List of massacres in the United States

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This is a partial list of massacres in the United States; it excludes single-perpetrator massacres; death tolls may be approximate.

List[edit]

Name Date Location State Deaths Notes
Guadalupe Canyon massacre 1881 Aug 13 Guadalupe Mountains, Arizona Territory Arizona 5 1 wounded; cowboys ambushed while sleeping. Perpetrators disputed.[1]
Election riot of 1874 1874, November 3 Eufaula Alabama 8 70 injured. White League Democrats drove African American Republicans from the polls.
Chinese massacre 1871 Oct 24 Los Angeles, California California >18 Killed by hanging and unknown injured in mob violence against people and property in Chinatown.[2][3]
Trail of Tears 1831–1850 Southeastern United States present day Oklahoma 8,700 to 17,000 Deportation of Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Seminole tribe members, black slaves, and white citizens as part of an ethnic cleansing policy made under the order of Andrew Jackson. In continuity with other Indian Removal policies the US has pursued in the past and future.
Golden Dragon massacre 1977 Sep 4 San Francisco California 5 11 injured.[4]
California Genocide[5][6][7] 1846–1873 Statewide (However the worst killings were in Round Valley) California 9,492 to 16,094 California Indians killed in over 370 massacres[8][5] See: [note 1]
Bloody Island massacre 1850 May 15 Clear Lake California 60–100 Retaliation by a Cavalry Regiment of the US Army for the murder of Frontiersman Andrew Kelsey and Charles Stone. Part of California Genocide
Long Walk of the Navajo 1864–1868 Bosque Redondo Arizona and New Mexico 3,500[11] Deaths of Navajo and Mescalero Apache from within the Bosque Redondo internment camp due to disease and starvation.[11]
Ludlow Massacre 1914 Apr 20 Ludlow Colorado 19 Killed by Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, many of whom were immigrants or minorities.[12]
Columbine Mine massacre 1927 Nov 21 Serene Colorado 6 Miners killed with machine guns during coal mine strike.[13]
Ocoee massacre 1920 Nov 2 Ocoee Florida 56~ Black population of Ocoee, a town near Orlando, was nearly obliterated during the 1920 election season.[14]
Rosewood massacre 1923 Jan Rosewood Florida 8 The entire population of African-Americans in and near Rosewood, about 350, were forced from their homes and never returned.[15]
Hanapepe massacre 1924 Sep 9 Hanapepe Hawaii 20 101 arrested.[16]
Haymarket affair 1886 May 4 Chicago Illinois 11 More than 130 injured by dynamite bomb and crossfire of bullets.[17]
Herrin massacre 1922 Jun 21 Herrin Illinois 23 Strikebreakers and union guards at coal mine.[18]
Saint Valentine's Day Massacre 1929 Feb 14 Chicago Illinois 7 Prohibition gang killing.[19]
Brown's Chicken massacre 1993 Jan 8 Palatine Illinois 7 Store robbery with murder.
Aurora, Illinois, shooting 2019 Feb 15 Aurora Illinois 6 5–16 injuries
Spirit Lake Massacre 1857 March 5–12 West Okoboji Iowa 35–40 A band of Dakota people led by Inkpaduta conducted a series of raids on white settlers.
Villisca massacre 1912 Jun 10 Villisca Iowa 8 Unsolved axe murders of members of 2 families.[20][21][22]
Pottawatomie massacre 1856 May 24–25 Franklin County Kansas 5 John Brown and followers killed 5 pro-slavery Kansans.[23][24]
Marais des Cygnes massacre 1858 May 19 Linn County Kansas 5 Last major outbreak of violence in Bleeding Kansas.[25]
Lawrence massacre 1863 Aug 21 Douglas County Kansas 185–200 Pro-Confederate Guerrillas killed civilians and burned a quarter of the town.[26]
Wichita Massacre 2000 Dec 8–14 Wichita Kansas 5 Two black males, brothers Reginald and Jonathan Carr, committed multiple acts of assault, robbery, rape and murder of several people, all white, over the course of a week.[27]
Bloody Monday 1855 Aug 6 Louisville Kentucky >22 Scores injured in religious mob violence and arson.[28]
Colfax massacre 1873 Apr 13 Colfax Louisiana 83–153 Blacks killed at courthouse and as prisoners afterwards.[29]
Coushatta massacre 1874 Aug Coushatta Louisiana 11–26 Six whites, remainder black killed as political intimidation.[30][31]
Thibodaux massacre 1887 Nov 22 Thibodaux Louisiana >35 Perhaps as many as 300 killed, 5+ injuries to striking black sugar-cane workers.[32][33]
Opelousas Massacre 1868 Sept 28 Opelousas, Louisiana Louisiana 300+ Democrats resisted the joining of Opelousas African Americans into the political party and went on a hunt for African Americans, killing at least 200-300 African Americans and 30-50 Democrats.[34]
Boston Massacre 1770 Mar 5 Boston Massachusetts 5 11 civilians injured by British Army soldiers.[35]
Haun's Mill massacre 1838 Oct 30 Fairview Township Missouri 19 Mob/militia attacked Mormons.[36]
Kansas City massacre 1933 Jun 17 Kansas City Missouri 5 The dead include law enforcement officers and a criminal fugitive shot by members of a gang.[37]
Sacking of Osceola 1861 Sep 23 Osceola Missouri 9 Tried by drumhead court martial and executed, town of 3,000 sacked and burned in a raid by Jim Lane's Kansas Brigade.[38][better source needed]
Centralia massacre 1864 Sep 27 Centralia Missouri 24 Unarmed U.S. soldiers murdered by their Confederate captors including Jesse James. 123 killed in ensuing Battle of Centralia.[39]
Baylor Massacre 1778 Sep 27 River Vale New Jersey 15 54 captured or wounded by British.[40]
Greensboro massacre 1979 Nov 3 Greensboro, North Carolina North Carolina 5 Violent clash between Ku Klux Klan and Communist Workers' Party demonstration.
Shelton Laurel massacre 1863 Jan 18 Madison County North Carolina 13 Unarmed Unionists, including three boys, were shot by Confederates after capture.[41]
Greenwood massacre 1921 May 31 and Jun 1 City of Tulsa, Oklahoma 39–300 ≥ 800 wounded. One of the nation's worst incidents of racial violence.
Goingsnake massacre 1872 Apr 15 Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) Oklahoma 11 Died in a shoot out in a crowded courtroom, the dead included 8 Deputy US Marshals and 3 Cherokee citizens. Six Cherokee were wounded including the defendant and the judge.[42]
Chinese Massacre Cove 1887 May Wallowa County Oregon 10–34 Chinese gold miners ambushed and murdered by a gang of horse thieves.
Paoli massacre 1777 Sep 20 near Paoli Pennsylvania 61 Patriots under command of General Anthony Wayne killed by British Soldiers under command of General Charles Grey.
Lattimer massacre 1897 Sep 10 near Hazleton Pennsylvania 19 Coal miners killed by sheriff's posse.
Ponce massacre 1937 Mar 21 Ponce Puerto Rico 19 protestors killed by police
Hamburg massacre 1876 Jul 4 Hamburg South Carolina 7 Town looted in a racially motivated incident during Reconstruction.
Waxhaw massacre 1780 May 29 Lancaster South Carolina 118 150 wounded, 53 captured by British against American Revolutionary soldiers.
Fort Pillow massacre 1864 Apr 12 Henning Tennessee 277–297 Federal (and mostly black) troops were killed by Confederate soldiers while trying to surrender.
Nueces massacre 1862 Aug 10 Kinney County Texas 34 German Texans killed by Confederate soldiers.
Mountain Meadows Massacre 1857 Sep 7–11 Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory Utah 100–140 Emigrant wagon train annihilated by the Mormon Utah Territorial Militia.
Pinhook massacre 1881 June 1 Southeastern Utah Utah 13 Started when Ute Indians allegedly killed ranchers and stole horses in Colorado. As the Ute moved into the southeastern Utah, a battle between the Indians and a band of ranchers and cowboys who blamed Utes for the loss of their livestock was fought, resulting in the death of 13 cowboys in the gunfight.[43]
Midnight Massacre 1945 Jul 7–8 Salina, Utah Utah 9 German POWs killed by an American guard
Saltville massacre 1864 Oct 2–3 Saltville Virginia 45–50 Wounded/captured Federal black troops by Confederate soldiers and guerrillas.[44]
Everett massacre 1916 Nov 5 Everett Washington 5 27 injured and scores of labor unionists arrested by police and vigilantes.
Centralia massacre 1919 Nov 11 Centralia Washington 6 American Legionnaires killed by Industrial Workers of the World members.
Wah Mee massacre 1983 Feb 18 Seattle Washington 13 1 injured by 3 perpetrators during an armed robbery.
Bay View massacre 1886 May 5 Bay View Wisconsin 7 Labor protesters killed by National Guardsmen.
Battle of Blair Mountain 1921 Aug 25 Logan County, West Virginia West Virginia 10–33 Private army and US Troops against union organizers. WWI gas bombs used against union organizers.
Matewan massacre 1920 May 19 Matewan West Virginia 11 The confrontation resulted in the deaths of Matewan Mayor Cabell Testerman, two striking coal miners, seven men from the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, and an unarmed bystander.
Rock Springs massacre 1885 Sep 2 Rock Springs Wyoming 28 15 injured in a racial dispute between white and Chinese miners.
9/11 2001 Sep 11 New York City New York 2,996 Injured over 6000 others and those near the collapses of the twin towers are substantially more prone to respiratory diseases and lung cancer.
Thousand Oaks shooting 2018 Nov 8 Thousand Oaks California 13 12+ injured.
Camden Shootings 1949 Sep 6 Camden New Jersey 13 Included three children in a 12 minute walk through his neighbourhood.
University of Texas tower Shooting 1966 Aug 1 Austin Texas 18 including the shooter 31 others wounded.
Easter Sunday Massacre 1975 Mar 30 Hamilton Ohio 11 All victims were family members of the killer shot and killed by pistols at a family gathering.
Wilkes-Barre Shootings 1982 Sep 25 Wilkes-Barre and Jenkins Township Pennsylvania 13 1 wounded
San Ysidro McDonald's massacre 1984 Jul 18 San Ysidro California 22 including the gunman 19 others wounded
Palm Sunday massacre 1984 Apr 15 Brooklyn New York 10 Three women, a teenage girl, and six children. There was one survivor, an infant girl.
Edmond post office shooting 1986 Aug 20 Edmond Oklahoma 15 including the gunman 6 wounded. This incident is the origin of the phrase 'going postal'.
GMAC shootings 1990 Jun 18 Jacksonville Florida 10 including the gunman The attacker began killing the day before killing 2 others. He wounded a total of 6 people over the 2 days.
Luby's shooting 1991 Oct 16 Killeen Texas 24 including the gunman 27 others were wounded although only 19 of those were from gunfire.
Columbine High School massacre 1999 Apr 20 Columbine Colorado 15 including both gunmen 24 others were wounded, 21 of those by gunfire.
Atlanta shootings 1999 Jul 29 Atlanta Georgia 10 including the gunman He also killed his wife on the 27th, his 2 children on the 28th then the main attack occurred on the 29th where he killed 9 victims and wounded 13 others.
Red Lake shootings 2005 Mar 21 Red Lake Minnesota 10 including the gunman He wounded 5 others.
Virginia Tech shooting 2007 Apr 16 Blacksburg Virginia 33 including the gunman 23 Wounded, 17 by gunfire.
Binghamton shootings 2009 Apr 3 Binghamton New York 14 including the gunman 4 wounded.
Fort Hood shooting 2009 Nov 5 Fort Hood Texas 13 including the gunman 30+ wounded, it was the deadliest mass shooting on an American military base.
Geneva County massacre 2009 Mar 10 Geneva and Samson Alabama 11 including the gunman 6 wounded.
Aurora shooting 2012 Jul 20 Aurora Colorado 12 70 people were wounded, 58 from gunfire, 4 from tear gas, and 8 from injuries sustained fleeing.
Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting 2012 Dec 14 Newtown Connecticut 28 including the gunman 27 at the school (including the gunman) and the attacker's mother at her home. 20 of the dead were children aged 6–7 years old.
Washington Navy Yard shooting 2013 Sep 16 Washington Navy Yard Washington D.C. 13 including the gunman 8 wounded, 3 from gunfire.
Charleston church shooting 2015 Jun 17 Charleston South Carolina 9 1 wounded.
Umpqua Community College shooting 2015 Oct 1 Roseburg Oregon 10 including the gunman 8 wounded.
San Bernardino attack 2015 Dec 2 San Bernardino California 16 including both gunmen 24 wounded. Attackers brought pipe bombs as well as firearms, they targeted a San Bernardino County Department of Public Health training event and Christmas party.
Orlando nightclub shooting 2016 June 12 Orlando Florida 50 including the gunman 53 wounded.
Las Vegas shooting 2017 Oct 1 Las Vegas Nevada 59 including the gunman 851 wounded, 422 from gunfire.
Sutherland Springs church shooting 2017 Nov 5 Sutherland Springs Texas 26 including the gunman 20 wounded and an unborn child not counted in the 26 dead was also lost.
Stoneman Douglas High School shooting 2018 Feb 14 Parkland Florida 17 17 killed; 17 wounded.
Pittsburgh synagogue shooting 2018 Oct 27 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 11 7 wounded, including the suspect.
Santa Fe High School shooting 2018 May 18 Santa Fe Texas 10 14 wounded, including the suspect.
Pacific Air Lines Flight 773 Mass murder-suicide 1964 May 7 Danville California 44 including gunman Attacker shot the pilots mid flight causing the aircraft to crash killing everyone onboard.
Crazy Indian Runs Amuck 1889 Mar 1 Okeechobee Florida 9 including gunman A native American Seminole man known only as 'Jim' to the contemporary press attacked fellow Seminole and Miamis natives before being shot dead by another Seminole man.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ California statehood, private militias, Federal reservations, and sections of the US Army all participated in a deliberate campaign to wipe out California Indians with the state and federal governments paying millions of dollar to militias who hunted and murdered Indians,[5][6] Federal Reservations deliberately starving Indians to death by reducing caloric distribution to them from 480-910 to 160-390 [5] and the U.S. Army killed 1,680 to 3,741 California Indians themselves. California governor Peter Burnett even declared: "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected. While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert."[9][10] Numerous books have been written on the subject of the California Indian genocide such as Genocide and Vendetta: The Round Valley Wars in Northern California by Lynwood Carranco and Estle Beard, Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846-1873 by Brendan C. Lindsay, and An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873 by Benjamin Madley among others. That last book by Madley caused California governor Jerry Brown to recognize the genocide.[6] Even Guenter Lewy famous for the phrase: "In the end, the sad fate of America's Indians represents not a crime but a tragedy, involving an irreconcilable collision of cultures and values" concedes that what happened in California may constitute genocide: "some of the massacres in California, where both the perpetrators and their supporters openly acknowledged a desire to destroy the Indians as an ethnic entity, might indeed be regarded under the terms of the convention as exhibiting genocidal intent."[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Traywick, Ben T., Wyatt Earp's Thirteen Dead Men: Chapter 6, The Tombstone News, accessdate 26 December 2012.
  2. ^ Zesch, Scott, "Chinese Los Angeles in 1870–1871: The Makings of a Massacre", Southern California Quarterly, 90 (Summer 2008), 109–158
  3. ^ De Falla, Paul M., "Lantern in the Western Sky", The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (March 1960), 57–88 (Part I), and 42 (June 1960), 161–185 (Part II)
  4. ^ Mullen, Kevin J., Chinatown Squad: Policing the Dragon from the Gold Rush to the 21st Century 978-0926664104 - 208 pages Noir Publications, 1 September 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d Madley, Benjamin (August 31, 2016). "Killing of Native Americans in California". C-SPAN. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/revealing-the-history-of-genocide-against-californias-native-americans
    Revealing the history of genocide against California’s Native Americans
    Jessica Wolf | August 15, 2017
  7. ^ a b Lewis, Guenter. "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?". History News Network.
  8. ^ Madley, Benjamin, An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846–1873, Yale University Press, 2016, 692 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-18136-4, p. 11, p. 351.
  9. ^ "The Governor's Message (Transmitted January 7, 1851)," Sacramento Transcript, 10 January 1851, 2.
  10. ^ On January 6, 1851 at his State of the State address to the California Senate, 1st Governor Peter Burnett used the following words: "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races until the Indian race becomes extinct must be expected. While we cannot anticipate this result but with painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power or wisdom of man to avert."
  11. ^ a b M. Annete Jaimes (1992) The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance .p. 34. South End Press
  12. ^ Simmons, R. Laurie, Thomas H. Simmons, Charles Haecker, and Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008), National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony Site (PDF), National Park ServiceCS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Myers, Richard; Eric Margolis; Joanna Sampson; Phil Goodstein (2005). May, Lowell, ed. Slaughter in Serene: the Columbine Coal Strike Reader. Bread and Roses Workers' Cultural Center & Industrial Workers of the World. ISBN 0-917124-01-4.
  14. ^ Go Ahead On, Ocoee – A narrative documentary film by Bianca White & Sandra Krasa.
  15. ^ D'Orso, Michael (1996). Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood, Grosset/Putnam. ISBN 0-399-14147-2
  16. ^ Chapin, Helen Geracimos (1996). "Suppressing the News and Contributing to a Massacre". Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 131–138. ISBN 978-0-8248-1718-3.
  17. ^ "Lists of National Historic Landmarks". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. March 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
  18. ^ Paul M. Angle, Bloody Williamson: A Chapter in American Lawlessness, University of Illinois Press, 1992, page 294
  19. ^ Taylor, Troy 2008. Blood, Roses and Valentines: The haunted history of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, accessdate 27 December 2012
  20. ^ PDF He said he killed eight at God's command: Iowa preacher studying sermon on 'slay utterly' when impulse to slay seized him. New York Times, 2 September 1917, accessdate 28 December 2012
  21. ^ Villisca Axe Murders, 1912, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  22. ^ Carlson, Mark, 100 Years After Iowa Ax Murders, Case Remains Unsolved Archived 2012-09-13 at the Wayback Machine KCRG ABC, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  23. ^ PBS Online. People & Events: Pottawatomie Massacre "John Brown's Holy War." The American Experience. WGBH, 1999, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  24. ^ Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights. New York: Vintage, 2005. ISBN 0-375-41188-7.
  25. ^ Kansas Historical Society. Marais des Cygnes Massacre site, June 2011, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  26. ^ Goodrich, Thomas. Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre. Kent State University Press 12 December 1992. 978-0873384766. 207 pages.
  27. ^ Crime Library. The Wichita Horror Archived 2006-11-16 at the Wayback Machine, accessdate 25 October 2014.
  28. ^ Hutcheon, Wallace S., Jr., The Louisville Riots of August, 1855. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 69 (1971), pp. 150–172
  29. ^ Lane, Charles, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction, Henry Holt & Company, New York. 2008. pp. 54–56
  30. ^ Alexander, Danielle "Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction", Humanities, January/February 2004, Vol.25/No. 1., accessdate 14 Apr 2008
  31. ^ Shoalmire, Jimmy G., Carpetbagger Extraordinary: Marshall H. Twitchell, 1840–1905, dissertation at Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, 1969
  32. ^ Bell, Ellen Baker, Thibodaux Massacre (1887), KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana, 15 September 2011, accessdate 2 January 2013
  33. ^ Rodrigue, John. Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisiana’s Sugar Parishes, 1862–1880. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001.
  34. ^ Christensen, Matthew (1 May 2012). The 1868 St. Landry Massacre: Reconstruction' s Deadliest Episode of Violence. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee. pp. 61–62. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  35. ^ A Fair Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston. London: B. White. 1770. OCLC 535966548. Original printing of the governor's account.
  36. ^ Baugh, Alexander L. (Spring 2010). Jacob Hawn and the Hawn's Mill Massacre: Missouri millwright and Oregon pioneer. Mormon Historical Studies. 11. Mormon Historic Sites Foundation. OCLC 722375475.
  37. ^ FBI story of the Kansas City Massacre Archived 2009-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Sunderwith, Richard, The Burning of Osceola, Missouri
  39. ^ Quantrell, Charles W., A History of His Guerrilla Warfare on the Missouri And Kansas Border During the Civil War, Kessinger Publishing, 1 March 2005, pp. 175–176.
  40. ^ "Skirmish Near Tappan". Rivington's Royal Gazette. 3 October 1778. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  41. ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, Tennessee, The University of Tennessee Press. p. 144.
  42. ^ Smith, Robert Barr, Blood Bath at Going Snake: The Cherokee Courtroom Shootout. , 2004. Wild West, History Net]
  43. ^ Jordan, Kathy (January 20, 2012). "Deadly confrontation in Utah took place shortly before GJ incorporated". The Daily Sentinel. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
  44. ^ "Was there a Saltville Massacre in 1864?" David Brown's analysis Archived 2012-12-19 at Archive.today