||Miletus||Most Milesian men||Persian Empire||Greeks|||
|Battle of Aegospotami||405 BC||Aegospotami||3,000||Sparta||Athenian sailors||3,000 Athenian sailors executed|
|Fall of Sestos||353 BC||Sestos||All males of Sestos||Athens||Greeks|
|Asiatic Vespers||88 BC||Asia (Roman province)||80,000–150,000||Mithridates VI of Pontus||Romans and Italians|||
|Nika Revolt||January 532||Constantinople||30,000||Byzantine Empire||Byzantines||About thirty thousand rioters were reportedly killed.|
|Sack of Amorium||August 838||Amorium||30,000–70,000||Abbasid Caliphate||Byzantines|
|Battle of Levounion||29 April 1091||Enez||tens of thousands||Byzantine Empire & Cumans||Pechenegs||The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Near Enez they were ambushed by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army, fighting soon turned into wholesale slaughter. Warriors and civilians were killed and the Pecheneg people were nearly wiped out.|
|Siege of Antioch||3 June 1098||Antioch||Muslim and Christian population||Crusaders||Muslim and Christian population|
|Siege of Edessa (1144)||24 December 1144||Edessa||Unknown||Zengids||Population of Edessa||Population massacred by Zengid Turks|
|Massacre of the Latins||May 1182||Constantinople||Uncertain – tens of thousands||Byzantine mob||Roman Catholics||The bulk of the Latin community, estimated at over 60,000 at the time, was wiped out or forced to flee; some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turks. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed.|
|Siege of Constantinople (1204)||8–13 April 1204||Constantinople||many civilians killed||Crusaders||Byzantines||The city was sacked and looted.|
|Siege of Antioch (1268)||18 May 1268||Antioch||14,000||Mamluk Sultanate||Christians||14,000 Christians slaughtered by the forces of Baibars.|
|Fall of Constantinople||1453||Constantinople||4,000||Ottomans||Byzantines||4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were massacred during these days. Moreover, the dwellings and the churches were plundered. Some 30,000 were enslaved.|
|Constantinople massacre||1821||Constantinople||unknown||Ottoman government||Greeks||Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V and other notables were executed.|
|Massacres of Badr Khan||1840||Hakkari||10,000||Kurdish Emirs of Buhtan, Badr Khan and Nurullah||Assyrians.||Many who were not killed were sold into slavery. 1826 Janissaries massacred by government (link to Auspicious Incident)|
|Batak Massacre||1876||Batak, Bulgaria||1,200–7,000||Ottoman irregular troops||Bulgarians||Occurred at the beginning of the April Uprising.|
|Hamidian massacres||1894–1896||Eastern Ottoman Empire||100,000–300,000||Ottoman Empire
Turkish, Kurdish tribes
|Armenians||See also Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895)|
|Adana massacre||April 1909||Adana Vilayet||15,000–30,000||local Turkish nationalist activist, conservative reactionary to Young Turk government||Armenians|
|Ethnic cleansing of Thracian Bulgarians||Summer 1913||Edirne Vilayet||50,000–60,000||Young Turk government||Bulgarians|
World War I (1914–1918)
|Greek genocide||1913–1922||Ottoman Empire||500,000–900,000||Young Turk government||Greeks||Reports detail systematic massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for "Labor Brigades", looting, terrorism and other atrocities|
|Assyrian genocide||1914–1918||Ottoman Empire||270,000–750,000||Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes||Assyrians||Denied by the Turkish government|
|Armenian Genocide||1915–1918||Ottoman Empire||850,000–1,800,000||Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes||Armenians||The Armenians of the eastern regions of the empire were systematically massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars. It is the second most studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.|
|Massacres in the Çoruh River valley||1916||Çoruh River valley||45,000||Cossack regiments||Muslim population||During WWI, Russian "General Liakhov, for instance 'accused the Muslims of treachery, and sent his Cossacks from Batum with orders to kill every native at sight, and burn every village and every mosque. And very efficiently had they performed their task, for as we passed up the Chorokh valley to Artvin not a single habitable dwelling or a single living creature did we see.'" |
|Massacres in Erzincan and Erzurum||1918||Erzincan and Erzerum||10,000||Muslim population|
Post-World War I (1919–1923)
Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
|Zilan massacre||July 1930||Van Province||4,500–15,000||Turkish security forces||Sunni Kurds||5,000 women, children, and elderly people were reportedly killed|
|Suppression of the Dersim rebellion||Summer 1937-Spring 1938||Tunceli Province||7,594–13,806||Turkish security forces||Alevi Kurds||The killings have been condemned by some as an ethnocide or genocide|
|Istanbul pogrom||6–7 September 1955||Istanbul||13–30||Turkish government||primarily Greeks, as well as Armenians||The killings are identified as genocidal by Alfred-Maurice de Zayas. Many of the minorities, mostly Greek Christians, forced to leave Turkey. Several churches are demolished by explosives.|
|Taksim Square massacre||May 1, 1977||Taksim Square in Istanbul||34-42||Unknown||Leftist demonstrators|
|Beyazıt massacre||March 16, 1978||Istanbul||7 university students killed, 41 injured ,||Grey Wolves, Turkish Police, Deep State||Leftist university students||Cemil Sönmez, Baki Ekiz, Hatice Özen, Abdullah Şimşek, Murat Kurt, Hamdi Akıl and Turan Ören were killed and 41 others were injured by a bomb that was followed by gunfire March 16, 1978.|
|Bahçelievler massacre||October 9, 1978||Bahçelievler, Ankara||7||Neo-fascists||Leftist students|
|Maraş massacre||December 19–26, 1978||Kahramanmaraş Province||109||Grey Wolves||Alevi Turks and Kurds|
|Çorum massacre||May–July, 1980||Çorum Province||57||Grey Wolves||Alevi Turks|
|Pınarcık massacre||June 20, 1987||Pınarcık in Mardin Province||30||PKK (alleged)
The Turkish army (alleged)
(aka Madımak massacre)
|July 2, 1993||Sivas, Turkey||37||Salafists||Alevi intellectuals|
|Başbağlar massacre||July 5, 1993||Başbağlar, near Erzincan||33||Turkish army/PKK (disputed)||Turkish civilians|
|Yavi massacre||October 25, 1993||Yavi, Çat, Erzurum Province||38||PKK||Turkish civilians|
|Kuşkonar massacre||March 23, 1994||Kuskonar, Sirnak||38||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||The government bombed and killed residents of villages who refused to join the government forces. The government spread pictures of dead children in newspapers and blamed the PKK. Turkey was condemned for carrying out the massacre of Kurdish civilians in the ECHR.|
|Gazi Quarter massacre||March 15, 1995||Istanbul and Ankara||23||Anonymous||Alevi Turks||More than 400 injured|
|Mardin engagement ceremony massacre||May 4, 2009||Bilge, Mardin||44||Village guards||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Reuters said it was "one of the worst attacks involving civilians in Turkey's modern history", declaring that the scale of the attack had shocked the nation.|
|Roboski airstrike||December 28, 2011||Uludere, Sirnak||34||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Warplanes killed villagers who had been involved in smuggling gasoline and cigarettes in the area, during an operation meant to target Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) rebels. The government gave no information about the facts.|
|2015 Suruç bombing||July 20, 2015||Urfa, Urfa||33 killed, 104 were reported injured.||ISIS||Civilians students|
|2015 Ankara bombings||October 10, 2015||Ankara||109 civilians killed, 500+ were reported injured.||ISIS||Kurdish HDP party election rally for the parliamentary elections|
|2016 Atatürk Airport attack||June 28, 2016||Atatürk Airport, Istanbul||45||Unknown||Civilians|
|December 2016 Istanbul bombings||December 10, 2016||Istanbul||45||Unknown||Police forces & civilians|
|2017 Istanbul nightclub attack||January 1, 2017||Istanbul||39||Unknown||Civilians|
Photo taken after the Smyrna fire. The text inside indicates that the photo had been taken by representatives of the Red Cross in Smyrna
- Herodotus 6.19.3;
- Valerius Maximus 9.2.3; Memnon 22.9.
- Plutarch, 24.4.
- This is the number given by Procopius, Wars (Internet Medieval Sourcebook.)
- Treadgold, Warren T. (1988). The Byzantine Revival, 780–842. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1462-2.
- Grumeza, Ion (2010). The Roots of Balkanization: Eastern Europe C.E. 500–1500. University Press of America. p. 35. ISBN 9780761851356.
- Claster, Jill N. (2009). Sacred Violence: The European Crusades to the Middle East, 1095–1396. University of Toronto Press. p. 35. ISBN 9781442600584.
- Philippides, Marios (2007). Mehmed II the Conqueror and the fall of the Franco-Byzantine Levant to the Ottoman Turks : some western views and testimonies. Tempe, Ariz.: ACMRS/Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. p. 197. ISBN 0866983465.
- Fuller, J.F.C. (1987). A military history of the Western World ([Da Capo Press pbk. ed.]. ed.). New York, N.Y.: Da Capo Press. p. 522. ISBN 0306803046.
- Gaunt & Beṯ-Şawoce 2006, p. 32
- Editors J. Rgen Nielsen, Jørgen S. Nielsen (2011). Religion, Ethnicity and Contested Nationhood in the Former Ottoman Space. Publisher: BRILL. p. 282. ISBN 9004211330.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Akçam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006, p. 42. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7.
- Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
- Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
- Carnegie (1914). Report of the international commission to inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan Wars. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Vukov, Nikolai (2015), "Resettlement Waves, Historical Memory and Identity Construction: The Case of Thracian Refugees in Bulgaria", Migration in the Southern Balkans, IMISCOE Research Series, p. 68, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13719-3_4, ISBN 978-3-319-13718-6
- IAGS Resolution on Genocides committed by the Ottoman Empire retrieved via the Internet Archive (PDF), International Association of Genocide Scholars, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-28
- "Genocide Resolution approved by Swedish Parliament — full text containing the IAGS resolution and the Swedish Parliament resolution from". news.am. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press, 2006.
- Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820.
- The New York Times Advanced search engine for article and headline archives (subscription necessary for viewing article content).
- Alexander Westwood and Darren O'Brien, Selected bylines and letters from The New York Times Archived 2007-06-07 at the Wayback Machine, The Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2006
- Travis, Hannibal. "'Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, pp. 327–371. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution". Armenian genocide. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York: Penguin Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-59420-100-5.
- "A Letter from The International Association of Genocide Scholars" (PDF). Genocide Watch. 13 June 2005.
- Rummel, RJ (1 April 1998), "The Holocaust in Comparative and Historical Perspective", The Journal of Social Issues, 3 (2)
- Gerwarth, Robert; Horne, John (2012). War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780199654918.
- Mark Levene. The Crisis of Genocide. Devastation: The European Rimlands 1912–1938. — Oxford University Press, 2013. — Т. I. — С. 217. — [[Служебная:Источники книг/9780199683031|ISBN 9780199683031]].
- Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, pp. 207–208. (in Turkish)
- "Dersim massacre monument to open next month". Today's Zaman. 24 October 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey (1937–38) Excerpts from: Martin van Bruinessen, "Genocide in Kurdistan? The suppression of the Dersim rebellion in Turkey (1937–38) and the chemical war against the Iraqi Kurds (1988)", in: George J. Andreopoulos (ed), Conceptual and historical dimensions of genocide. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, pp. 141–170.
- İsmail Besikçi, Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim Jenosidi, Belge Yayınları, 1990.
- Λιμπιτσιούνη, Ανθή Γ. "Το πλέγμα των ελληνοτουρκικών σχέσεων και η ελληνική μειονότητα στην Τουρκία, οι Έλληνες της Κωνσταντινούπολης της Ίμβρου και της Τενέδου" (PDF). University of Thessaloniki. p. 29.
- Mills, Amy (2010). Streets of memory : landscape, tolerance, and national identity in Istanbul. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780820335735.
...the state-led local violence that shattered neighborhoods across Istanbul in 1955 made ethnic-religious difference visible and divisive as Greeks and other minorities in the city were targeted and their property violated.
- Alfred de Zayas publication about the Istanbul Pogrom "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2013-06-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Özcan, Emine (2006-04-28). "1977 1 Mayıs Katliamı Aydınlatılsın". bianet (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2011-08-07.
- Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-02). "30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (4)". Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
- Yalçın, Soner; Yurdakul, Doğan (1997). "The Bahcelievler Massacre". Reis: Gladio’nun Türk Tetikçisi. Su Yayinlari.
- David McDowall (2004). A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition. I.B.Tauris. p. 415. ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0.
- Cüneyt Arcayürek: Darbeler ve Gizli Servisler, (Sayfa.221)
- "Turkey commemorates 15th anniversary of Sivas massacre". Hürriyet. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2013-06-06.
- "Yavi Şehitlerine vefa". Erzurum gazetesi (in Turkish). 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
- "Concerns raised about obscuring evidence in Uludere killings". Todayszaman.com. 2012-01-11. Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Ergenekon zanlısı, Gazi mahallesi provokatörü çıktı -". Star Gazete (in Turkish). 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- "Reuters article" Reuters. Retrieved 4 May 2009
- "Blood feuds, gun violence plague Turkey's southeast". Reuters. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-05-05.