List of massacres in Turkey
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This article needs to be updated.August 2016)(
|Fall of Miletus||494 BC||Miletus||Most Milesian men||Persian Empire||Greeks|||
|Battle of Aegospotami||405 BC||Aegospotami||3,000||Sparta||Athenian sailors||3,000 Athenian sailors executed|
|Fall of Sestos||353 BC||Sestos||All males of Sestos||Athens||Greeks|
|Asiatic Vespers||88 BC||Asia (Roman province)||80,000–150,000||Mithridates VI of Pontus||Romans and Italians|||
|Nika Revolt||January 532||Constantinople||30,000||Byzantine Empire||Byzantines||About thirty thousand rioters were reportedly killed.|
|Sack of Amorium||August 838||Amorium||30,000–70,000||Abbasid Caliphate||Byzantines|
|Battle of Levounion||29 April 1091||Enez||tens of thousands||Byzantine Empire & Cumans||Pechenegs||The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Near Enez they were ambushed by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army, fighting soon turned into wholesale slaughter. Warriors and civilians were killed and the Pecheneg people were nearly wiped out.|
|Siege of Antioch||3 June 1098||Antioch||Muslim and Christian population||Crusaders||Muslim and Christian population|
|Massacre of the Latins||May 1182||Constantinople||Uncertain – tens of thousands||Byzantine mob||Roman Catholics||The bulk of the Latin community, estimated at over 60,000 at the time, was wiped out or forced to flee; some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turks. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed.|
|Siege of Constantinople (1204)||8–13 April 1204||Constantinople||many civilians killed||Crusaders||Byzantines||The city was sacked and looted.|
|Siege of Antioch (1268)||18 May 1268||Antioch||14,000||Mamluk Sultanate||Christians||14,000 Christians slaughtered by the forces of Baibars.|
|Fall of Constantinople||1453||Constantinople||4,000||Ottomans||Byzantines||4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were massacred during these days. Moreover, the dwellings and the churches were plundered. Some 30,000 were enslaved.|
|Constantinople massacre||1821||Constantinople||Unknown||Ottoman government||Greeks||Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V and other notables were executed.|
|Massacres of Badr Khan||1840||Hakkari||10,000||Kurdish Emirs of Buhtan, Badr Khan and Nurallah||Assyrians||Many who were not killed were sold into slavery. 1826 Janissaries massacred by government (link to Auspicious Incident).|
|Hamidian massacres||1894–1896||Eastern Ottoman Empire||100,000–300,000||Ottoman Empire
Turkish, Kurdish tribes
|Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895)||1895||Diyarbakır Vilayet||25,000||Young Turks and Kurdish irregulars||Armenians and Assyrians|
|Adana massacre||April 1909||Adana Vilayet||15,000–30,000||local Turkish nationalist activist, conservative reactionary to Young Turk government||Armenians|
|Ethnic cleansing of Turks in Edirne during First Balkan War||October 1912-June 1913||Edirne Vilayet||5,000 (excluding Edeköy Massacre)||Bulgarian army||Turks|
|Havsa Massacre||1912||Havsa in Edirne Vilayet||10||Bulgarian army||Turks||Turkish quarter was almost entirely burnt.|
|Edeköy Massacre||November 1912||Edeköy (nowadays Kadıdondurma) in Edirne Vilayet||Thousands||Bulgarian army||Turks||Many incidents of torture and robbery.|
|Ethnic cleansing of Thracian Bulgarians||Summer 1913||Edirne Vilayet||50,000–60,000||Young Turk government||Bulgarians|
|Bulgarköy Massacre||7 July 1913||Bulgarköy (nowadays Yenimuhacir) in Edirne Vilayet||450-1100 (included above)||Ottoman army||Bulgarians|
World War I (1914–1918)
|Greek genocide||1913–1922||Ottoman Empire||500,000–900,000||Young Turk government||Greeks||Reports detail massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for "Labor Brigades", looting, terrorism and other atrocities.|
|Seyfo||1914–1918||Ottoman Empire||270,000||Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes||Assyrians||Denied by the Turkish government.|
|Armenian Genocide||1915–1918||Ottoman Empire||850,000–1,800,000||Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes||Armenians||The Armenians of the eastern regions of the empire were massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. It is the second most publicised case of genocide after the Holocaust.|
|Massacres in Eastern Anatolia||1915-1916||Eastern Anatolia||128,000+||Russian army and Armenian irregulars||Muslim population||According to J. Rummel at least 128,000 Muslims were killed by Russian troops and Armenian irregulars during the period between 1915–1916.|
|Massacres in the Çoruh River valley||1916||Çoruh River valley||45,000||Cossack regiments||Turkish population||During WWI, Russian "General Liakhov, for instance 'accused the Muslims of treachery, and sent his Cossacks from Batum with orders to kill every native at sight, and burn every village and every mosque. And very efficiently had they performed their task, for as we passed up the Chorokh valley to Artvin not a single habitable dwelling or a single living creature did we see.'"|
Post-World War I (1919–1923)
|Massacre in Marash||1920||Marash, Aleppo Vilayet||5,000–12,000||Turks||Armenians|||
|Massacre in Birecik||February 11–24, 1920||Birecik, Aleppo Vilayet||280||French||Turks||70 wounded, many women were raped|
|Kahyaoğlu Farm Massacre||June 11, 1920||Yeşiloba, Adana Vilayet||64+ to ~200||Armenians||Turks||Report which was given to Mustafa Kemal Pasha included 43 men, 21 women and tens of children. Other estimates are up to 200.|
Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
|Zilan massacre||July 1930||Van Province||4,500–15,000||Turkish security forces||Kurds||5,000 women, children, and elderly people were reportedly killed|
|1934 Thrace pogroms||21 June-4 July 1934||Thrace||1||Local people||Jews||Over 15,000 Jews had to flee from region|
|Dersim rebellion||Summer 1937-Spring 1938||Tunceli Province||7,594–13,806||Turkish security forces||Alevi Kurds||The killings have been condemned by some as an ethnocide or genocide|
|Zini Gediği Massacre||6 August 1938||Erzincan Province||95||Turkish villagers||Kurds|||
|33 Bullets Incident||July 1943||Van Province||32||Turkish Soldiers||Kurds||32 Kurdish villagers were extrajudicially executed by General Mustafa Muğlalı for smuggling livestock, one of them escaped.|
|Istanbul pogrom||6–7 September 1955||Istanbul||13–30||Turkish government||primarily Greeks, as well as Armenians, Jews||The killings are identified as genocidal by Alfred-Maurice de Zayas. Many of the non-Muslim minorities, mostly Greek Christians, forced to leave Turkey. Several churches are demolished by explosives.|
|Taksim Square massacre||May 1, 1977||Taksim Square in Istanbul||34-42||Some unidentified armed people (claimed that they are related to CIA)||Leftist demonstrators, civilians|
|Ümraniye massacre||March 1978||Ümraniye in Istanbul||5||Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist||Workers (claimed that they were related to Nationalist Movement Party)||Victims were badly tortured|
|Beyazıt massacre||March 16, 1978||Istanbul||7 university students killed, 41 injured ,||Grey Wolves, Turkish Police, Deep State||Leftist university students||Cemil Sönmez, Baki Ekiz, Hatice Özen, Abdullah Şimşek, Murat Kurt, Hamdi Akıl and Turan Ören were killed and 41 others were injured by a bomb that was followed by gunfire March 16, 1978.|
|Malatya massacre||April 17, 1978||Malatya Province||8||Salafists||Alevi Turks||Salafist groups attacked Alevi regions of city after assassination of Hamit Fendoğlu leaving 8 dead including 3 child and 100 wounded. 1000 shops was looted and destroyed.|
|Balgat massacre||August 10, 1978||Çankaya, Ankara||5||Grey Wolves||Civilians (claimed that they were leftist)|
|Bahçelievler massacre||October 9, 1978||Bahçelievler, Ankara||7||Grey Wolves||Workers' Party of Turkey member students|
|Maraş massacre||December 19–26, 1978||Kahramanmaraş Province||109||Grey Wolves||Alevis|
|Piyangotepe massacre||May 16, 1979||Keçiören in Ankara||7||Grey Wolves||Civilians (claimed that they were leftist)|||
|Adana massacre||September 19, 1979||Adana Construction Vocational High School||6||Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist||Idealist teachers||Müslüm Teke, Yılmaz Kızılay, Davut Korkmaz, Ahmet Güleç, Özcan Doruk and Mustafa Karaca was killed by 2 Leftist men.|
|Çorum massacre||May–July, 1980||Çorum Province||57||Grey Wolves||Alevis|
|Ortabağ massacre||January 23, 1987||Uludere in Şırnak Province||8 dead, 15 injured||PKK||Civilians|||
|Pınarcık massacre||June 20, 1987||Pınarcık in Mardin Province||30||PKK||Kurdish civilians|
|Çevrimli massacre||June 11, 1990||Güçlükonak in Şırnak Province||27 dead, 6 injured||PKK||Civilians||In the massacre, 27 people were killed, 12 were children and 7 were women. 4 village guards died in clashes with PKK members, 1 PKK member was killed.|
|Çetinkaya Store massacre||December 25, 1991||Bakırköy in Istanbul||11 (14 injured)||PKK||Civilians||The PKK attacks a store in the Bakırköy district with Molotov cocktails, resulting in 11 deaths, including 7 women and 1 child.|
|Yolaç Village massacre||June 26, 1992||Silvan in Diyarbakır Province||10||PKK||Civilians|||
|Cevizdalı massacre||October 21, 1992||Cevizdalı in Bitlis Province||30||PKK||Civilians||Cevizdali village of Bitlis was raided during the nighttime, PKK militias killed 30 people, including 8 children, and wounded 20 others. Militias then burned whole the village by the news they received that soldiers are on the way to the village.|
|Çewlik massacre||May 24, 1993||Elazığ-Bingöl highway||38||PKK||Unarmed recruits and civilians|
(aka Madımak massacre)
|July 2, 1993||Sivas, Turkey||35 (+2 perperators)||Sunni Islamist people||Alevi and leftist intellectuals|
|Başbağlar massacre||July 5, 1993||Başbağlar, near Erzincan||33||Deep state/PKK (disputed)||Turkish civilians|
|Lice massacre||October 20–23, 1993||Lice in Diyarbakır Province||30+||Turkish Armed Forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Turkish security forces attacked the town of Lice, destroying 401 houses, 242 shops and massacring more than thirty civilians, and leaving one hundred wounded.|
|Yavi massacre||October 25, 1993||Yavi, Çat, Erzurum Province||38||PKK||Turkish civilians|
|Kuşkonar massacre||March 23, 1994||Kuskonar, Sirnak||38||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||The government bombed and killed residents of villages who refused to join the government forces. The government spread pictures of dead children in newspapers and blamed the PKK. Turkey was condemned for carrying out the massacre of Kurdish civilians in the ECHR.|
|Gazi Quarter massacre||March 15, 1995||Istanbul and Ankara||23||Anonymous||Alevis||More than 400 injured|
|Güçlükonak massacre||February 15, 1996||Güçlükonak in Şırnak province||11||JİTEM/PKK (disputed)||Civilians|||
|Blue Market massacre||March 13, 1999||Istanbul||13 (5 injured)||PKK||Civilians|||
|Operation Back to Life||December 19, 2000||Turkey||32 (Hundreds were injured)||Police forces and soldiers||Prisoners||Deaths include 30 prisoners and 2 soldiers|
|Mardin engagement ceremony massacre||May 4, 2009||Bilge, Mardin||44||Village guards||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Reuters said it was "one of the worst attacks involving civilians in Turkey's modern history", declaring that the scale of the attack had shocked the nation.|
|Roboski airstrike||December 28, 2011||Uludere in Şırnak Province||34||Turkish forces||Civilians of Kurdish origin||Warplanes killed who had been involved in smuggling gasoline and cigarettes in the area, villagers during an operation meant to target Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) rebels. The government gave no information about the facts.|
|Suruç bombing||July 20, 2015||Suruç in Şanlıurfa Province||34||ISIL||Socialist Party of the Oppressed member university students|
|2015 Ankara bombings||October 10, 2015||Ankara||109||ISIL||Protesters, civilians|
|January 2016 Istanbul bombing||January 12, 2016||Istanbul||14||ISIL||Foreign tourists|
|February 2016 Ankara bombing||February 17, 2016||Ankara||30||TAK||Civilian employees of Turkish Armed Forces and soldiers|
|March 2016 Ankara bombing||March 13, 2016||Ankara||38||TAK||Civilians|
|March 2016 Istanbul bombing||March 19, 2016||Istanbul||5||ISIL||Foreign tourists|
|2016 Atatürk Airport attack||June 28, 2016||Atatürk Airport, Istanbul||45||ISIL||Civilians|
|2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt||July 15–16, 2016||Turkey (Mainly Istanbul, Ankara, Malatya, Kars and Marmaris)||270–350||Turkish forces||Civilians and soldiers|
|2017 Istanbul nightclub attack||January 1, 2017||Istanbul||39||ISIS||Civilians|
Photo taken after the Smyrna fire. The text inside indicates that the photo had been taken by representatives of the Red Cross in Smyrna
Wounded woman by bayonet during Yalova Peninsula Massacres
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