List of massacres in the Soviet Union

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The following is a list of massacres that took place in the Soviet Union. For massacres that took place in countries that were once part of the Soviet Union, see the list of massacres in that country.

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Execution of the Romanov family 16-17 July 1918 Yekaterinburg 11 Justified by the Bolsheviks as necessary to prevent the anti-communist White Army from rescuing them. The USSR repeatedly denied that Vladimir Lenin was responsible.
Red Terror 1918–1922 Nationwide 100,000–200,000 For the purpose of political repression and suppression of armed resistance.
First Decossackization 1919–1920s Don and Kuban regions hundreds of thousands Mass murder and genocide of cossaks.
Case Spring 1930–1931 Russia 3,000+ Over a thousand killed in St. Petersburg alone.[1] First purge conducted by Stalin.
Great purge 1936–1938 Nationwide 681,692–1,200,000 Ordered by Joseph Stalin.
Polish Operation of the NKVD August 1937– November 1938 Nationwide 111,091 Largest ethnic shooting during the Great purge.
Sandarmokh 1937-38 Sandarmokh, Karelia 9000 Mass executions of prisoners
Vinnytsia massacre 1937–1938 Vinnytsia, Ukraine 11,000
Katyn massacre April–May 1940 Katyn Forest, Kalinin and Kharkiv prisons 22,000 Mass executions of Polish nationals by NKVD.
NKVD prisoner massacres June–July 1941 Occupied Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic states ~100,000
Khatyn massacre March 22, 1943 Khatyn 149 Propagandized in the USSR to cover phonetically similar Katyn massacre
Khaibakh massacre February 27, 1944 Chechnya, Soviet Union 230–700 During the deportation of the Chechen and Ingush peoples.
Kengir uprising 6 May 1954 – 26 June 1954 Kengir 500–700
Novocherkassk massacre 1 – 2 June 1962 Novocherkassk, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union. 26
Jeltoqsan massacre December 16–19, 1986 Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR 168-200
Sumgait massacre February 26 - March 1, 1988 Sumgait, Azerbaijan SSR 32
January Massacre January 19–20, 1990 Baku, Azerbaijan 133-137 Known also as the Black January (Qara Yanvar)
Tbilisi Massacre April 9, 1989 Tbilisi, Georgia 20 Many civilians wounded and killed with sapper spades
Vorkuta uprising starting July 19, 1953 Vorkuta 42
Fântâna Albă massacre April 1, 1941 Northern Bukovina 200-2,000
January Events January 11–13, 1991 Vilnius, Lithuania 15

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