List of massacres in Turkey
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||This article needs to be updated. (August 2016)|
|Nika Revolt||January 532||Constantinople||30,000||Byzantine Empire||Byzantines||About thirty thousand rioters were reportedly killed.|
|Sack of Amorium||August 838||Amorium||30,000–70,000||Abbasid Caliphate||Byzantines|
|Battle of Levounion||April 29, 1091||Enez||tens of thousands||Byzantine Empire & Cumans||Pechenegs||The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Near Enez they were ambushed by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army, fighting soon turned into wholesale slaughter. Warriors and civilians were killed and the Pecheneg people were nearly wiped out.|
|Massacre of the Latins||May 1182||Constantinople||Uncertain - tens of thousands||Byzantine mob||Roman Catholics||The bulk of the Latin community, estimated at over 60,000 at the time, was wiped out or forced to flee; some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turks. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed.|
|Siege of Constantinople (1204)||8–13 April 1204||Constantinople||many civilians killed||Crusaders||Byzantines||The city was sacked and looted.|
|Fall of Constantinople||1453||Constantinople||4,000||Ottomans||Byzantines||4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were massacred during these days. Moreover, the dwellings and the churches were plundered. Some 50,000 were enslaved.|
|Constantinople massacre||1821||Constantinople||unknown||Ottoman government||Greeks||Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V and other notables were executed.|
|Massacres of Badr Khan||1840||Hakkari||10,000||Kurdish Emirs of Buhtan, Badr Khan and Nurullah||Assyrians.||Many who were not killed were sold into slavery. 1826 Janissaries massacred by government (link to Auspicious Incident)|
|Batak Massacre||1876||Batak, Bulgaria||1,200–7,000||Ottoman irregular troops||Bulgarians||Occurred at the beginning of the April Uprising.|
|Hamidian massacres||1894–1896||Eastern Ottoman Empire||100,000–300,000||Ottoman Empire
Kurdish and Turcoman irregulars
|Armenians and Assyrians||See also Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895)|
|Adana massacre||April 1909||Adana Vilayet||15,000–30,000||local Turkish nationalist activist, conservative reactionary to Young Turk government||Armenians|
|The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913||Summer 1913||Edirne Vilayet||50,000-60,000||Young Turk government||Bulgarians|
World War I (1914–1918)
|Greek genocide||1914–1918||Ottoman Empire||500,000–900,000||Young Turk government||Greeks||Reports detail systematic massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for "Labor Brigades", looting, terrorism and other atrocities|
|Assyrian genocide||1914–1918||Ottoman Empire||270,000–750,000||Young Turk government||Assyrians||Denied by the Turkish government|
|Armenian Genocide||1915–1918||Ottoman Empire||600,000–1,800,000||Young Turk government||Armenians||The Armenians of the eastern regions of the empire were systematically massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars. It is the second most studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.|
|Massacres in the Çoruh River valley||1916||Çoruh River valley||45,000||Cossack regiments||Muslim population||During WWI, Russian "General Liakhov, for instance 'accused the Muslims of treachery, and sent his Cossacks from Batum with orders to kill every native at sight, and burn every village and every mosque. And very efficiently had they performed their task, for as we passed up the Chorokh valley to Artvin not a single habitable dwelling or a single living creature did we see.'" |
|Massacres in Erzincan and Erzerum||1918||Erzincan and Erzerum||10,000||Armenian levies||Muslim population||Armenians massacred muslims in the Republic of Van after the withdrawal of Russian forces|
Post-World War I (1919–1923)
Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
|Zilan massacre||July 1930||Van Province||4,500-15,000||Turkish security forces||Sunni Kurds||5,000 women, children, and elderly people were reportedly killed|
|Suppression of the Dersim rebellion||Summer 1937-Spring 1938||Tunceli Province||7,594-13,806||Turkish security forces||Alevi Zazas||The killings have been condemned by some as an ethnocide or genocide|
|Istanbul pogrom||6–7 September 1955||Istanbul||13-30||Turkish government||primarily Greeks, as well as Armenians||The killings are identified as genocidal by Alfred-Maurice de Zayas. Many of the minorities, mostly Greek Christians, forced to leave Turkey. Several churches are demolished by explosives.|
|Taksim Square massacre||May 1, 1977||Taksim Square in Istanbul||34-42||Unknown||Leftist demonstrators|
|Beyazıt massacre||March 16, 1978||Istanbul||7 university students killed, 41 injured ,||Grey Wolves, Turkish Police, Deep State||Leftist university students||Cemil Sönmez, Baki Ekiz, Hatice Özen, Abdullah Şimşek, Murat Kurt, Hamdi Akıl and Turan Ören were killed and 41 others were injured by a bomb that was followed by gunfire March 16, 1978.|
|Bahçelievler massacre||October 9, 1978||Bahçelievler, Ankara||7||Neo-fascists||Leftist students|
|Maraş massacre||December 19–26, 1978||Kahramanmaraş Province||109||Grey Wolves||Alevi Turks and Kurds|
|Çorum massacre||May–July, 1980||Çorum Province||57||Grey Wolves||Alevi Turks|
|Pınarcık massacre||June 20, 1987||Pınarcık in Mardin Province||30||PKK (alleged)
The Turkish army (alleged)
(aka Madımak massacre)
|July 2, 1993||Sivas, Turkey||37||Salafists||Alevi intellectuals|
|Başbağlar massacre||July 5, 1993||Başbağlar, near Erzincan||33||Turkish army/PKK (disputed)||Turkish civilians|
|Yavi massacre||October 25, 1993||Yavi, Çat, Erzurum Province||38||PKK||Turkish civilians|
|Kuskonar massacre||March 23, 1994||Kuskonar, Sirnak||38||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||The government bombed and killed residents of villages who refused to join the government forces. The government spread pictures of dead children in newspapers and blamed the PKK. Turkey was condemned for carrying out the massacre of Kurdish civilians in the ECHR.|
|Gazi Quarter massacre||March 15, 1995||Istanbul and Ankara||23||Anonymous||Alevi Turks||More than 400 injured|
|Mardin engagement ceremony massacre||May 4, 2009||Bilge, Mardin||44||Village guards||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Reuters said it was "one of the worst attacks involving civilians in Turkey's modern history", declaring that the scale of the attack had shocked the nation.|
|Roboski airstrike||December 28, 2011||Uludere, Sirnak||34||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Warplanes killed villagers who had been involved in smuggling gasoline and cigarettes in the area, during an operation meant to target Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) rebels. The government gave no information about the facts.|
|2016 Atatürk Airport attack||June 28, 2016||Atatürk Airport, Istanbul||45||Unknown||Civilians|
|December 2016 Istanbul bombings||December 10, 2016||Istanbul||45||Unknown||Police forces & civilians|
|2017 Istanbul nightclub attack||January 1, 2017||Istanbul||39||Unknown||Civilians|
Photo taken after the Smyrna fire. The text inside indicates that the photo had been taken by representatives of the Red Cross in Smyrna
- This is the number given by Procopius, Wars (Internet Medieval Sourcebook.)
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- Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
- Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
- Carnegie (1914). Report of the international commission to inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan Wars. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Resettlement Waves, Historical Memory and Identity Construction: The Case of Thracian Refugees in Bulgaria, pp. 68
- IAGS Resolution on Genocides committed by the Ottoman Empire retrieved via the Internet Archive (PDF), International Association of Genocide Scholars, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-28
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- Alexander Westwood and Darren O'Brien, Selected bylines and letters from The New York Times Archived 2007-06-07 at the Wayback Machine., The Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2006
- Travis, Hannibal. "'Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, pp. 327–371. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
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- Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York: Penguin Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-59420-100-5.
- "A Letter from The International Association of Genocide Scholars" (PDF). Genocide Watch. 13 June 2005.
- Rummel, RJ (1 April 1998), "The Holocaust in Comparative and Historical Perspective", The Journal of Social Issues, 3 (2)
- Gerwarth, Robert; Horne, John (2012). War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780199654918.
- Mark Levene. The Crisis of Genocide. Devastation: The European Rimlands 1912-1938. — Oxford University Press, 2013. — Т. I. — С. 217. — ISBN 9780199683031.
- Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, pp. 207-208. (in Turkish)
- "Dersim massacre monument to open next month". Today's Zaman. 24 October 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey (1937-38) Excerpts from: Martin van Bruinessen, "Genocide in Kurdistan? The suppression of the Dersim rebellion in Turkey (1937-38) and the chemical war against the Iraqi Kurds (1988)", in: George J. Andreopoulos (ed), Conceptual and historical dimensions of genocide. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, pp. 141-170.
- İsmail Besikçi, Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim Jenosidi, Belge Yayınları, 1990.
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- Mills, Amy (2010). Streets of memory : landscape, tolerance, and national identity in Istanbul. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780820335735.
...the state-led local violence that shattered neighborhoods across Istanbul in 1955 made ethnic-religious difference visible and divisive as Greeks and other minorities in the city were targeted and their property violated.
- Alfred de Zayas publication about the Istanbul Pogrom http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content/865v4835x83m3757/
- Özcan, Emine (2006-04-28). "1977 1 Mayıs Katliamı Aydınlatılsın". bianet (in Turkish).
- Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-02). "30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (4)". Radikal (in Turkish).
- Yalçın, Soner; Yurdakul, Doğan (1997). "The Bahcelievler Massacre". Reis: Gladio’nun Türk Tetikçisi. Su Yayinlari.
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- Cüneyt Arcayürek: Darbeler ve Gizli Servisler, (Sayfa.221)
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- "Yavi Şehitlerine vefa". Erzurum gazetesi (in Turkish). 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
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